Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, was a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The goal of the 2009 revival was to develop a low-cost series to young drivers a chance to compete in the highest tiers of motorsport. In December 2012, series promoter MSV announced that Formula Two would not take place after 2013 due to declining entrant numbers, a third attempt at establishing the series was announced in 2015. Formula 2 returned in 2017, the former GP2 series became FIA Formula 2 in the March leading up to the 2017 season, for much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller. This category was usually called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves.
By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines, in 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix, the rules limited engines to two-litre naturally aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954 and this became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and Bobtail sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success.
Ferrari originally developed their Sharknose Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A slightly enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the era in Formula One. Formula Two was largely the domain of Formula One stars on their days off, engines were mostly by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM. For 1967, the FIA increased the engine capacity to 1600cc. The FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The drivers world championship and manufacturers championship are separate championships. The series currently consists of 13 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow, each rally is split into 15–25 special stages which are run against the clock on closed roads. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series and it evolved from Group A cars which replaced the banned Group B supercars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1, the production car, super 2000 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The 1973 World Rally Championship was the season of the WRC. The first drivers championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italys Sandro Munari. Swedens Björn Waldegård became the first official champion, edging out Finlands Hannu Mikkola by one point.
Fiat took the title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977,1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979. Waldegård was followed by German Walter Röhrl and Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers world champions, the 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, and with only a few restrictions allowed almost unlimited power, Audi took the constructors title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers title in 1983 and 1984. Audis French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982,1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and team-mate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had even a severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse. However, the season took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200, at the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars, more controversy followed when Peugeots Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén. As the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997, a separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC already in 1986, with Swedens Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
Bengt Ronnie Peterson was a Swedish racing driver. Known by the nickname SuperSwede, he was a two-time runner-up in the FIA Formula One World Drivers Championship, Peterson began his motor racing career in kart racing, traditionally the discipline where the majority of race drivers begin their careers in open-wheel racing. Later that year he won the FIA European Formula 3 Championship and moved up into Formula One, racing for the March factory team. In his three-year spell with the team, he took six podiums, after seeing out his three-year contract at March, Peterson joined Colin Chapmans Team Lotus in the 1973 season, partnering defending champion Emerson Fittipaldi. During his first two seasons with Lotus, Peterson took seven victories, scoring a career-best 52 points in 1973, after a poor 1975 season, Peterson moved back to March and scored his final victory for the team at the 1976 Italian Grand Prix. After spending the 1977 season with Tyrrell, he moved back to Lotus for the 1978 season as number two driver to Mario Andretti, Peterson was born in Almby in the vicinity of Örebro, Sweden.
He developed his style at a young age while competing in karting. After his karting years, Peterson entered Formula Three racing in the Svebe, superb results from the outset quickly attracted the attention of the ambitious Tecno company from Italy, who signed him in 1968. The pairing produced some results, and he won the 1969 Formula Three Championship. Even after his elevation to F1 status Peterson still drove in lower echelon racing series, Peterson made his Grand Prix debut in a March 701 for Colin Crabbes works-supported Antique Automobiles Racing Team at the 1970 Monaco Grand Prix. The limited budget of Crabbes privateer team allowed only minimal testing, Peterson was the only March driver to finish the race, in seventh place. In 1971 Peterson moved up to the full March works team, five Formula One Grand Prix second places earned him the position of runner-up to Jackie Stewart in that years World Championship. Within that year, Peterson drove in the World Sports Car Championship driving an Autodelta Alfa Romeo to win the Watkins Glen 6 hours, Peterson stayed at March until 1973, when he signed for John Player Team Lotus to partner Emerson Fittipaldi.
Petersons first Grand Prix win was at the 1973 French Grand Prix, held at Paul Ricard, there were three more wins that year, in Austria and the United States, but poor reliability restricted him to only third place in the World Championship at seasons end. For 1974, the Lotus 76 was brought forth, the car, proved to be a complete failure, disliked by both Peterson and his team mate Ickx. 1975 was a bad year for Lotus and Ickx were forced to drive with the now archaic 72 model, whose age was now really beginning to show. Peterson had signed for Shadow but Lotus owner Colin Chapman convinced him to stay with Lotus due to a promise Chapman made to accelerate the rate of development on the Lotus 77 and he drove the first race of 1976 in the Lotus 77 before rejoining March Engineering. Driving the March 761, he won the Italian Grand Prix and he continued to drive sports cars, particularly for BMW in 1974 and 1975
Norman Graham Hill OBE was a British racing driver and team owner from England, who was twice Formula One World Champion. He is the driver ever to win the Triple Crown of Motorsport—the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Indianapolis 500. He appeared on TV in the 1970s on a variety of non-sporting programmes including panel games and he liked painting in his spare time. Hill and his son Damon were the first father and son pair to have won the Formula One World Championship. Hills grandson Josh, Damons son, raced his way through the ranks until he retired from Formula Three in 2013 at the age of 22. Hill died at age 46 when the twin-engine six-seat Piper Aztec aeroplane he was piloting crashed and burned in foggy conditions at night near Arkley golf course in North London. Hill, Tony Brise, and four members of Hills racing team were returning from car testing at Circuit Paul Ricard in France and were due to land at Elstree Airfield. After leaving the Navy, he rejoined Smiths Instruments, Hill did not pass his driving test until he was 24 years old, and he himself described his first car as A wreck.
A budding racing driver should own such a car, as it teaches delicacy and anticipation and he had been interested in motorcycles but in 1954 he saw an advertisement for the Universal Motor Racing Club at Brands Hatch offering laps for 5 shillings. He made his debut in a Cooper 500 Formula 3 car and was committed to racing thereafter, Hill joined Team Lotus as a mechanic soon after but quickly talked his way into the cockpit. The Lotus presence in Formula One allowed him to make his debut at the 1958 Monaco Grand Prix, in 1960, Hill joined BRM, and won the world championship with them in 1962. Hill was part of the so-called British invasion of drivers and cars in the Indianapolis 500 during the mid-1960s, in 1967, back at Lotus, Hill helped to develop the Lotus 49 with the new Cosworth-V8 engine. After team mates Jim Clark and Mike Spence were killed in early 1968, Hill led the team, a crash at the 1969 United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen broke both his legs and interrupted his career.
Typically, when asked soon after the crash if he wanted to pass on a message to his wife, upon recovery Hill continued to race in F1 for several more years, but never again with the same level of success. Colin Chapman, believing Hill was a spent force, placed him in Rob Walkers team for 1970, although Hill scored points in 1970 he started the season far from fully fit and the 72 was not fully developed until late in the season. Hill moved to Brabham for 1971-2, his last win in Formula One was in the non-Championship International Trophy at Silverstone in 1971 with the lobster claw Brabham. The team was in flux after the retirements of Sir Jack Brabham and Ron Tauranacs sale to Bernie Ecclestone, Hill was irreverently immortalized on a Monty Python episode, in which a Gumby appears asking to see John the Baptists impersonation of Graham Hill. The head of St. John the Baptist appears on a silver platter, Hill was involved with four films between 1966 and 1974, including appearances in Grand Prix and Caravan to Vaccarès, in which he appeared as a helicopter pilot
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
1975 Formula One season
The 1975 Formula One season was the 29th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1975 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently from 12 January to 5 October over fourteen races, the season included three non-championship Formula One races and a nine race South African Formula One Championship. After a strong finish to the 1974 season, many felt the Brabham team were favourites to win the 1975 title. The year started well, with an emotional first win for Carlos Pace at the Interlagos circuit in his native São Paulo, over the season tyre wear frequently slowed the cars, and the initial promise was not maintained. Niki Lauda often refers to 1975 as the unbelievable year, in his second year with Ferrari, the team provided him with the Ferrari 312T—a car that was technically far superior to any of the competition. He won his first world title with five wins and a margin over second place in the championship.
American Mark Donohue died in August, two days after a practice run crash for the Austrian Grand Prix, after the season in late November, an Embassy Hill airplane crashed in England and all six aboard were killed, including team owner Graham Hill and driver Tony Brise. The following drivers and constructors and contested the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers, poleman Jarier could not even start the race because his transmission failed on the parade lap. Home hero Reutemann took the led from teammate Pace, with Niki Laudas Ferrari third, Pace passed teammate Reutemann to take the lead but spun off and dropped to seventh. James Hunt in his Hesketh soon overtook Lauda and Reutemann, by then, reigning world champion Emerson Fittipaldi in his McLaren was past Lauda and up to third, and soon took Reutemann for second as well. Fittipaldi closed in on Hunt and took the lead with 18 laps left, Pace recovered to fourth after his spin, but it was to no avail as his engine blew up. Fittipaldi started his title defence with a win, Hunt was a superb second, the second round was in Brazil, and Jarier took pole position again with Fittipaldi alongside and Reutemann third.
Reutemann, just like in Argentina, took the lead at the start from Jarier and Pace was up to third, Jarier retook the lead from Reutemann on lap 5 and pulled away. Reutemann struggled with handling issues and dropped well down the then, with Pace up to second, Clay Regazzonis Ferrari third. Jariers engine stopped with seven laps left and Pace took the lead, Regazzoni was up to second but dropped behind Fittipaldi and Jochen Mass in the second McLaren as he too suffered handling issues. Pace took a victory, with countryman Fittipaldi second and Mass third. Pace led at the start, with Scheckter second, and Ronnie Peterson in his Lotus jumped up from eighth to take third, the Swede did not have the pace of the front runners and dropped back down the order. Scheckter took the lead from Pace on the lap, to the delight to the fans
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo, nicknamed El Chueco or El Maestro, was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers Championship five times, from childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8, Fangio competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949 where he achieved further success. He won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 47 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams, Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career—the most of any driver. After retirement, Fangio presided as the president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world, Fangios grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce within three years by making charcoal from tree branches and his father, emigrated to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region.
His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio, slightly to the north and they married on 24 October 1903, and lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born on San Juans Day 1911 at 12,10 a. m. in Balcarce and his birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce. He was the fourth of six children, in his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No.4 of Balcarce, when Fangio was 13, he dropped out of school and worked as an assistant mechanic. When he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employers customers and he developed pneumonia, which almost proved fatal, after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest. He was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother, after recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21.
In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires and his driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination and he returned to Balcarce where he aimed to further his football career. Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangios hobby of building his own car and his parents donated space in a section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. After finishing his service, Fangio opened his own garage
Peugeot Sport is the department of French carmaker Peugeot responsible for motorsport activities. The rally team, established at Bois de Boulogne near Paris, debuted its Group B Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 in 1984, in 1985, Peugeot drivers Vatanen and Timo Salonen won seven out of the 12 rounds to give Peugeot the manufacturers title and Salonen the drivers title. Vatanen had been injured in an accident in Argentina in 1985, so was replaced by Juha Kankkunen for 1986. The FIA banned Group B cars for the 1987 season after the accident of Henri Toivonen. This lead Peugeot to switch to rally raid, using the 205 to win the Dakar Rally for two years in 1987 to 1988, and used the 405 to win in 1989 and 1990. Peugeot Talbot Sport participated three times at the Pikes Peak Hillclimb Race in 1987,1988 and 1989, winning the last two years, as well as in 2013 with the 208 T16. The 905 was introduced in 1990, and finished second in the 1991 World Sportscar Championship season, in 1992, Peugeot Talbot Sport won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with drivers Derek Warwick, Yannick Dalmas and Mark Blundell.
They won the World Sportscar Championship, thanks to Warwick, Philippe Alliot and Mauro Baldi. The championship did not run in 1993, but Peugeot were able to take a 1-2-3 finish at the 199324 Hours of Le Mans, with Éric Hélary, Christophe Bouchut, Peugeot Talbot Sport subsequently pulled out of sportscar racing. Jean Todt, left Peugeot for Scuderia Ferrari, Peugeot switched to Formula One for 1994, using a similar 3. 5L V10 engine as found in the 905. This was easily developed to be used by McLaren in 1994, poor reliability led to the relationship ending at the end of 1994 after 8 podiums, zero victories and 17 DNF´s. This led to Peugeot supplying Jordan Grand Prix in 1995 and 1996 and 1997 with 5 podiums as best results, the Peugeot engines were bought by an Asian consortium led by former F1 designer Enrique Scalabroni called Asiatech and used for two further years. The Asiatech engines were reliable and were supplied at zero cost, but its poor driveability led to both teams replacing them in favor of more costly but more capable Cosworth units.
Peugeot entered the British Touring Car Championship in 1992, preparing 405s for former champion Robb Gravett, the team was run in-house from the companys UK factory in Coventry. The 405 never won a race despite promising results in its four seasons of competition, unfortunately Peugeot UK did not share any technical data with its European contemporaries, and the BTCC programme suffered. Peugeot handed the works deal to Motor Sport Developments for 1997 and 98, with spiralling costs in the series, Peugeot withdrew from the BTCC at the end of 1998. With his Peugeot 406, Laurent Aiello won the 1997 Super Tourenwagen Cup season, the Peugeot 306 GTi won the prestigious Spa 24 hours endurance race in 1999 and 2000. Peugeot won five times the Danish Touringcar Championship, with both the Peugeot 306 -winner in 1999,2000 and 2001- and the Peugeot 307 winner in 2002 and 2003
1978 Formula One season
The 1978 Formula One season was the 32nd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The season included the non-championship BRDC International Trophy, mario Andretti won the Drivers World Championship. He remains the last American driver to win the World Championship, Ronnie Peterson was awarded second place in the Drivers standings posthumously, having died from medical complications after an accident at Monza during the Italian Grand Prix. JPS-Lotus was awarded the International Cup for F1 Constructors, Championship defendants Niki Lauda and Ferrari had parted ways late in 1977 and both parties struggled to repeat the successes they had enjoyed the previous seasons. Carlos Reutemann finished third in the championship in the lead Ferrari, the following drivers and constructors contested the 1978 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the International Cup for F1 Constructors. The 1978 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the International Cup for F1 Constructors were contested concurrently over a sixteen race series, the start was uneventful, with Andretti and Reutemann easily keeping first and second, with John Watson in the Brabham taking third from Peterson.
Watson took second from Reutemann on the lap, but Andretti was uncatchable. Andretti motored on to a victory, with Lauda second. This had been an unusual Argentine Grand Prix- although the weather had been usually hot. The typically extreme weather during January in Rio meant that this race was run in oppressively hot, Peterson took pole with James Hunt driving for McLaren beating Andretti to second. At the start, it was Reutemann who beat the trio into the first corner, with Hunt and Andretti following, Hunt ran second until he had to pit for tyres, as a result Andretti took the place until late in the race when he suffered gearbox issues. After a long break, the season resumed at the Kyalami circuit in South Africa, Andretti took the lead at the start, and set about building a gap, whereas Lauda dropped behind Jody Scheckters Wolf. Young Italian Riccardo Patrese was on a charge in the Arrows, as the race went on, both Andretti and Scheckter began to suffer from tyre issues and were passed by Patrese.
Depailler was up to second ahead of Lauda, but the engine failed handing third to Andretti. Patrese however, seemed to have the race in his pocket until his engine failed, Andretti was up to second but he had to pit for fuel, and thus his teammate Peterson took the place before catching and passing Depailler on the last lap to win after some wheel-banging. When the race started, Watson in fifth late-braked all into one, through he ran wide and Villeneuve took the lead. The Ferraris, with the two Brabhams in between ran together until Watsons engine failed, Alan Joness Williams was up to fourth and closed in on the now lead trio, which became a duo when Lauda went out with an electrical failure. Villeneuve and Reutemann ran 1–2 with Jones putting both under pressure, before Villeneuve retired after colliding with a backmarker, Jones suffered from fuel pressure problems and began to drop back, handing second to Andretti to the fans delight
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Santa Fe Province
The Province of Santa Fe is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Chaco, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, together with Córdoba and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economico-political association known as the Center Region. Santa Fes most important cities are Rosario, the capital Santa Fe, Villa Gobernador Gálvez, Venado Tuerto and Santo Tomé. The adult literacy rate in the province is 96. 3% The aboriginal tribes who inhabited this region were the Tobas, Timbúes, Mocovíes, Pilagás, Guaycurúes and they were nomadic, lived from hunting and fruit recollection. In 1573 Juan de Garay founded the city of Santa Fe in the surroundings of present town Cayastá, but the city was moved in 1651 and 1660 to its present location. In 1812 the lawyer and general Manuel Belgrano created and displayed for the first time the Argentine flag on the banks of the Paraná River and this period was short lived, since that same year Candioti died and central government reestablished the dependent government.
However, in 1816, the caudillos Mariano Vera and Estanislao López deposed the governor delegate and proclaimed the sovereignty of the province, during the civil strifes of 1820, Santa Fe troops were decisive in the defeat of Buenos Aires centralist army. So, in time, López gradually became the Federations Patriarch, after Lópezs death it was his secretary and right hand, José María Cullen the one elected governor. These two parties had many strong electoral contests with the conservative parties. After the Electoral Reform of Roque Sáenz Peña in 1912, the UCR reached the government, during this time, more precisely in 1919, the National University of the Littoral was founded. In 1932 it was the PDP who got the governors seat, the contentious 1958 elections brought an ally of President-elect Arturo Frondizi to power in Santa Fe, Dr. Carlos Sylvestre Begnis. The tunnel, most of which runs under the massive Paraná River, is the longest in Argentina, forced to resign after conservative pressure drove Pres.
Frondizi from office in 1962, Begnis had the satisfaction of seeing Hernandarias open in 1969, Santa Fe suffered the violence of the late 70s and the depression of the 1980s more than most other provinces. It continued to languish economically during the prosperous 1990s, as the revalued Argentine peso put pressure on its productive sectors, touching bottom around 2002, its economy has grown by 7% a year since then. Most of the consists of green flatlands, part of the humid Pampas. There are low sierras to the west, the south presents lower temperatures, averaging 14 °C, and slightly less precipitations. Thunderstorms are common, and so are heat waves what can bring temperatures up to 40 °C and these are often interrupted by cold fronts that bring crisp, cool weather from the south. March brings cooler nights in the south, and April brings comfortable weather, with highs ranging from 22 °C in the south to 26 °C in the north, winter is dryer in the west of the province and wetter in the east