Rafael Hernández Colón
Rafael Hernández Colón is a Puerto Rican politician who served as the fourth Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from 1973 to 1977 and as the sixth Governor of Puerto Rico from 1985 to 1993 for a total of three terms. An experienced politician, Hernández holds the record for being the youngest Governor of Puerto Rico, having won his first term at the age of 36. Hernández is the person who has run for governor the most times, a total of five. During his terms as governor, Hernández Colón's administration was known for trying to invigorate the Puerto Rican economy as well as defending the current political status of the island. Hernández Colón was born October 24, 1936 in Ponce, Puerto Rico, to Rafael Hernández Matos and Dora Colón Clavell. Rafael and Dora had three children. Rafael was the oldest. Rafael had two brothers Jose A. and Cesar A.. Hernandez Colon graduated from Valley Forge Military Academy and College in Wayne, Pennsylvania obtained a bachelor's degree in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1956 where he graduated with honors.
In 1959, he obtained his degree in law from the University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, graduating magna cum laude and as valedictorian of his class. Between 1961 and 1965 he was lecturer on civil procedure at the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico in Ponce. Hernández Colón affiliated himself with the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico Partido Popular Democratico, he served as Associate Commissioner of Public Service under the governorship of Roberto Sánchez Vilella. In 1965 he was named Secretary of the Department of Justice. Hernández Colón was elected to the Senate of Puerto Rico in the 1968 elections, in which his party retained control of the Senate but lost the governorship and House of Representatives; as President of the Senate, Hernández Colón became the Popular Democratic Party's President and main opposition leader. As a Senator, he proposed a constitutional amendment to lower the minimum voting age to 18, which passed in 1970, he spearheaded efforts to persuade Congress to stop bombing practices in the island of Culebra.
On the issue of political status, he opposed Governor Ferré's creation of an Ad Hoc Committee for the Presidential Vote, alleging that it was a misleading effort to enhance the island's current Commonwealth status in accordance with the results of the 1967 status plebiscite. In 1972, he ran for Governor of Puerto Rico, defeating the incumbent by 95,000 votes, or 7.3%. He remains the last PDP gubernatorial candidate to win with over 50% of votes. During his first term, the island was wracked by recession, induced by the 1973 oil crisis, which hit Puerto Rico hard because of the many businesses that were directly related to petroleum processing in Puerto Rico. After enacting austerity measures and tax increases, the economy recovered by 1976. In 1973, he appointed, alongside President Nixon, an Ad Hoc Committee for Puerto Rico to enhance Puerto Rico's Commonwealth status pursuant to the people's mandate in the 1967 elections; the Committee rendered a report and proposal for a Compact of Permanent Union Between Puerto Rico and the United States that expanded Puerto Rico's autonomy over local affairs, expanded its right to participate in international matters, created a mechanism to object to the automatic application of federal laws, allowed for the election of a delegate to the U.
S. Senate. President Ford, who replaced Nixon, did not react to the Report until after the 1976 elections, when he proposed statehood for the island. According to Hernández Colón, his delayed response was due to political pressure by island Republicans, who supported Ford in his primary against Ronald Reagan; the Compact was approved by the House Subcommittee on Insular Affairs. In 1974, Time Magazine recognized Rafael Hernandez Colón as one of the world's young leaders. Hernández Colón, Treasury Secretary Salvador Casellas, Resident Commissioner Jaime Benítez lobbied Congress for Section 936, which created a tax incentive for U. S. corporations that established in Puerto Rico. The incentive remained active until 1996, when Congress enacted a phase-out that ended in 2006, its elimination is credited as one of the main causes for Puerto Rico's current fiscal and economic crisis. Hernández Colón signed Law No. 80 of 1976, which required just cause for terminating employment. In 2018, Law 80 became a hotly-debated issue.
Hernández Colón lost in 1976 to Mayor of San Juan, Carlos Romero Barceló by 3%. He lost again to Romero Barceló in 1980, however, by a slim margin of approximate 3,000 votes, or 0.2%. Hernández Colón ran again against Romero Barceló in the November 1984 elections and was victorious by about 54,000 votes, he again won re-election in 1988 election, besting his main rival Baltasar Corrada del Río by 49 to 46%. As part of his 1984 electoral campaign, Hernandez Colon released a musical album with Puerto Rican country music titled "Ahora Es Que Vamos". During this time Puerto Rico experienced an economic boom with GDP growth at 5% during the years 1987-1989 the highest since Operation Bootstrap and the Economic Boom in the United States. Unemployment dropped drastically in his term from an all-time high 25% in 1983 to 12.0% in 1990. He lost popularity with the controversial Pabellon de Sevilla, an attempt of a representation of Puerto Rico at the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. In January 1992 Hernández announced.
On January 11, Hernandez Colón resigned as President of the Popular Democratic Party, the post he held for 23 years. Senator Victoria Munoz Mendoza succeeded
University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus
The University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus referred to as UPR-RP and La IUPI, is a public research university located on a 289-acre campus in Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico. UPR-RP serves more than 18,000 students, of which 20% are graduate students, grants an average of over 3,000 degrees a year, it is recognized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a research university "high research activity". As a public comprehensive doctoral institution, its academic offerings range from the bachelorette to the doctoral degree, through 70 undergraduate programs and 19 graduate degrees with 71 specializations in the basic disciplines and professional fields. UPR‐RP has granted the largest number of doctorate degrees to Hispanics in the US. UPR-RP is the largest campus in terms of student population of the University of Puerto Rico System, Puerto Rico's first public university. In the year 1900 the Escuela Normal Industrial was established in Fajardo, Puerto Rico as the first Higher Education institution of Puerto Rico, dedicated to those who would become teachers on the island.
At the time it only had 5 professors. A year in 1901, it was moved to the town of Río Piedras, because the roads to Fajardo were in a terrible condition. In the mild and studying-favourable nature around what was known by the time as "La Convalecencia" was placed, the Normal School, its objectives were still the formation of new teachers for the island. On March 12, 1903, under the administration of the Public Instruction Commissioner, Samuel McCune Lindsay, the 2nd Legislative Assembly approved a law creating the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras, transferring all the funding of the Insular Normal School there; this School became the first department of the university, what is now the Faculty of Education, becoming the nucleus of the University of Puerto Rico. Now established, the University of Puerto Rico started its first academic year with an enrollment of 173 students. Due to the scarcity of teachers in the island, most of these students were appointed by the Department of Public Instruction to teach at schools without having finished four years of college.
The first graduating class consisted of 13 students. In 1907, the first class graduated from the normal course of four years after the university was established. Among the students in that class were Carlota Matienzo, Isabel Andréu, Loaíza Cordero, Marina Roviro, Juan Herrero. On September 22, 1913, the departments of Law and Pharmacology were established; the university at the time required only an 8th grade diploma, but with the expansion of its courses, this requirement changed. After 1917, the departments of Normal Education, Liberal Arts and Law required a high school diploma for admission. On February 21, 1931, Dr. Carlos E. Chardón was appointed as chancellor of the university. During his tenure the university experienced significant growth in endowments; these were used in the expansion of the physical facilities at the Río Piedras and Mayagüez Campuses. This helped turn the university into a respected educational center. Chardón resigned from the post of Chancellor in 1936, being succeeded by Juan B.
Soto. The most important part of this period was the expansion of the buildings of the University as part of a plan for the rehabilitation of Puerto Rico. In 1936, architect Rafael Carmoega, working under the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, designed the distinctive University of Puerto Rico clock tower based on the 1924 Parsons Plan; the iconic university clock tower was built in 1937 and christened as the Franklin Delano Roosevelt tower, in honor of that U. S. president and his interest in the building of the university. La Torre is located at the entrance of the Román Baldorioty de Castro Building. At the entrance of the Tower, the coats of arms of the nations of the Americas appear in a bronze circle, as a symbol of Panamerican Union; the University was the site of social upheaval during the 1960s and 1970s, when nationalist students protested for civil rights, the independence of Puerto Rico, taking the ROTC out of the campus. In 1970 Antonia Martínez was murdered by the police.
As the shouting started in the street, everyone in the building she was in, on Ponce de León Avenue, went to the balconies to see what was happening. She was, like many others, watching the events, saw policemen attacking at the students, shouted at the police ¡Asesinos!. A policeman shot her in the head, killing her and injuring a roommate. A mural of her and her story existed on the College of Humanities, until administrative personnel covered it with paint. Other stories claim; the students of the University had a strike in the Spring of 2017 during which the school was shut down for several days. The Rio Piedras Campus is a collegiate university; the Chancellor of the Campus is the top academic and administrative officer and presides over its two deliberative bodies: the Administrative Board and the Academic Senate. The Administrative Board, composed of the deans, two senators representing the faculty, one student senator, advises the Chancellor in matters pertaining to the university program.
The Board makes recommendations on leaves and faculty aid applications, grants promotions and tenures. The Academic Senate, in turn, is the official academic forum, it is composed of the deans, the director of the library system, elected faculty representatives from all the colleges and s
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Governor of Puerto Rico
The Governor of Puerto Rico is the head of government of Puerto Rico and, by its nature, constitutes the executive branch of the government of the island. He is the commander-in-chief of the island's military forces, the Puerto Rico National Guard; the governor has a duty to enforce territorial laws, to convene the Legislative Assembly, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Legislative Assembly, to appoint government officers, to appoint Justices, to grant pardons. Since 1948, the governor has been elected by the people of Puerto Rico. Prior to that, the governor was appointed either by the King of Spain or the President of the United States. Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico vests the executive power on the governor and empowers him with the faculty to appoint officers. Law No. 104 of 1956 empowers him with the faculty to delegate functions. These two faculties in conjunction allow the governor to delegate most of his functions while continuing to be the maximum officer and head of government.
Most of the governor's functions are delegated to the Chief of Staff, charged with managing and overseeing all the executive departments and all executive agencies. The budget is delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget while centralized planning is delegated to the President of the Planning Board; this makes the governor a political figure rather than an administrative one, allowing him to set the vision for what the island should be and where it should go rather than having to be involved in its day-to-day operations. However, governors tend to be involved in the day-to-day operations of the government in both internal and external affairs; the first known and recorded heads of government in the history of Puerto Rico were the caciques, the tribal chiefs of the natives known as Taínos that inhabited the island before the arrival of Spaniards. It is believed that the cacique rank was established through democratic means, his importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his warlord skills, since the Taínos were a pacifist culture.
Agüeybaná I is the most-well known cacique as he was the one governing all others when the Spaniards arrived in 1493 although many others existed during his period, as well as before and after him. Juan Ponce de León was appointed as the first Governor of Puerto Rico in 1508 and assumed the post in 1510. In 1579, after several others had served as governor, Juan Ponce de León II became the first person born in Puerto Rico to assume, the governorship of Puerto Rico, he served until the arrival from Spain of Jerónimo De Agüero Campuzano, who assumed the governorship of the island that same year. In 1948, Luis Muñoz Marín became; the governor is head of the government of Puerto Rico. He has the power to veto any number of projects; the governor has the power to appoint the members of his cabinet, who in turn must be ratified by the Legislature. The governor has the power to appoint Justices to the Supreme Court and all the lower courts of the island; the governor must address the legislature at the beginning of each year to present two speeches, one is the State of the Commonwealth speech and another in which the governor presents the "Recommended Budget" for the next fiscal year, in which the governor proposes to the state legislature a budget for the consideration of said body.
He is the commander-in-chief of the Puerto Rico National Guard and the chief diplomat. On July 25, 1952, the Constitution of Puerto Rico was enacted by Governor Muñoz Marín after the approval by Congress and the President of the United States. Pursuant to section Three, Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, the governor must be a citizen of the United States, a resident of Puerto Rico for five consecutive years prior and at least 35 years old at the time of the election; the governor serves a four-year term which begins on the second day of January after the year of his election and ends on the date his successor takes office. Consecutive service is unlimited, according to the Constitution of the Island. Luis Muñoz Marín, its first elected governor, served for four consecutive terms from 1949 to 1965, but all subsequent governors served either one or two terms; the governor is elected by a direct vote from the people. The Puerto Rico Elections Code states that if the margin of victory of a candidate is less than 0.5% of the votes a full recount of the election must take place.
So far, only in the gubernatorial elections of 1980 and 2004 has a recount taken place. The most-recently-elected governor is the current governor, Ricardo Rosselló, sworn into office on January 2, 2017 at the age of 37. Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of a sitting governor, the Secretary of State would take the office of governor until the end of the four-year term. In case the Secretary of State is unwilling or unable to assume it, the Secretary of Justice would temporarily assume the governorship, followed by the Secretary of Treasury, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Labor and Human Resources, the Secretary of Transportation and Public Works, the Secretary of Economic Development and Commerce, the Secretary of Health and the Secretary of Agriculture, until the Legislative Assembly meets to elect by majority vote of all of its members a governor for the rest of the term. Other provisions exist for the transition between a governor-elect. Contrary to some U.
S. states, if the
Phillips Exeter Academy
Phillips Exeter Academy is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students in grades 9 through 12, offers a postgraduate program. Located in Exeter, New Hampshire, it is one of the oldest secondary schools in the United States. Exeter is based on the Harkness education system, a conference format of student interaction with minimal teacher involvement, it has the largest endowment of any New England boarding school, which as of June 30, 2017, was valued at $1.25 billion. On January 25, 2019, William K. Rawson was appointed by the Academy's trustees as the 16th Principal Instructor, he is the 4th alumnus of Exeter to serve as Principal Instructor, after Gideon Lane Soule, Harlan Amen, William Saltonstall. Phillips Exeter Academy has educated several generations of the New England establishment and prominent American politicians, but has introduced many programs to diversify the student population, including free tuition for families whose income is $75,000 or less. In 2015–2016, over 45% of students received financial aid from grants totaling over $19 million.
The school has been highly selective, with an acceptance rate of 15% for the 2019–2020 school year, many graduates attend the Ivy League universities among others. Management of the school's financial and physical resources is overseen by trustees drawn from alumni. Day-to-day operations are headed by a principal, appointed by the trustees; the faculty of the school are responsible for governing matters relating to student life, both in and out of the classroom. The school's first enrolled class counted 56 boys; the 2018 Academic Year saw enrollment at 1,095 students with 884 boarding students and 211 day students. The students comprise equal numbers of males and females, who are housed in 25 single-sex and 2 mixed-sex dormitories; each residence is supervised by a dormitory head selected from the faculty. Phillips Exeter Academy was established in Exeter, New Hampshire in 1781 by Elizabeth and John Phillips. John Phillips had made his fortune as a merchant and banker before going into public service, financially supported his nephew Samuel Phillips, Jr. in founding his own school, Phillips Academy, in Andover, three years earlier.
As a result of this family relationship, the two schools share a rivalry. The school that Phillips founded at Exeter was to educate students under a Calvinist religious framework. However, like his nephew who founded Andover, Phillips stipulated in the school's founding charter that it would "ever be open to youth of requisite qualifications from every quarter."Phillips had been married to Sarah Gilman, wealthy widow of Phillips' cousin, merchant Nathaniel Gilman, whose large fortune, bequeathed to Phillips, enabled him to endow the academy. The Gilman family donated to the academy much of the land on which it stands, including the initial 1793 grant by New Hampshire Governor John Taylor Gilman of the Yard, the oldest part of campus. In 1814, Nicholas Gilman, signer of the U. S. Constitution, left $1,000 to Exeter to teach "sacred music."The academy's first schoolhouse, the First Academy Building, was built on a site on Tan Lane in 1783, today stands not far from its original location. The building was dedicated on February 20, 1783, the same day that the school's first Preceptor, William Woodbridge, was chosen by John Phillips.
Exeter's Deed of Gift, written by John Phillips at the founding of the school, states that Exeter's mission is to instill in its students both goodness and knowledge: "Above all, it is expected that the attention of instructors to the disposition of the minds and morals of the youth under their charge will exceed every other care. On April 9, 1930, philanthropist and oil magnate Edward Harkness wrote to Exeter Principal Lewis Perry regarding how a substantial donation that Harkness would make to the Academy might be used to fund a new way of teaching and learning:What I have in mind is a classroom where students could sit around a table with a teacher who would talk with them and instruct them by a sort of tutorial or conference method, where each student would feel encouraged to speak up; this would be a real revolution in methods. The result was "Harkness teaching", in which a teacher and a group of students work together, exchanging ideas and information, similar to the Socratic method.
In November 1930, Harkness gave Exeter $5.8 million to support this initiative. Since the Academy's principal mode of instruction has been by discussion, "seminar style," around an oval table known as the Harkness table; this informality was for many decades reflected in the school's "unwritten code that there were no rules at the academy until you broke one." Expelled alumni include the writer and editor George Plimpton. Exeter participated in the Chinese Educational Mission, hosting seven students from Qing China, starting in 1879, they were sent to learn about western technology, attended Exeter among other schools to prepare for college. However, all students were recalled in 1881 due to mounting tensions between the United States and China, as well as growing realization that the students were becoming Americanized; the Academy became coeducational in 1970. Today the student body is half boys and half girls. In 1996, to reflect the Academy's coeducational status, a new gender-inclusive
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521. Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496 and Panama City, in Panama, founded in 1519. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan. Today, San Juan is Puerto Rico's most important seaport and is the island's manufacturing, financial and tourism center; the population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area, including San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Cataño, Canóvanas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja and Trujillo Alto, is about 2.6 million inhabitants. San Juan is a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area; the city has been the host of events within the sports community, including the 1979 Pan American Games.
In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement. It was named after the Province of Cáceres in Spain, the birthplace of Nicolás de Ovando the Governor of Spain's Caribbean territories, Today it is part of the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area. A year the settlement was moved to a site called Puerto Rico, Spanish for "rich port" or "good port", after its similar geographical features to the town of Puerto Rico of Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands. In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name: Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista; the ambiguous use of San Juan Bautista and Puerto Rico for both the city and the island in time led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants: by 1746 the name for the city had become that of the entire island, leading to the city being identified as Puerto Rico de Puerto Rico on maps of the era. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas.
Because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time; the city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken; the Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amézqueta and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro Castle. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amézqueta.
The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans. After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city's militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set the city ablaze. Captains Amézqueta and Andrés Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy's front and rear guard, they drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships. The British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby, his army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. Various events and circumstances, including liberalized commerce with Spain, the opening of the island to immigrants as a direct result of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, the colonial revolutions, led to an expansion of San Juan and other Puerto Rican settlements in the late 18th and early 19th century.
On May 8, 1898, United States Navy ships, among them the USS Detroit, USS Indiana, USS New York, USS Amphitrite, USS Terror and USS Montgomery, commanded by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson arrived at San Juan Bay; the USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, thus being the first hostile encounter between the warring sides in Puerto Rico. On May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory. Around this time, Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez was assigned the command of the Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan. On May 10, the Yale returned to San Juan Bay, Rivero-Méndez ordered his men to open fire upon the USS Yale using an Ordoñez 15 centimeter cannon, thus becoming the first attack against the Americans in Puerto Rico during the Spanis
Naguabo, Puerto Rico
Naguabo is a municipality in Puerto Rico located in the east coast of the island, north of Humacao. Naguabo is spread over Naguabo Pueblo, it is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Naguabo is said to be the birthplace of the pastelillo de chapín, a popular food in Puerto Rico, it is trunkfish wrapped inside a flour dough, deep fried. Pastelillo de chapín can be found in any seaside establishment on the island. Naguabo is located in the southeast region of Puerto Rico; the northern part is within the Luquillo Mountain Range, which contain the Picos of the Este and the Oeste, at 3,448 and 3,346 feet of altitude above sea level, respectively. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Naguabo is subdivided into barrios. Algodones Key El Yunque National Forest Naguabo Beach Punta Lima Beach Ramón Rivero "Diplo" Monument Tropical Beach Yudelmi Center Pedro Flores Monument Hucares Waterfront City Square Maratón Cervecero En Naguabo -January http://www.miagendapr.com/event/maraton-cervecero-en-naguabo-2018/ Chapín Festival - February Pedro Flores Week - March Diplo Festival - June Virgen del Carmen Fiesta - July 16 Patron Saint Festival - October 7 There is public transportation in Naguabo.
It operates from 6:00 a.m. using the "Pisicorre" bus. There are 52 bridges in Naguabo. Historia de Naguabo by Carmelo Rosario Natal List of Puerto Ricans History of Puerto Rico Did you know-Puerto Rico? Puerto Rico Government Directory - Naguabo