Robin Antin is an American dancer, choreographer and clothing designer entrepreneur. In 1995 she founded the modern burlesque troupe the Pussycat Dolls. By 2005, she diversified into various media including a pop recording group with international hits, a Las Vegas nightclub venue and floorshow, various merchandise, a reality television series. Since she has gone on to create other girl groups, including Girlicious, the Paradiso Girls, G. R. L; as a choreographer, Antin worked with entertainers such as Paris Hilton, artists such as Anastacia, the Offspring and No Doubt. Additionally, she was responsible for the dance ensembles in various films, she is the sister of celebrity hair stylist Jonathan Antin, director Steve Antin and actor Neil Antin. She appeared in an episode of her brother Jonathan's show Blow Out. On January 2, 2010, Tony Selznick, Paula Abdul presented choreography agent Julie McDonald with an award for being a pioneer of dance representation and a friend and agent to many choreographers for over 25 years.
The award was presented at The Carnival: Choreographer's Ball 11th Anniversary Show. She was a judge on the Lifetime reality television show Abby's Ultimate Dance Competition in Season 1. Based in Las Vegas, it features a rotating cast of dancers around vocalist Jamie Preston. Current members include Amanda Nowak, Colby Lemmo and Alicia Blair. Former "Dolls" include lead vocalist and pop star Nicole Scherzinger, Rachel Sterling, an original member of the burlesque troupe, Kelly Levesque, Laura Goulet, Michelle "Jersey" Maniscalco, Desiree Davis, Alicia Vela-Bailey, Jen, Victoria, Marcea, Claude Racine, Natasha Vernase, Adriane Harper, Jessica Lea, Beverly Sizemore, Laura Diane, Ashley Gates, Bridget Nicole, Jennifer Affronti, Sheila Joy, Cindy Leos, Laurel Anderson, Angela Case, Meredith "Sevin" Kerr, Gina Katon and Jamie Lee Ruiz from Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious; the Pussycat Dolls Burlesque Revue was founded in 2008 with Jamie Lee Ruiz, alongside Michelle "Jersey" Maniscalco, Jessi Peralta, Stephanie Moseley, Courtney Parker, Fransesca Ramirez, Molly D'Amour, Jenny Robinson.
Dani Levine, Katarzyna "Kasia Moss" Moś, Vanessa Curry, guest dancer Chantal Hunt and Allarie Long. Alongside lead singer, Jaime Preston and dancers Tarin Pratt and Erica Kiehl Jenkins, guest vocalist, former Paradiso Girls member, Lauren Bennett were introduced; the Pussycat Dolls Burlesque Saloon at Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas features Sophia Monica as lead vocalist. Current members include Sheila Joy, Megan Bostwick, Daymara Sabat, Colby Lemmo, Lauren Venandos, Emily Istre, Noelle Naone Brechler, Jenny Driebe, Kaelee Jones. In 2012, Antin launched The Pussycat Doll Dollhouse in the historic Keating Hotel in San Diego. In 2015, Robin launched the Australian Pussycat Doll Burlesque Revue in Melbourne, Australia at Crown Casino in The Therapy Nightclub. After becoming Goss's agent, Antin cast the Dirty Virgins, a Vegas-based girl former dance group consisting of Tala Marie, Emily Istre, Amber William, Monteece Mask and new dancer include Veronica Collazo Marrero, Kaelee Jones, Teresa Antonette, Ashley Belle, Angela Acosta, Anna Sambeck to accompany Goss for his show.
Along with them, she cast Angela Jude. From a style point of view they are much like the original concept of the Pussycat Dolls. Girlicious was an American girl group consisting of Nichole Cordova, Natalie Mejia, Chrystina Sayers and Tiffanie Anderson. In 2009, Anderson left the group and in 2011, Mejia and Sayers confirmed their departure. In October 2011, Cordova announced the band's hiatus. Cordova confirmed her departure in April 2013 when she became a member of and was featured on The X Factor USA Season 3 with the new group Girls United, which she was kicked out of in 2014; the second album of Girlicious, named Rebuilt, was released on November 2010 in Canada. The group was formed on the reality television show Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious. Although Antin intended to include only three members in the group, as stated in the first episode, she announced in the season finale that all four girls would be a part of Girlicious; the Paradiso Girls were a girl group consisting of five members from different countries.
They were signed to will.i.am Music Group/Interscope Records. Their debut single "Patron Tequila" featuring Lil' Jon and Eve was released on May 12, 2009, a music video was shortly released afterwards, their debut album Crazy Horse was expected to be released in July 2010. Bennett went on to join Antin's next girl group formation in G. R. L. G. R. L. is a girl group consisting of Lauren Bennett, Natasha Slayton, Jazzy Mejia, Girlicious' Natalie Mejia's younger sister. It consisted of five members; the group was planned to be the new line up of the Pussycat Dolls following their disbandment in 2010. Robin rebranded them as a new group to serve as the "next generation" of the Dolls, their managers were Adam Leber. On June 16, 2013 they released their first single, "Vacation", as a B-side track on Britney Spears' single "Ooh La La", a song from the film The Smurfs 2. D
Encino, Los Angeles
Encino is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. In 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition, first Europeans to see inland areas of California, traveled north through Sepulveda pass into the San Fernando Valley on August 5 and stayed two nights at a native village near what is now Los Encinos State Historic Park. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, named the valley "El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de Los Encinos". All of Crespi's name was dropped except "Encino". Rancho Los Encinos was established in 1845 when a large parcel of former Mission San Fernando land was granted to three Mission Indians by governor Pio Pico. Many ranchos were created after the secularization of the California missions, which began in 1834. Encino derives its name from the rancho; the 2000 U. S. census counted 41,905 residents in the 9.5-square-mile Encino neighborhood — 4,411 inhabitants per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city but average for the county.
In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 44,581. In 2000 the median age for residents was 42, considered old for county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a high percentage of white residents. The breakdown was whites, 80.1%. Iran and Russia were the most common places of birth for the 32.8% of the residents who were born abroad—an average percentage for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $78,529, considered high for the city; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 2.3 people was low when compared to the rest of the city and the county. Renters occupied 38.4% of the housing stock and house- or apartment-owners held 61.6%. The percentages of divorced residents and of widowed men and women were among the county's highest. In 2000 military veterans amounted to 10.6 % of a high rate for the county.
Encino is situated in the central portion of the southern San Fernando Valley and on the north slope of the Santa Monica Mountains. It is flanked on the north by Reseda and the Sepulveda Basin, on the east by Sherman Oaks, on the southeast by Bel-Air, on the south by Brentwood and on the west by Tarzana; the local economy provides jobs in health care, social services, professional services sectors. There are 3,800 businesses employing about 27,000 people at an annual payroll of $1.4 billion. Encino is in Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors district 3 and Los Angeles City Council District 5, it is represented within the city of Los Angeles by the Encino Neighborhood Council, an advisory body under the auspices of the city Department of Neighborhood Empowerment. The United States Postal Service operates the Encino Post Office at 5805 White Oak Avenue and the Balboa Van Nuys Post Office at 4930 Balboa Boulevard. Forty-six percent of Encino residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a high percentage for both the city and the county.
The percentage of those residents with a master's degree or higher was high for the county. Schools within the Encino boundaries are: Encino is served by the Los Angeles Unified School District. Hesby Oaks Leadership Charter School, LAUSD, 15530 Hesby Street Encino Charter Elementary School, LAUSD, 16941 Addison Street Emelita Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 17931 Hatteras Street Fred E. Lull Special Education Center, LAUSD, 17551 Miranda Street Lanai Road Elementary School, LAUSD, 4241 Lanai RoadAs of 2009, there are no public high schools in Encino. Public high schools serving portions of Encino are Birmingham High School in Lake Balboa, Reseda High School in Reseda. In 1982 the board considered closing Rhoda Street Elementary School in Encino. In April 1983 an advisory committee of the LAUSD recommended closing eight LAUSD schools, including Rhoda Street School. In August 1983 the board publicly considered closing Rhoda. In 1984 the board voted to close the Rhoda Street School. Sage Academy, elementary, 5901 Lindley Avenue Westmark School, 5461 Louise Avenue Holy Martyrs Armenian High School/Ferrahian, 5300 White Oak Avenue Crespi Carmelite High School, 5031 Alonzo Avenue Our Lady of Grace School, elementary, 17720 Ventura Boulevard Los Encinos School, elementary, 17114 Ventura Boulevard Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, elementary, 4650 Haskell Avenue Valley Beth Shalom Day School, 15739 Ventura Boulevard International School of Los Angeles, 5933 Lindley Avenue California State Parks operates the 5-acre Los Encinos State Historic Park in Encino.
The park includes the original nine room de la Ossa Adobe, the Garnier Building, a blacksmith shop, a pond, a natural spring. The Sepulveda Dam Recreation Area, located in Encino, includes the Woodley Worel/Magnus Cricket Complex with the four best grass cricket pitches in the United States. Host to many famous stars and games reflecting cricket's origins in Los Angeles from 1888. Included in the basin is the Encino Golf Course and the Balboa Golf Course, having a total of 36 golf holes; the Balboa Municipal Golf Course, a short-length golf course, was lengthened by Steve Timm in 2008. The Balboa course has a banquet room, back nine play, cart rental, club rental, classes, a lighted driving range, a loun
The Pussycat Dolls
The Pussycat Dolls were an American girl group and dance ensemble, founded in Los Angeles, California, by choreographer Robin Antin in 1995 as a burlesque troupe. After attracting media attention, Antin negotiated a record deal with Interscope Geffen A&M Records in 2003 turning the group into a music franchise comprising Nicole Scherzinger, Carmit Bachar, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta, Melody Thornton, Kimberly Wyatt. Overseen by Antin and various partners, the group was transformed into a global image and commercial brand; the Pussycat Dolls achieved worldwide success with hit singles "Don't Cha", "Buttons", "Stickwitu", their first album PCD. However, despite their commercial success, the group was plagued by internal conflict due to the emphasis on Scherzinger, the group's lead vocalist, the subordinate treatment of the other members. Bachar's departure from the group preceded the release of their second and final studio album Doll Domination, which contains singles "When I Grow Up", "I Hate This Part", "Jai Ho!".
In 2009, they announced a minor hiatus, revealed to be an official break-up. The Dolls brand diversified into merchandise, reality television programs, a Las Vegas act, product endorsements, spin-off recording groups and other ventures. Billboard ranked the Pussycat Dolls as the 80th most successful musical act of the 2000s; the group has sold 54 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling girl groups of all time. In 2012, The Pussycat Dolls ranked 100th on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Music, as the tenth all-girl group. Antin began exploring the idea of a modern burlesque troupe during 1990 with Carla Kama and Christina Applegate as performers; the troupe began to perform in 1995, with a repertoire of 1950s and 1960s popular music standards while dressed in lingerie or old-fashioned pin-up costumes. They secured a Thursday night residency at a Los Angeles nightclub, the Viper Room, where they stayed from 1995 to 2001, they appeared in the 1998 films Matters of Consequence, The Treat.
From 1995 to 2003 there were numerous guest vocalists, many changes to the dance personnel. The troupe received wider press coverage during June 1999, when Playboy featured a Pussycat Dolls pictorial, featuring at least seven contemporary members posing semi-nude. Three years The Pussycat Dolls moved to the Roxy, they were featured in magazines, television specials for MTV and VH1, ad campaigns, films. Some of The Pussycat Dolls appeared in the 2003 film Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, dancing to Mancini's "The Pink Panther Theme", they were featured in Pink's "Trouble" music video. Along with Applegate, Christina Aguilera and Carmen Electra the troupe was featured in a Maxim magazine shoot in 2002, which increased public interest in them. Following their growing popularity, Interscope Geffen A&M Records music producers Jimmy Iovine and Ron Fair became involved with the group helping them to transform into a franchise after Gwen Stefani was asked to perform with the dolls; the former dance troupe evolved into a popular music recording group and became employees of Iovine's label Interscope Records.
The only troupe members who remained after the re-casting process were Robin Antin, Carmit Bachar, Cyia Batten, Kasey Campbell, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta and Kimberly Wyatt. Electra, when asked about her lack of involvement with the group's evolution into a popular music group, said, "I was part of for over two years and did every show with them but financially, I couldn't become part of their new music project It was a sacrifice I couldn't make." During 2003, Antin struck a joint venture with Interscope Records to develop The Pussycat Dolls into a brand, with Jimmy Iovine assigning the project to Ron Fair. Auditions followed suit, for a separate group. Singers Nicole Scherzinger, Melody Thornton and Kaya Jones were recruited, joining Carmit Bachar, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta and Kimberly Wyatt to form a new recording group. In February 2004 they performed. In 2004, they recorded "We Went as Far as We Felt Like Going" for the Shark Tale soundtrack and recorded the single, "Sway", featured on the soundtrack of Shall We Dance?
Jones left the group in September 2004, while Batten and Campbell left in January 2005. The group's debut album, PCD, was released in September 2005 and sold 3 million copies in the United States; the album's lead single, "Don't Cha", was a commercial success, topping the charts worldwide, reaching number two on the Billboard Hot 100. The group's second single, "Stickwitu", peaked at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and earned a Grammy nomination for Best Pop Performance By a Duo or Group, but lost, it was the group's second consecutive number one in the United Kingdom. The group became one of the top-selling artists in 2006, while the album appeared at number twelve on the Billboard 200-year-end chart that year. "Beep" reached number two in the United Kingdom and number thirteen on Billboard Hot 100. To date, PCD has sold over 9 million copies worldwide; the group was selected to perform for the introduction for ABC's coverage of the NBA. The Pussycat Dolls first opened for the Black Eyed Peas Honda Civic Tour in North America.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
27 Dresses is a 2008 romantic comedy film directed by Anne Fletcher and written by Aline Brosh McKenna. The film stars James Marsden; the film was released January 10, 2008 in Australia and opened in the United States on January 18. Jane Nichols has been a bridesmaid for 27 weddings. One night when she is attending two weddings simultaneously, she meets Kevin Doyle, who helps her get home but discusses with her his cynical views of marriage, he finds her day planner in the cab. Meanwhile, Jane's sister Tess arrives from Europe and falls in love with Jane's boss George at first sight. Tess pretends to like the same things. Despite being in love with George herself, Jane does not reveal the truth and her sister's courtship progresses rapidly. Soon the new couple announce that they intend to marry in three weeks and Jane becomes the wedding planner; the reporter who agrees to post their wedding turns out to be Kevin, who writes wedding announcements under the name Malcolm Doyle. After looking at the contents of Jane's planner, he decides to use the contents as material for a piece on the "perpetual bridesmaid" and be promoted to writing investigative pieces about the real news.
Jane is unaware of Kevin's intentions. When he asks to interview her for his column on Tess, he gets her to try on all 27 bridesmaids dresses in her closet, he sends them with the completed article to his boss. As they get to know each other, Kevin begins to think that Jane is not as one-dimensional as he thought and asks his editor to hold his article so he can "fix" it; when Kevin finds out that Jane is getting her sister's marriage fixed with the man she loves, he rebukes her. Jane ends up getting drunk; that have sex in the car. The next morning, the two go to a diner and a waitress recognizes Jane. Kevin's editor ran the article on the front page of the'Commitments' section, despite Kevin and her settling to hold it for a while; when Jane finds out about it, she is furious at him. Tess gets angry at Jane for giving Kevin material about her, whom he describes as a bridezilla; the fight escalates when Jane sees that Tess altered their late mother's wedding dress to her own style — the last straw on Tess' string of lies to George and demands on Jane.
Despite the fight, Tess asks Jane to make a slideshow for her engagement party. Jane decides, she shows pictures of Tess with other men, eating ribs, holding a cat by the tail, recoiling from George's dog — in short, doing all the things she had told George that she never did. After that, the child George mentors, reveals to the crowd that Tess had have him clean George's apartment for money. All of this humiliating truth to her seem irrational, so George breaks off the engagement to the wedding. Jane's friend, points out that telling the truth to George and breaking their engagement at the party didn't help the situation, that it would have been better if she had been upfront with him in the beginning; the next day, Jane meets Tess to apologize. She is still mad with Jane. Tess reveals that the reason she stayed in New York was because she got fired from her job and her boyfriend dumped her. Tess encourages Jane to focus on her life and her own needs, rather than becoming a pushover for all of her friends by bending over backwards for their every desire.
At work, George tells Jane that he appreciates her because she never says no. Remembering that Kevin once said the same thing as a criticism, Jane quits and admits she only stayed at the job because she was in love with George, she discovers after an experimental kiss that she goes to meet Kevin. She announces in front of a crowd at a wedding. One year Jane and Kevin are getting married. George and Tess meet again and a hope for a second chance shows. All 27 brides whom Jane helped, as well as Tess and Casey, are her bridesmaids, wearing the dresses she once wore as their bridesmaid. Katherine Heigl as Jane Nichols Peyton List as Young Jane Nichols James Marsden as Kevin Malcolm Doyle Malin Åkerman as Tess Nichols Charli Barcena as Young Tess Nichols Edward Burns as George Judy Greer as Casey Melora Hardin as Maureen Michael Ziegfeld as Khaleel Brian Kerwin as Hal Nichols Maulik Pancholy as Trent David Castro as Pedro Krysten Ritter as Gina Principal photography began on May 10, 2007; the film was shot in the state of Rhode Island.
Locations included Rosecliff and Marble House mansions, a beach in Charlestown, East Greenwich, Providence. Filming took place during two weeks in New York City; the film opened at #2 at the North American box office, making US$23 million in its opening weekend behind Cloverfield. As of April 18, 2009, 27 Dresses had grossed $76,808,654 in North America, $83,450,665 overseas, for a total worldwide gross of $160,259,319. According to BoxOfficeGuru.com, "The audience for the $30M-budgeted 27 Dresses was overwhelmingly female. Studio research showed that 75% of the crowd consisted of women, but the audience was evenly split between persons over and under 25." 27 Dresses received mixed reviews from critics. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 40% of critics gave the film positive reviews based on 151 reviews, with an average
Aaliyah Dana Haughton was an American singer and model. Born in Brooklyn, New York, raised in Detroit, she first gained recognition at the age of 10, when she appeared on the television show Star Search and performed in concert alongside Gladys Knight. At the age of 12, Aaliyah signed with Jive Records and her uncle Barry Hankerson's Blackground Records. Hankerson introduced her to R. Kelly, who became her mentor, as well as lead songwriter and producer of her debut album, Age Ain't Nothing but a Number; the album sold 3 million copies in the United States and was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. After facing allegations of an illegal marriage with Kelly, Aaliyah ended her contract with Jive and signed with Atlantic Records. Aaliyah worked with record producers Timbaland and Missy Elliott for her second album, One in a Million, which sold 3 million copies in the United States and more than 8 million copies worldwide. In 2000, Aaliyah appeared in Romeo Must Die.
She contributed to the film's soundtrack, which spawned the single "Try Again". The song topped the Billboard Hot 100 on airplay, making Aaliyah the first artist in Billboard history to achieve this goal. "Try Again" earned Aaliyah a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female R&B Vocalist. After completing Romeo Must Die, Aaliyah filmed her role in Queen of the Damned, released her self-titled third and final studio album in 2001. On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a plane crash in the Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat"; the pilot, Luis Morales III, was unlicensed at the time of the accident and toxicology tests revealed that he had traces of cocaine and alcohol in his system. Aaliyah's family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Blackhawk International Airways, settled out of court. Aaliyah's music continued to achieve commercial success with several posthumous releases, has sold an estimated 24 to 32 million albums worldwide, she has been credited for helping redefine contemporary R&B, pop and hip hop, earning her the nicknames the "Princess of R&B" and "Queen of Urban Pop".
Billboard lists her as the tenth most successful female R&B artist of the past 25 years, the 27th most successful in history. Aaliyah Dana Haughton was born on January 16, 1979, in Brooklyn, New York, was the younger child of Diane and Michael "Miguel" Haughton, she was of African-American descent, had Native American heritage from a grandmother. Her name has been described as a female version of the Arabic "Ali", but the original Jewish name "Aliya" is derived from the Hebrew word "aliyah", meaning "highest, most exalted one, the best." The singer was fond of her Semitic name, calling it "beautiful" and asserting she was "very proud of it" and strove to live up to her name every day. Aaliyah's mother enrolled Aaliyah in voice lessons at an early age, she started performing at weddings, church charity events. When Aaliyah was five years old, her family moved to Detroit, where she was reared along with her older brother, Rashad, she attended a Catholic school, Gesu Elementary, where in first grade she was cast in the stage play Annie, which inspired her to become an entertainer.
In Detroit, her father began working in the warehouse business, one of his brother-in-law Barry Hankerson's widening interests. Her mother raised Aaliyah and her brother. Throughout Aaliyah’s life, she had a good relationship with Rashad, who recalled Aaliyah having a beautiful voice as a child. Aaliyah's family was close due to the struggles of her grandparents and when they moved to Detroit, the Hankersons were ready to take them in if necessary; these same bonds led under the Blackground Records label. Aaliyah's mother was a vocalist, her uncle, Barry Hankerson, was an entertainment lawyer, married to Gladys Knight; as a child, Aaliyah traveled with Knight and worked with an agent in New York to audition for commercials and television programs, including Family Matters. Aaliyah chose to begin auditioning, her mother made the decision to drop her surname. She auditioned at age 11 appeared in concerts alongside Knight, she had several pet animals during her childhood, including ducks and iguanas.
Her cousin Jomo had a pet alligator, which Aaliyah felt was too much, remarking, "that was something I wasn't going to stroke."Her grandmother died in 1991. Years after her death, Aaliyah said her grandmother supported everyone in the family and always wanted to hear her sing, as well as admitting that she "spoiled" her and her brother Rashad, she enjoyed Aaliyah's singing and would have Aaliyah to sing for her. Aaliyah said. Aaliyah's hands reminded her of her aunt, who died when she was young and whom Aaliyah remembered as an "amazingly beautiful woman"; when she was growing up, Aaliyah attended Detroit schools and believed she was well-liked, but got teased for her short stature. She grew to love her height, her mother would tell her to be happy that she compliment her. Other children disliked Aaliyah. "You always have to deal with people who are jealous, but there were so few it didn't matter. The majority of kids supported me, wonderful; when it comes to dealing with negative people, I just let it out the other.
Those people were invisible to me." In her adult life, she considered herself small. She had "learned to
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr