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Carmen Jones (film)

Carmen Jones is a 1954 American musical film starring Dorothy Dandridge and Harry Belafonte and directed by Otto Preminger. The screenplay by Harry Kleiner is based on the lyrics and book by Oscar Hammerstein II, from the 1943 stage musical of the same name, set to the music of Georges Bizet's 1875 opera Carmen; the opera was an adaptation of the 1845 Prosper Mérimée novella Carmen by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy. Carmen Jones was a CinemaScope motion picture that had begun shooting within the first 12 months of Twentieth Century Fox's venture in 1953 to CinemaScope Technicolor as its main production mode. Carmen Jones was released in October 1954 one year and one month after Fox's first CinemaScope venture, the Biblical epic The Robe, had opened in theatres. In 1992, Carmen Jones was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Set during World War II, the story focuses on Carmen Jones, a vixen who works in a parachute factory in North Carolina.

When she is arrested for fighting with a co-worker who reported her for arriving late for work, the leader of the Army guards, Sgt. Brown assigns handsome Corporal Joe to deliver her to the civilian authorities over 50 miles away; this is much to the dismay of Joe's fiancée Cindy Lou, who had agreed to marry him during his leave prior to his reporting for flight school and an eventual officer's commission. While en route, Joe wishes to deliver his prisoner as soon as possible to return to Cindy Lou and his leave, he decides to save time by taking his jeep over a road warned unsuitable for motor vehicles, half the distance to the town where he is taking Carmen. Carmen suggests she and Joe stop for a meal and a little romance, his refusal intensifies her determination to seduce him, their army jeep ends up hopelessly stuck in a river. Carmen suggests they spend the night at her grandmother's house nearby and continue their journey by train the following day, that night Joe succumbs to Carmen's advances.

The next morning he awakens to find a note in which she says although she loves him, she is unable to deal with time in jail and is running away. Joe is locked in the stockade for allowing his prisoner to escape. Cindy Lou arrives for a visit just as a rose from Carmen is delivered to him, prompting her to leave abruptly. Having found work in a Louisiana nightclub, Carmen awaits his release. One night champion prizefighter Husky Miller enters with an entourage and introduces himself to Carmen, who expresses no interest in him. Husky orders his manager Rum Daniels to offer her jewelry, an expensive hotel suite if she and her friends Frankie and Myrt accompany him to Chicago, but she declines the offer. Just Joe arrives and announces he must report to flying school immediately. Angered, Carmen decides to leave with Sgt. Brown, who has appeared on the scene, Joe beats him. Realizing he will be sentenced to a long prison term for hitting his superior, Joe flees to Chicago with Carmen. Tired of being cooped up in a shabby rented room, Carmen gets dressed and leaves under the guise of buying groceries.

Since he can't leave the room at all lest he be arrested, Joe questions her. Carmen tells him that she does what she wants. Carmen goes to Husky Miller's gym to ask Frankie for a loan, but she says although she has clothes and diamonds, she has no actual cash. Frankie tries to convince Carmen to sit in Husky's corner so they all can be well taken care of, but Carmen is in love and refuses to double time Joe. Husky believes she is back to be with him, but she refuses his advances before leaving so he tells his entire entourage that they are cut off financially until they produce Carmen. Carmen pawns a piece of jewelry so she can buy groceries before returning to the room; when she returns not only with a bag of groceries but a new dress and shoes, Joe questions how she paid for them. Offended that he is accusing her of cheating, the two argue and she leaves to Husky's hotel suite dressed in her new clothes to spend time with her friends. Frankie begins to fortune tell with cards and Carmen takes it all until she draws the nine of spades.

She interprets it as a premonition of her impending death and chooses to enjoy the rest of her life no matter how long it is. Cindy Lou arrives at Husky's gym in search of Carmen since she is the only one who knows where Joe is. Frankie tells her to give up on Joe. An angry Joe arrives having evaded intent on getting Carmen back. Although Cindy Lou is present, he ignores her while ordering Carmen to leave with him. Husky intervenes and he is threatened by a concealed knife Joe has brought with him. Husky's people try to get him to stand down due to his fighting prowess, but can't since Joe won't stop. Joe is hit with a few blows. Joe asks why if she no longer loves him, but she reveals it's because she can't bear to see anyone cooped up, she tells Cindy Lou to go home and find someone worthy of her. After leaving, Cindy Lou expresses to herself how silly it is trying to save a man who not only doesn't love her but has left her for another woman. Joe attends Husky's big fight. Dressed to the nines, her friends and Husky's entourage escort Husky to the ring.

He comes back to beat his opponent in the second. Husky runs to Carmen's loving arms after winning, but they are parted after he is put up on his entourage's shoulders. Joe grabs Carmen as she is following Husky to his dressing room and pulls her into a storage room, where he begs her to return to him. Angry that she has moved on, he

Siege of Constantinople (717–718)

The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. The campaign marked the culmination of twenty years of attacks and progressive Arab occupation of the Byzantine borderlands, while Byzantine strength was sapped by prolonged internal turmoil. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor; the Arabs hoped to exploit Byzantine civil strife and made common cause with the general Leo III the Isaurian, who had risen up against Emperor Theodosius III. Leo, tricked them and secured the Byzantine throne for himself. After wintering in the western coastlands of Asia Minor, the Arab army crossed into Thrace in early summer 717 and built siege lines to blockade the city, protected by the massive Theodosian Walls; the Arab fleet, which accompanied the land army and was meant to complete the city's blockade by sea, was neutralized soon after its arrival by the Byzantine navy through the use of Greek fire.

This allowed Constantinople to be resupplied by sea, while the Arab army was crippled by famine and disease during the unusually hard winter that followed. In spring 718, two Arab fleets sent as reinforcements were destroyed by the Byzantines after their Christian crews defected, an additional army sent overland through Asia Minor was ambushed and defeated. Coupled with attacks by the Bulgars on their rear, the Arabs were forced to lift the siege on 15 August 718. On its return journey, the Arab fleet was completely destroyed by natural disasters and Byzantine attacks; the siege's failure had wide-ranging repercussions. The rescue of Constantinople ensured the continued survival of Byzantium, while the Caliphate's strategic outlook was altered: although regular attacks on Byzantine territories continued, the goal of outright conquest was abandoned. Historians consider the siege to be one of history's most important battles, as its failure postponed the Muslim advance into Southeastern Europe for centuries.

Following the first Arab siege of Constantinople, the Arabs and Byzantines experienced a period of peace. After 680, the Umayyad Caliphate was in the throes of the Second Muslim Civil War and the consequent Byzantine ascendancy in the East enabled the emperors to extract huge amounts of tribute from the Umayyad government in Damascus. In 692, as the Umayyads emerged as victors from the Muslim Civil War, Emperor Justinian II re-opened hostilities; the result was a series of Arab victories that led to the loss of Byzantine control over Armenia and the Caucasian principalities, a gradual encroachment upon Byzantine borderlands. Year by year, the Caliphate's generals members of the Umayyad family, launched raids into Byzantine territory and captured fortresses and towns. After 712, the Byzantine defensive system began to show signs of collapse: Arab raids penetrated further and further into Asia Minor, border fortresses were attacked and sacked, references to Byzantine reaction in the sources become more and more scarce.

In this, the Arabs were aided by the prolonged period of internal instability that followed the first deposition of Justinian II in 695, in which the Byzantine throne changed hands seven times in violent coups. In the words of the Byzantinist Warren Treadgold, "the Arab attacks would in any case have intensified after the end of their own civil war... With far more men and wealth than Byzantium, the Arabs had begun to concentrate all their strength against it. Now they threatened to extinguish the empire by capturing its capital." The information available on the siege comes from sources composed in dates, which are mutually contradictory. The main Byzantine source is the extensive and detailed account of the Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor and secondarily the brief account in the Breviarium of Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, which shows small differences chronological, from Theophanes's version. For the events of the siege, both authors appear to have used a primary account composed during the reign of Leo III the Isaurian which therefore contains a favourable depiction of the latter, while Theophanes relies on an unknown biography of Leo for the events of 716.

The 8th-century chronicler Theophilus of Edessa records the years leading up to the siege and the siege itself in some detail, paying particular attention to the diplomacy between Maslama and Leo III. The Arab sources the 11th-century Kitab al-'Uyun and the more concise narrative in the History of the Prophets and Kings by al-Tabari, rely on primary accounts by early 9th-century Arab writers, but are more confused and contain several legendary elements; the Syriac language accounts are based on Agapius of Hierapolis, who drew from the same primary source as Theophanes, but are far briefer. The Arab successes opened the way for a second assault on Constantinople, an undertaking initiated under Caliph al-Walid I. Following his death, his brother and successor Sulayman took up the project with increased vigour, according to Arab accounts because of a prophecy that a Caliph bearing the name of a prophet would capture Constantinople. According to Syriac sources, the new Caliph swore "to not stop fighting against Constantinople before having exhausted the country of the Arabs or to have taken the city".

The Umayyad forces began assembling at the plain of Dabiq north of Aleppo, under the direct supervision of the Caliph. As Sulayman was too sick to campaign h


In Roman religion, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. She is sometimes identified with the goddess Feronia. According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and their flocks from angina, she was a protecting goddess of Rome and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies. It was thought that Angerona itself was this name. Sorania and Hirpa have been put forward as candidates for the secret name. Modern scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia, Dea Dia, her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, was celebrated on 21 December. The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, bound and closed, she was worshiped as Ancharia at Faesulae, where an altar belonging to her was discovered in the late 19th century.

In art, she was depicted with a finger pressed to her lips, demanding silence. Georges Dumézil considers Angerona as the goddess who helps nature and men to sustain the yearly crisis of the winter days; these culminate in the winter solstice, the shortest day, which in Latin is known as bruma, from brevissima, the shortest day. The embarrassment and anguish caused by the lack of light and the cold are expressed by the word angor. In Latin the cognate word angustiae designates a space of time considered as disgracefully and painfully too short. Angerona and the connected cult guaranteed the overcoming of the unpleasant angusti dies narrow, short days. Dumézil considered the Roman goddesses whose name ends with the suffix -ona or -onia to discharge the function of helping worshipers to overcome a particular time or condition of crisis: instances include Bellona who allows the Roman to wade across war in the best way possible, Orbona who cares for parents who lost a child, Pellonia who pushes the enemies away, Fessonia who permits travellers to subdue fatigue.

Angerona's feriae named Angeronalia or Divalia took place on December 21, the same day as the winter solstice. On that day the pontiffs offered a sacrifice to the goddess in curia Acculeia according to Varro or in sacello Volupiae, near the Porta Romanula, one of the inner gates on the northern side of the Palatine. In her shrine on the altar of Volupia was placed the famous statue of Angerona with her mouth bandaged and sealed and with a finger on the lips in the gesture that requests silence. Dumézil sees in this peculiar feature the reason of her being listed among the goddesses who were considered candidates to the title of secret tutelary deity of Rome. Dumézil considers this peculiar feature of Angerona's statue to hint to a prerogative of the goddess, well known to the Romans, i.e. her will of requesting silence. He remarks silence in a time of cosmic crisis is a well documented point in other religions, giving two instances from Scandinavian and Vedic religion. Among the Scandinavians god Viðarr is considered the second strongest after Thor.

His only known act is placed at the time of the "Dusk of the gods", the great crisis in which the old world disappears, as the wolf Fenrir swallows Oðinn and the sun. Viðarr defeats Fenrir permitting the rebirth of the world with a female sun, the daughter of the disappeared one; the eschatological crisis in which Fenrir devours the sun is seen as the "Great Winter" Fimbulvetr and the god who kills Fenrir, Viðarr, is defined the "silent Ase": silence must be associated with his exceptional force and his feat as savior of the world. Angerona too discharges the function of saving the sun in danger thanks to her silence and the concentration of mystical force it brings. In Vedic religion silence is used in another crisis of the sun, that of the eclipse: when the sun was hidden in the demonic dark, Atri took it away from there by means of the fourth bráhman and a cult to the gods through "nude worship", i.e. with a force from within and no uttered words. The association between Angerona and Volupia would thence be explained as the pleasure that derives from a fulfilled desire, the achievement of an objective, as the meaning of the archaic adjective volup does not refer to pleasure in the sense of the word voluptas.

Thence the definition of θεός τῆς βουλῆς καί καιρῶν "goddess of advice and of favorable occasions" given in a Latin-Greek glossary. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Angerona". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 8. Dumézil, G. La religione romana arcaica. Con un'appendice sulla religione degli Etruschi. Milano, Rizzoli. Edizione e traduzione a cura di Furio Jesi based on an expanded version of La religion romain archaïque Paris Payot 1974 2nd edition. Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Diva Angerona," reprinted in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion, pp. 21–24 online

Centre for the Talented Youth of Ireland

The Centre for the Talented Youth of Ireland is a youth programme for students between the ages of six and seventeen of high academic ability in Ireland, run by Dr. Colm O'Reilly. There are sibling projects around the world, most notably the CTY programme at Johns Hopkins University, the original model for CTYI. CTY students are eligible to participate in CTYI's summer sessions for older students. CTYI was founded in 1992, with its first summer programme running in 1993, is based at Dublin City University in Glasnevin, Dublin 9; the centre offers various courses for gifted students as well as conducting research and promoting the needs of the talented in Ireland. It caters for 5,000 students a year Eligibility for CTYI's programmes is based on scores in the School and College Ability Test. Students who score within the top 5th percentile are eligible for the CTY programmes, those who score within the top 10th percentile are eligible for the CAT programmes. Students who score within the top 15th percentile are eligible for the Summer Scholars program.

CTYI allows for bright and motivated students to partake in courses such as the correspondence course, scholarships can be attained for EUE or the secondary school summer programme. Students can attend on a psychologist's recommendation. Saturday courses are offered for Primary School students at various colleges and institutes of technology around Ireland throughout the year. There are courses for both the 8 -- 13 group. DCU run classes on Wednesday afternoons. A summer programme for 12-17 year-olds as part of CAT or CTY runs only at DCU; these courses give students the opportunity to study college-style and college levelled courses intensively for three weeks in the summer in one of two sessions, each of which lasts three weeks. Because of the Irish financial situation up until fewer people were been able to afford the steep cost of the programme since the Government cut CTYI's funding in 2009. Since, students can now attend both sessions of the course, the age bracket has been increased to include up to age seventeen.

Some of the students at the summer programme come from overseas from continental countries such as Spain and Italy. Owing to the intensive nature of the programme, most of the 190–250 students who attend each session are residential, living in student accommodation for the duration of the course. However, students can commute, attending the course as the residential students do but going home at the end of the day and returning in the morning. In 2018, the following courses were offered. Weekdays in the summer programme are structured. Classes run from 9 am with an hour's break for lunch. Activities take place from 3.15pm to 5pm, supervised by the residential assistants. Between 5pm and 6:30pm students have dinner and are required to attend a meeting with their RA group. 6:30pm to 8:30pm is taken up by the study period, supervised by the teaching assistant. Social time takes place between 10 pm, with lights-out at 10.30 pm. On weekends, social activities such as discos, shopping trips, visits to the cinema, excursions to various interesting sights in Ireland, talent shows, mock casino nights and so on are organised.

EUE is a programme for Transition Year students in secondary school. Like the summer programme, it runs on DCU's campus, with students covering two modules over a school semester, one day a week each week. In 2018 subjects included Law & Politics, Business and Psychology. EUE is open to CTY qualifying students; the centre runs correspondence courses throughout the year for 12- to 16-year-olds and for Transition Year students who do not have to fulfil any aptitude test requirements. Courses include or have included Writing By Mail, Psychology, Legal Studies, Science of Tomorrow. There are correspondence courses for younger students in computing-related subjects and Writing By Mail. Dr. Colm O'Reilly – Director De. Catriona Ledwith – Assistant Director Dr. Leeanne Hinch – Academic Coordinator Ms. Orla Dunne - Residential Coordinator Ms. Jennifer Kelly - Young Student Administrator Ms. Lynne Mooney - Young Student Manager Ms. Linda Murphy - Post Primary Manager Ms. Catherine Gallagher - Student Applications Administrator Ms. Anne Fitzgerald - Administrator Ms. Michelle Keevans - Assistant Academic Coordinator Ms. Emily Daly - Assistant Academic Coordinator Mr. Jack O'Reilly - Assistant Residential Coordinator for CAT As the on-site programmes available for students are part-time and/or short-term, most of the staff associated with these programmes are contracted for a set period of time.

Residential staff are hired for either 3 or 6 weeks while academic staff are hired for 3 weeks, 6 weeks, or on a part-time basis during the year. Assistant Residential Coordinators These staff are responsible for the care of the students at CTYI during the 12–17 summer courses, they live in the residences with the students and are the highest-ranking staff members when Catriona an

Westwater Canyon

Westwater Canyon is a canyon located on the Colorado River in Eastern Utah between the Utah/Colorado state line and Cisco, Utah. The inner gorge of the canyon is made up of black Precambrian rock and contains class III and IV rapids which are sought after by whitewater enthusiasts; the most notable rapid, called "Skull", is the most significant. The Bureau of Land Management oversees a permitting system for whitewater travelers for this section of the Colorado River, boaters must follow special rules and regulations. Many boaters pack camping equipment in on rafts and make the 17-mile trip from Westwater ranger station to Cisco landing over 1–2 days. Westwater Canyon runs through a wilderness study area and has been proposed for designation as a wild and scenic river along with Ruby Canyon just upstream; the Westwater Ranger Station put-in to the Rose Ranch takeout is a 17-mile journey. Most whitewater is compacted in the Marble gorge where rescue of swimmers and recovery of capsized vessels is limited by vertical canyon walls.

The geology of Westwater Canyon is similar to nearby National Parks and Monuments such as Canyonlands National Park, Colorado National Monument, Arches National Park. The uppermost rocks in the canyon date from the Triassic-Jurassic periods and are composed of the reddish, cliff-forming Wingate Sandstone atop the green to purple, slope-forming Chinle Formation. Within the inner gorge of Westwater, a large unconformity separates the Chinle Formation from the Precambrian basement rocks composed of metamorphic Vishnu Schist and Zoroaster Granite. Westwater Canyon and Ruby Canyon are the only places on the Colorado River outside of the Grand Canyon where Precambrian rocks are exposed. BLM Utah: Westwater Canyon Information

Camp Granite

The Camp Granite was a sub camp of the US Army Desert Training Center in Riverside County, California. The main headquarters for the Desert Training Center was Camp Young were General Patton's 3rd Armored Division was stationed. Camp Granite was designated a California Historic Landmark; the site of the Camp Granite is 45 miles East of Indio, California off Interstate 10 and California State Route 62 near the Granite Mountains. Built in the spring of 1943, Camp Granite was built to prepare troops to do battle in North Africa to fight the Nazis during World War 2; the original camp had to be move higher ground due to flooding. At Camp Granite were stationed the 90th Infantry 104th Infantry Divisions. Among the smaller units known to have been stationed at Camp Granite were the 76th Field Artillery Regiment and the 413th Infantry Regiment. XV Corps used Camp Granite as there headquarters from July- 1943 to November 1943; when completed the camp had 40 shower buildings, 157 latrines, 191 wooden tent frames, a 50,000-gallon water tank.

The camp had small firearms range. Targets were towed behind planes for the.30-caliber antiaircraft and.50-caliber antiaircraft guns. There were ranges for M101 howitzer and 57 mm guns; the trained troops went on to fight in the North African campaign. The army used; the camp used the near by US Army Camp Iron Mountain Airfield for air support. Palen Pass in the Palen Mountains was the site of major maneuvers; the pass was both used as a place for troop to built defenses and as target for artillery training. Lockheed P-38 Lightnings bombed and attacked ground targets in the pass on August 20, 1943. Marker on the Riverside, California site reads: NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA - CAMP GRANITE - Camp Granite was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II; the Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California and Nevada.

The other camps were Young, Iron Mountain, Clipper, Pilot Knob, Horn, Hyder and Rice. A total of 13 infantry divisions and 7 armored divisions plus numerous smaller units were trained in this harsh environment; the Training Center was in operation for 2 years and was closed early in 1944 when the last units were shipped overseas. During the brief period of operation over one million American soldiers were trained for combat. California Historical Landmarks in Riverside County, California Camp Coxcomb Camp Clipper Camp Iron Mountain Camp Clipper and Camp Essex Camp Ibis California during World War II Training Center Boogie - Sony by John Malcolm Penn, song about: Desert training camps