The César Award is the national film award of France. It is delivered in the Nuit des César ceremony and was first awarded in 1976; the nominations are selected by the members of twelve categories of filmmaking professionals and supported by the French Ministry of Culture. The nationally televised award ceremony is held in the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris each year in February, it is an initiative from the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma, founded in 1975. The César Award is considered the highest film honor in France, the French film industry's equivalent to the Molière Award for theatre, the Victoires de la Musique for music. In cinema, it is the French equivalent to the Academy Award; the award was created by Georges Cravenne, the creator of the Molière Award for theatre. The name of the award comes from the sculptor César Baldaccini; the 44th César Awards ceremony took place on 22 February 2019. Custody, directed by Xavier Legrand, won the award for Best Film. In 1974, Georges Cravenne founded the Academy of Arts and Techniques of Cinema that was, from the outset, intended to reward the achievements and the most remarkable film artwork, to have a French equivalent to the American Oscars.
The first César Awards – known as the "Night of Caesar" – were held on 3 April 1976 under the chairmanship of Jean Gabin who watched the ceremony from the front row seated in a wheelchair a few months before his death. The name of the award comes from the sculptor César, designer of the trophy awarded to the winners in each category, it is an homage to the Raimu, the great French actor and performer of Marseille trilogy of Marcel Pagnol, in which Raimu played the character of César. The César Awards replaced the Étoile de cristal, awarded from 1955 to 1975. Other prizes had been awarded to French cinema in the past. From 1934 to 1986, the Grand prix du cinéma français, established by film pioneer Louis Lumière, was given to one film a year. In the 1950s, the Victoire du cinéma français was awarded each June. Lacking popular enthusiasm compared to the Étoile de cristal, this award was discontinued after 1964. At the inaugural César Awards, 13 awards were distributed. Today, there are 22. Categories added in recent years include Most Promising Actor/Actress, Best Documentary and Best Animated Film, while awards honoring the best film poster and best producer have been dropped, as they are now given at a sister ceremony, the Prix Daniel Toscan du Plantier.
Voting for César Awards is conducted through two ballots by mail: the first to establish nominations per category, the second to decide the winner. Voters are professionals in the field, divided into 12 colleges; the criteria for voting are: demonstrate a consistent career in film and get a double sponsorship in the Académie des arts et techniques du cinéma. Nominees or winners of the previous editions are exempt from these formalities. To aid voters, the Académie identifies each year films released in France and provides a guide to the works and eligible professionals. A DVD set of French or French productions produced during the year is sent in December with the catalog of films to the electors. After the nominations are revealed, at the end of January, special screenings of the nominated films are shown at the Le Balzac cinema in Paris, near the Champs-Élysées; each year, a special lunch for nominees is held at the famous Fouquet's restaurant on the Champs-Élysées, a few weeks before the ceremony.
Honorary Award - since 1976 César des Césars - between 1985 and 1995 Prix Daniel Toscan du Plantier - since 2008 Trophée César & Techniques - since 2011 Médaille d'Or - only in 2015 César & Techniques Special Award - only between 2015 and 2017 César & Techniques Innovation Award - since 2018 César du public - since 2018 Best Film from the European Union Best Poster Best Producer Best Writing Best French Language Film Best Documentary Short Best Fiction Short Best Animated Short The Last Metro Best Film: The Last Metro Best Director: François Truffaut Best Actor: Gérard Depardieu Best Actress: Catherine Deneuve Best Writing: Suzanne Schiffman and François TruffautAmour Best Film: Amour Best Director: Michael Haneke Best Actor: Jean-Louis Trintignant Best Actress: Emmanuelle Riva Best Writing: Michael Haneke Four awards won Smoking/No Smoking: Best Actress Too Beautiful for You: Best Actor Three awards won Cyrano de Bergerac: best Actress and Writing Same Old Song: best Actress and Director Academy Awards British Academy Film Awards Lumières Award Louis Delluc Prize Magritte Award Official website César Award on IMDb
Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré was a French artist, illustrator, comics artist and sculptor who worked with wood engraving. Doré was born in Strasbourg on 6 January 1832. By age 5 he was a prodigy artist. Seven years he began carving in stone. At the age of 15, Doré began his career working as a caricaturist for the French paper Le journal pour rire. Wood engraving was his primary method at this time. In the late 1840s and early 1850s, he made several text comics, like Les Travaux d'Hercule, Trois artistes incompris et mécontents, Les Dés-agréments d'un voyage d'agrément and L'Histoire de la Sainte Russie. Doré subsequently went on to win commissions to depict scenes from books by Cervantes, Balzac and Dante, he illustrated "Gargantua et Pantagruel" in 1854. In 1853 Doré was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron; this commission was followed by additional work for British publishers, including a new illustrated Bible. In 1856 he produced 12 folio-size illustrations of The Legend of The Wandering Jew, which propagated longstanding antisemitic views of the time, for a short poem which Pierre-Jean de Béranger had derived from a novel of Eugène Sue of 1845.
In the 1860s he illustrated a French edition of Cervantes's Don Quixote, his depictions of the knight and his squire, Sancho Panza, have become so famous that they have influenced subsequent readers and stage and film directors' ideas of the physical "look" of the two characters. Doré illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", an endeavor that earned him 30,000 francs from publisher Harper & Brothers in 1883. Doré's illustrations for the Bible were a great success, in 1867 Doré had a major exhibition of his work in London; this exhibition led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in London. In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. Jerrold had obtained the idea from The Microcosm of London produced by Rudolph Ackermann, William Pyne, Thomas Rowlandson. Doré signed a five-year contract with the publishers Grant & Co that involved his staying in London for three months a year, he received the vast sum of £10,000 a year for the project.
Doré was celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world-renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings, like those he did for Jerrold, are where he excelled as an artist with an individual vision; the completed book London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 engravings, was published in 1872. It enjoyed commercial and popular success; some of these critics were concerned by the fact that Doré appeared to focus on the poverty that existed in parts of London. Doré was accused by The Art Journal of "inventing rather than copying"; the Westminster Review claimed that "Doré gives us sketches in which the commonest, the vulgarest external features are set down". The book was a financial success and Doré received commissions from other British publishers. Doré's work included illustrations for new editions of Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton's Paradise Lost, Tennyson's Idylls of the King, The Works of Thomas Hood, The Divine Comedy. Doré's work appeared in the weekly newspaper The Illustrated London News.
Doré never married and, following the death of his father in 1849, he continued to live with his mother, illustrating books until his death in Paris following a short illness. The city's Père Lachaise Cemetery contains his grave. At the time of his death in 1883, he was working on illustrations for an edition of Shakespeare's plays; the government of France made him a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1861. Doré was a prolific artist.
Lorin Varencove Maazel was an American conductor and composer. Making his debut at the conducting podium at the age of eight, he embarked on his career in earnest in 1953, establishing a reputation in European concert halls by 1960 but, by comparison, his career in the U. S. progressed far more slowly. However, he would be appointed music director of the Cleveland Orchestra, Orchestre National de France, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, among other posts. Maazel possessed a photographic memory for scores. Described as mercurial and forbidding in rehearsal, he mellowed in old age. Maazel was born to Jewish American parents of Russian origin in France, his grandfather Isaac Maazel, born in Poltava, Ukraine in Russian Empire, for two decades was the first violinist in the Metropolitan Opera. He was brought up in the United States at his parents' home in the city of Pittsburgh's Oakland neighborhood, his father, Lincoln Maazel, was a singer, teacher of voice and piano, an actor.
His grandfather Isaac was a violinist in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra for twenty years. Both Lincoln and Marie gave interviews for the Oral History Collection at the University of Pittsburgh, Lincoln's in 1994, Marie's in 1974. Maazel was a child prodigy, taking his first conducting lesson at age seven with Vladimir Bakaleinikov and making his debut at age eight, conducting the University of Idaho Orchestra in Schubert's "Unfinished" Symphony in Los Angeles on July 13, 1938. In the same year, he conducted the National High School Orchestra at the National Music Camp in Interlochen, Michigan. At the age of eleven, he guest-conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra on the radio. At twelve he toured the United States of America to conduct major orchestras, he made his violin debut at the age of fifteen. He attended the Fanny Edel Falk Laboratory School at the University of Pittsburgh as a child, followed by Peabody High School and the University of Pittsburgh. Maazel studied with Pierre Monteux in 1945.
In the early 1950s, Maazel toured as the conductor with the Gershwin Concert Orchestra. The orchestra consisted of a noted array of soloists; the orchestra was organized in cooperation with Ira Gershwin, to give the public a comprehensive Gershwin program. The list of soloists included George Gershwin's friend, Jesús María Sanromá, Carolyn Long and Theodor Uppman. In 1960, Maazel became the first American to conduct at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, he was chief conductor of the Deutsche Oper Berlin from 1965 to 1971 and the Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin from 1964 to 1975. In 1972, Maazel began his tenure as music director at the Cleveland Orchestra, succeeding George Szell. Maazel's emotional, rich interpretation of music differed from Szell's characteristic crisp, defined precision in performance. A notable achievement during this time was the first complete recording of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, using an all-African American cast. Maazel held the post until 1982, he never returned to the Cleveland Orchestra after his departure, although a scheduled engagement in 2006 did not occur because of illness.
In 1977, he became music director of the Orchestre National de France in Paris, a position he held until 1991. From 1982 to 1984, Maazel served at the Vienna State Opera as general manager and principal conductor. In 1980, he succeeded Willi Boskovsky as conductor at the Vienna New Year's Concert and he led this televised annual event each year, until 1986, he returned to it four times: in 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2005. From 1984 to 1988, Maazel was the music consultant to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, its music director from 1988 to 1996. In 1989, expecting – but failing – to become successor to Herbert von Karajan as chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic and publicly severed all connections with the orchestra when it was announced that Claudio Abbado was to take over, he claimed. From 1993 until 2002, he was chief conductor of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich. In 2000, Maazel made a guest-conducting appearance with the New York Philharmonic in two weeks of subscription concerts after an absence of over twenty years, which met with positive reaction from the orchestra musicians.
This engagement led to his appointment in January 2001 as the orchestra's next music director, starting in 2002, succeeding Kurt Masur. Maazel conducted the New York Philharmonic on their landmark visit to Pyongyang, North Korea on February 26, 2008, he led the orchestra in renditions of the North Korean and United States national anthems, Dvořák's New World Symphony, George Gershwin's An American in Paris, closed with the traditional Korean folk song "Arirang". Maazel stepped down from the New York Philharmonic after the 2008/09 season. In 2004, Maazel became the music director of the Arturo Toscanini Philharmonic. From September 2006 till March 2011, he was the musical director of the Orquestra de la Comunitat Valenciana, the house orchestra of the opera house Palau de les Arts, Spain, his last concert there as Music Director took place on his 81s
Ludovic Halévy was a French author and playwright. Ludovic Halévy was born in Paris, his father, Léon Halévy, was a civil servant and a clever and versatile writer, who tried every branch of literature—prose and verse, drama, history—without, achieving decisive success in any. His uncle, Fromental Halévy, was a noted composer of opera, his father had converted from Judaism to Christianity prior to his marriage with Alexandrine Lebas, daughter of a Christian architect. At the age of six, Halévy might have been seen playing in that Foyer de la danse with which he was to make his readers so familiar, when a boy of twelve, he would on a Sunday night, on his way back to the Collège Louis le Grand, look in at the Odéon, where he had free admittance, see the first act of the new play. At eighteen he joined the ranks of the French administration and occupied various posts, the last being that of secrétaire-rédacteur to the Corps Législatif. In that capacity, he enjoyed the special favour and friendship of the famous duke of Morny president of that assembly.
In 1865, Ludovic Halévy's increasing popularity as an author enabled him to retire from the public service. Ten years earlier, he had become acquainted with the musician Offenbach, about to start a small theatre of his own in the Champs-Élysées, he wrote a sort of prologue, messieurs, for the opening night. Other little productions followed, they were produced under the pseudonym of Jules Servières. The name of Ludovic Halévy appeared for the first time on the bills on 1 January 1856. Soon afterwards, the unprecedented run of Orphée aux enfers, a musical parody, written in collaboration with Hector Crémieux, made his name famous. In the spring of 1860, he was commissioned to write a play for the manager of the Variétés in conjunction with another vaudevillist, Lambert-Thiboust; the latter having abruptly retired from the collaboration, Halévy was at a loss how to carry out the contract, when on the steps of the theatre he met Henri Meilhac comparatively a stranger to him. He proposed to Meilhac the task rejected by Lambert Thiboust, the proposal was accepted.
Thus began a connection, to last over twenty years, which proved most fruitful both for the reputation of the two authors and the prosperity of the minor Paris theatres. Their joint works may be divided into three classes: the farces, the comedies; the opérettes afforded excellent opportunities to a gifted musician for the display of his peculiar humour. They were broad and lively libels against the society of the time, but savoured of the vices and follies they were supposed to satirize. Amongst the most celebrated works of the joint authors were La belle Hélène, Barbe-bleue, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, La Périchole, Le Réveillon, which became one of the sources of Johann Strauss's operetta Die Fledermaus. After 1870, the vogue of parody declined; the decadence became still more apparent when Offenbach was no longer at hand to assist the two authors with his quaint musical irony, when they had to deal with interpreters destitute of singing powers. They wrote farces of the old type, consisting of complicated intrigues, with which they cleverly interwove the representation of contemporary whims and social oddities.
They failed when they attempted comedies of a more serious character and tried to introduce a higher sort of emotion. A solitary exception must be made in the case of Froufrou, owing to the admirable talent of Aimée Desclée, remains their unique Succès de larmes. During this period, they wrote the libretto to Carmen but it was a sideshow to their other work. Meilhac and Halévy will be found at their best in light sketches of Parisian life, Les Sonnettes, Madame attend Monsieur, Toto chez Tata and Le Roi Candaule. In that intimate association between the two men who had met so opportunely on the perron des variétés, it was asked, the leading partner; the question was not answered until the connection was severed and they stood before the public, each to answer for his own work. It was apparent that they had many gifts in common. Both had wit, observation of character. Meilhac had a rich and whimsical fancy. Not less clever than his brilliant comrade, he was more human. Of this he gave evidence in two delightful books, Monsieur et Madame Cardinal and Les Petites Cardinal, in which the lowest orders of the Parisian middle class are faithfully described.
The pompous, venomous Monsieur Cardinal will long survive as the true image of sententious and self-glorifying immorality. M. Halévy's peculiar qualities are more visible in the simple and striking scenes of the Invasion, published soon after the conclusion of the Franco-German War, in Criquette and The Abbot Constantine, two novels, the latter of which went through innumerable editions. Émile Zola had presented to the public an exclusive combination of bad men and women. Some enthusiasts robustly maintain that the Abbé will rank permanently in literature by the side of the chimerical Vicar of Wakefield. At any rate, it opened for M. Ludovic Halévy the doors of the Académie française, to which he was elected in 1884. Halévy remained an assiduous frequenter of the Acad
Ruggero Raimondi is an Italian bass-baritone opera singer who has appeared in motion pictures. Ruggero Raimondi was born in Bologna, during World War II, his voice matured early into its adult timbre, at the age of 15, he auditioned for conductor Francesco Molinari-Pradelli, who encouraged him to pursue an operatic career. He began vocal studies with Ettore Campogalliani, was accepted at age 16 as a student at the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory in Milan, he continued his studies in Rome, under the guidance of Teresa Pediconi and Armando Piervenanzi. After having won the National Competition for young opera singers in Spoleto, he made his debut in the same city in the role of Colline in La Bohème in the Festival dei Due Mondi. Subsequently an opportunity arose for him at the Teatro dell'Opera in Rome when he was called upon to substitute in the role of Procida in Giuseppe Verdi's I Vespri Siciliani, he received enormous success from the public and the critics; the young singer was shy and stiff at first, but his early directors helped him, he was soon an accomplished opera actor.
Raimondi's career soon extended to the major opera houses in Italy, such as La Fenice in Venice, the Teatro Regio in Turin, Teatro Comunale in Florence and abroad, beginning with the Glyndebourne Festival. His La Scala debut was as Timur in Turandot in 1968, his Metropolitan Opera debut was as Silva in Ernani in 1970, his Covent Garden debut was as Fiesco in Simon Boccanegra in 1972. In 1975, he made his Paris Opera debut as Procida, followed by the title role in Boris Godunov, his Salzburg Festival debut in 1980 as the King in Aida. In 1986, he first directed a production of Don Giovanni, decided to continue his career as a director as well; some of his most important roles have been King Philip in Verdi's Don Carlos. He made the television film Six characters in search of a singer. In 2008 he appeared in the Mini-Series "Les Sanglot des Anges" on French TV, in which he played the role of an Italian opera singer. In July 2011 he played the role of Pagano in Verdi's I Lombardi alla prima crociata on the rooftop of the Duomo of Milan.
The concert was organized to celebrate the 150th Anniversary of the Italian Unity by the Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano. Mozart: Don Giovanni | Sony | 1978 Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro | Decca | 1985 Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov | Erato | 1989 Puccini: Turandot | Deutsche Grammophon | 1981 Puccini: Tosca | Deutsche Grammophon | 1979 Rossini: Il barbiere di Siviglia | Deutsche Grammophon | 1993 Rossini: Il barbiere di Siviglia | EMI | 1973-74 Rossini: Il barbiere di Siviglia DVD | Decca | 1993 Rossini: Il viaggio a Reims | Deutsche Grammophon | 1984 Rossini: La Cenerentola| Decca | 1987 Rossini: L'italiana in Algeri | Deutsche Grammophon | 1989 Verdi: Aida | Deutsche Grammophon | 1981 Verdi: I Vespri Siciliani | RCA Red Seal | 1973 Verdi: Attila | Philips | 1972 Verdi: Don Carlos | Deutsche Grammophon | 1985 Verdi: Un ballo in maschera | Deutsche Grammophon | 1980 2008: Le Sanglot des Anges, mini series directed by Jacques Otmezguine 2005: Così fan tutte staged by Patrice Chéreau 2001: Il turco in Italia with Cecilia Bartoli at Zurich Opera House 1992: Tosca: In the Settings and at the Times of Tosca, Directed by Brian Large 1992: Le nozze di Figaro Directed by Brian Large 1991: José Carreras and Friends: Opera Recital 1985: Faust staged by Ken Russell at the Vienna State Opera 1983: Ernani Directed by Kirk Browning 1982: Verdi's Requiem 1981: Six personnages en quête d'un chanteur by Maurice Béjart 1980: Boris Godunov staged by Joseph Losey at Opéra National de Paris 2001: Tosca by Benoît Jacquot, with Angela Gheorghiu & Roberto Alagna 1997: Les couleurs du Diable by Alain Jessua 1989: Boris Godunov by Andrzej Żuławski 1984: Carmen by Francesco Rosi, with Plácido Domingo 1983: La vie est un roman by Alain Resnais 1982: La Truite by Joseph Losey 1979: Don Giovanni by Joseph Losey, with José van Dam, Kiri Te Kanawa Monaco: Commander of the Order of Cultural Merit Warrack and Ewan West.
The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869164-5. Raimondi website Profile of Raimondi dead link 01/11/10 Answers.com profile Ruggero Raimondi on IMDb Interview with Ruggero Raimondi, November 16, 1987
Henri Meilhac was a French dramatist and opera librettist. Meilhac was born in the 1st arrondissement of Paris in 1830; as a young man, he began writing fanciful articles for Parisian newspapers and comédies en vaudevilles, in a vivacious boulevardier spirit which brought him to the forefront. About 1860, he met Ludovic Halévy, their collaboration for the stage lasted twenty years, their most famous collaboration is the libretto for Georges Bizet's Carmen. However, Meilhac's work is most tied to the music of Jacques Offenbach, for whom he wrote over a dozen librettos, most of them together with Halévy; the most successful collaborations with Offenbach are La belle Hélène, Barbe-bleue, La Vie parisienne, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, La Périchole. Other librettos by Meilhac include Jules Massenet's Manon, Hervé's Mam'zelle Nitouche, Rip, the French version of Robert Planquette's operetta Rip Van Winkle, their vaudeville play. In 1888 he was elected to the Académie française, he died in Paris in 1897.
Films based on Carmen Films based on Die Fledermaus Films based on The Merry Widow Films based on Mam'zelle Nitouche Frou-Frou, directed by Eugene Moore A Hungry Heart, directed by Émile Chautard Frou-Frou, directed by Alfredo De Antoni Fanny Lear, directed by Robert Boudrioz and Jean Manoussi Frou-Frou, directed by Otto Rippert Frou-Frou, directed by Guy du Fresnay So This Is Paris, directed by Ernst Lubitsch La Vie parisienne, directed by Robert Siodmak Parisian Life, directed by Robert Siodmak The Toy Wife, directed by Richard Thorpe Tricoche and Cacolet, directed by Pierre Colombier Sköna Helena, directed by Gustaf Edgren La Vie parisienne, directed by Christian-Jaque Works by or about Henri Meilhac at Internet Archive
Julia Migenes is an American soprano working in musical theatre repertoire. She was born on the Lower East Side of New York to a family of Irish-Puerto Rican descent, she is sometimes credited as Julia Migenes-Johnson. She graduated from The High School of Music & Art in New York City in 1960. Julia Migenes played Tevye's second daughter, Hodel, in the original Broadway production of the long-running musical Fiddler on the Roof, she played Ciboletta in the 1973 film Eine Nacht in Venedig. She starred in the 1984 film of Carmen; the Twilight Zone "Grace Note" "Webster" "Leave It to Diva" Carmen Mack the Knife Lulu. DVD 1980, Metropolitan Opera Co. List of famous Puerto Ricans Irish immigration to Puerto Rico Official website Julia Migenes on IMDb