Tuborg is a Danish brewing company founded in 1873 by Carl Frederik Tietgen. Since 1970 it has been part of the Carlsberg Group, the brewery was founded in Hellerup, a part of northern Copenhagen, Denmark. The name Tuborg comes from Thuesborg, a Copenhagen inn from the 1690s situated in the area of the brewery and this evolved and was adopted into local placenames, such as Lille Tuborg and Store Tuborg. Tuborgvej street in Copenhagen is named after the site of the original Tuborg brewery, Tuborg initially produced pale lager for the Danish market. It merged with United Breweries in 1894, which entered into a profit-sharing agreement with Carlsberg in 1903. In 1970, United Breweries was acquired by Carlsberg, today, it makes lager for global export, as well as a variety of continental styles for both domestic and foreign markets. In 1996 the last Tuborg beer was brewed in Hellerup and the area is now providing fashionable apartments and business offices. Tuborg Gold is quite popular throughout Denmark and southern Sweden, in the latter being as easily found on store shelves as other Swedish brews, Tuborg Red was the first beer the company brewed in 1875.
Tuborg Red is not brewed on a basis but is brewed once a year in May to salute the companys birthday. In its native country of Denmark, Tuborg is known for brands including Tuborg Red. In 1990 Tuborg launched their annual Christmas brew on the second Wednesday in November, with the marketing term J-day, snestorm, J stands for Jul or julebryg. Similarly, there is a P-day for påskebryg, in 1999, J-day moved to the first Friday in November. Traffic police laid out an alcohol control plan for that evening, in 2009 J-day was moved again to the last Friday in October, but in 2010 it returned to the first Friday in November. In 2008, Tuborg announced a deal with Reading and Leeds music festivals to become their exclusive Official Beer Partner. In 2009, it arranged a deal with The Download festival to be the official beer and have a dedicated stage named after the beer. Tuborg sponsors the Tuborg Image Awards, a music award presentation that takes place in Nepal. Part of the success in Russia has come from its strong links to music in Eastern Europe
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds, others include Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Circassians, around 95% of the countrys 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Assyrian and it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. Iraqs modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres, Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from 1968 until 2003, after an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country, the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ or /ɪˈræk/, the American Heritage Dictionary, the pronunciation /aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in U. S. media. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations
The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge and it featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology. In 1972, the laboratory was renamed the Carlsberg Research Center and was transferred to the brewery, the Carlsberg Laboratory was known for protein science and had a series of well-known directors, including Johan Kjeldahl, S. P. L. Sørensen, and Kaj Ulrik Linderstrøm-Lang. The Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen introduced the concept of pH, while working at the Carlsberg Laboratory, he studied the effect of ion concentration on proteins, and understood the concentration of hydrogen ions was particularly important. To express the ion concentration in a solution, he devised a logarithmic scale known as the pH scale. Research from the Carlsberg Laboratory was published in its journal, Comptes rendus des travaux du laboratoire Carlsberg, Carlsberg or simply C. R.
Trav. Emil Christian Hansen Kirstine Smith Carsten Olsen Carlsberg J. C, jacobsen Carlsberg Foundation ^ Schellman JA, Schellman CG. Linderstrøm-Lang and the Carlsberg Laboratory, The view of a fellow in 1954. Contribution of physical chemistry to an understanding of structure and function. Copenhagen, Rhodos International Science and Art Publ
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The collection is built around the collection of Carl Jacobsen. However, the museum is noted for its collection of painting that includes an extensive collection of French impressionists and Post-impressionists as well as Danish Golden Age paintings. The museums collection includes all the sculptures of Degas, including the series of dancers. Numerous works by Norwegian-Danish sculptor Stephan Sinding are featured prominently in various sections of the museum, Carl Jacobsen was a dedicated art collector. He was particularly interested in art, but over the years he acquired a considerable collection of French. When his private villa in 1882 was extended with a winter garden, the same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was expanded on a number of occasions to meet the need for space for his steadily growing collections. In spite of the extensions, it was finally clear the existing premises were inadequate.
On 8 March 1888 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection to the Danish State, Jacobsen was displeased with the location which he found to be too far from the city centre and he had reservations about the proximity of Tivoli which he found common. Instead he wanted a building on the new city hall square. It was Carl Jacobsen who chose the name for the museum, with inspiration from Ludwig Is Glyptothek in Munich, the moat around the radan was filled and the new museum opened first on 1 May 1897. At first it only included Jacobsens modern collection with French and Danish works from the 18th century, in January 1899 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection of Antique art to the museum which made an expansion necessary. It was designed by Hack Kampmann while Dahlerup designed a garden which connected the new wing to the old building. In 1996 the museum was again extended, this time with an infill constructed in one of its courtyards to the design of Henning Larsen. In 2006, the building underwent a major renovation programme under the direction of Danish architects Dissing + Weitling. the building is often noted for its elegance in its own right and the synthesis it creates with the works of art.
The Dahlerup Wing, the oldest part of the museum, is a lavish historicist building, the façade is in red brick with polished granite columns in a Venetian renaissance style. It houses the French and Danish collections, the Kampmann Wing is a more simple, neo-classical building, built as a series of galleries around a central auditorium used for lectures, small concerts and poetry readings
A foundation is a legal category of nonprofit organization that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes. Foundations incorporate private foundations and public foundations and this type of non-profit organization differs from a private foundation which is typically endowed by an individual or family. One of the characteristics of the legal entities existing under the status of Foundations, is a diversity of structures and purposes. Nevertheless, there are common structural elements that are the first observed under legal scrutiny or classification. Others may be provided by the authority at each particular jurisdiction. There is no commonly accepted legal definition in Europe for a foundation, there is a proposal for a European Foundation, a legal form that would be recognised throughout Europe, see European Foundation Project. The term foundation, in general, is used to describe a legal entity. Foundations as legal structures and/or legal persons, may have a diversity of forms, unlike a company, foundations have no shareholders, though they may have a board, an assembly and voting members.
The foundation has a distinct patrimony independent of its founder, Foundations are often set up for charitable purposes, family patrimony and collective purposes. Foundations in Finland must have state approval and register at the National Board of Patents, a minimum capital of €25,000 is obligatory. A foundation can be created with any purpose and may have economic activity if this is specified in its Bylaws. There are not many Foundations in comparison to the rest of Europe, in practice public administration requires at least €1 million is considered necessary. States representatives have a seat in the Board. German regulations allow the creation of any foundation for public or private purposes in keeping with the concept of a gemeinwohlkonforme Allzweckstiftung, a foundation should not have commercial activities as its main purpose, but they are permitted if they serve the main purpose of the foundation. There is no minimum starting capital, although in practice at least is considered necessary, a German foundation can either be charitable or serve a private interest.
If they engage in activities, only the commercially active part of the entity is taxed. A family foundation serving private interests is taxed like any other legal entity, there is no central register for German foundations. Only charitable foundations are subject to supervision by state authorities, family foundations are not supervised after establishment
The Carlsberg Group is a brewing company founded in 1847 by J. C. The companys first headquarters were located in Copenhagen, since Jacobsens death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation. The companys flagship brand is Carlsberg Beer but it brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russias best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, and more than 500 local beers. After merging with the assets of Norwegian conglomerate Orkla ASA in January 2001. After a failed attempt by Orkla, Carlsberg became the sole owner after purchasing Orklas share in the brewery in 2004. It is the leading beer seller in Russia with about a 40 percent share of the market, in 2009 Carlsberg ranked fourth worldwide, and employed around 45,000 people. Carlsberg was founded by J. C, Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection which is now housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen. The first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, and the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Jacobsens son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg.
The companies were merged and run under Carls direction in 1906, Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology, the species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name, this was shared freely by Carlsberg. The Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry, in 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is now an independent unit of the Centre. Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsens brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887, the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, in 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
The old brewery in Copenhagen is currently open for tours, famous visitors have included Winston Churchill in 1950, Queen Elizabeth II in 1957, and Yuri Gagarin in 1962. The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three areas, Northern & Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is currently owned by Carlsberg, previously, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records