SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution known as the 25 April, was a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime. The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement, composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign; the revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, terminated the Portuguese Colonial War, started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic Portugal. Its name arose from the fact that no shots were fired, Celeste Caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship. In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday. Since 1933, Portugal had been governed by an authoritarian dictatorship, the Estado Novo or New State; the Estado Novo, in turn, evolved from the Ditadura Nacional set up after the 28 May 1926 coup d'etat. The revolution changed the government to a democracy and produced enormous social, territorial and political changes.

These changes evolved during a two-year transitional period known as Processo Revolucionário Em Curso, characterised by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. Despite repeated radio appeals by the revolutionaries asking the population to stay home, thousands of Portuguese citizens descended on the streets and mingled with the military insurgents; the military-led coup returned democracy to Portugal, ending the unpopular Colonial War and replacing the Estado Novo regime and its secret police. It began as a protest by Portuguese Armed Forces captains against a law: the Dec Lei nº 353/73 of 1973. A group of low-ranking Portuguese officers organised as the Armed Forces Movement, including some who had fought pro-independence guerrillas in the Portuguese Empire's territories in Africa, overthrew the Estado Novo regime which had ruled Portugal since the 1930s. Portugal's new regime pledged to end the colonial wars, began negotiations with the African independence movements.

By the end of 1974, Portuguese troops were withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea and the latter was a UN member state. This was followed by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in 1975; the Carnation Revolution led to Portugal's withdrawal from East Timor in south-east Asia. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories, creating over a million Portuguese refugees – the retornados. Although PIDE killed four people before surrendering, the revolution was unusual because the revolutionaries did not use violence to achieve their goals. Holding red carnations, many people joined revolutionary soldiers on the streets of Lisbon in apparent joy and audible euphoria. Red is the colour of socialism and communism, the ideological tendencies of many anti-Estado Novo insurgents, it was the end of the Estado Novo, the dissolution of the Portuguese Empire. In the aftermath of the revolution, a new constitution was drafted, censorship was prohibited, free speech was permitted, political prisoners were released and the Portuguese overseas territories in sub-Saharan Africa were granted independence.

East Timor was offered independence, shortly before it was invaded by Indonesia. At the beginning of the 1970s, nearly a half-century of authoritarian rule weighed on Portugal. After the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, Portugal implemented an authoritarian regime incorporating social Catholicism and integralism. In 1933, the regime renamed Estado Novo. António de Oliveira Salazar was prime minister until 1968. Salazar was replaced in September 1968 by Marcello Caetano, deposed during the revolution. Portugal's Estado Novo government was tolerated by its NATO partners due to its anti-communist stance. Elections were contested. In 1958, General Humberto Delgado stood against the regime's presidential candidate, Américo Tomás, refused to allow his name to be withdrawn. Tomás won the election amidst claims of widespread electoral fraud. After the election, the Salazar government abandoned the practice of popularly electing the president and gave the task to the National Assembly, under the regime's control.

During Caetano's time in office, he made minor attempts at political reform that did not go nearly far enough for a generation that had no memory of the instability that preceded the 1926 coup. However these meager reforms were obstructed by Salazarist elements in the regime; the hardliners were supported by Tomás, unwilling to give Caetano as free a hand as Salazar had. The Estado Novo's political police, the PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado the DGS, Direcção-G

Yasuko Konoe

Yasuko Konoe Princess Yasuko of Mikasa, is the first child of Takahito, Prince Mikasa, Yuriko, Princess Mikasa. She married Tadateru Konoe on 16 December 1966; as a result, she gave up her imperial title and left the Japanese Imperial Family, as required by law. Yasuko was born at Numazu Imperial Villa, Numazu, In her childhood, Konoe attended Gakushuin Elementary School and Gakushuin Women's Secondary School, she completed her studies by graduating from the Department of Japanese Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters, Gakushuin University. Princess Yasuko married Tadateru Konoe on 16 December 1966. Upon her marriage, she took the surname of her husband. Tadateru Konoe is the younger brother of former Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa and adopted grandson of former Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe, he is President of the Japanese Red Cross Society. They have a son named, Tadahiro. Through Tadahiro and his wife, Keiko Kuni, Konoe has three grandchildren: one girl. 26 April 1944 – 16 December 1966: Her Imperial Highness Princess Yasuko of Mikasa 16 December 1966 – present: Mrs. Tadateru Konoe Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown

Gamut

In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors. The most common usage refers to the subset of colors which can be represented in a given circumstance, such as within a given color space or by a certain output device. Another sense, less used but still correct, refers to the complete set of colors found within an image at a given time. In this context, digitizing a photograph, converting a digitized image to a different color space, or outputting it to a given medium using a certain output device alters its gamut, in the sense that some of the colors in the original are lost in the process; the term gamut was adopted from the field of music, where it means the set of pitches of which musical melodies are composed. In the 1850s, the term was applied to a range of colors or hue, for example by Thomas De Quincey, who wrote "Porphyry, I have heard, runs through as large a gamut of hues as marble."In color theory, the gamut of a device or process is that portion of the color space that can be represented, or reproduced.

The color gamut is specified in the hue–saturation plane, as a system can produce colors over a wide intensity range within its color gamut. When certain colors cannot be expressed within a particular color model, those colors are said to be out of gamut. For example, while pure red can be expressed in the RGB color space, it cannot be expressed in the CMYK color space. A device that can reproduce the entire visible color space is an unrealized goal within the engineering of color displays and printing processes. Modern techniques allow good approximations, but the complexity of these systems makes them impractical. While processing a digital image, the most convenient color model used is the RGB model. Printing the image requires transforming the image from the original RGB color space to the printer's CMYK color space. During this process, the colors from the RGB which are out of gamut must be somehow converted to approximate values within the CMYK space gamut. Trimming only the colors which are out of gamut to the closest colors in the destination space would burn the image.

There are several algorithms approximating this transformation, but none of them can be perfect, since those colors are out of the target device's capabilities. This is why identifying the colors in an image which are out of gamut in the target color space as soon as possible during processing is critical for the quality of the final product. Gamuts are represented as areas in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram as shown at right, with the curved edge representing the monochromatic or spectral colors; the accessible gamut depends on the brightness. The cone drawn in grey corresponds to the CIE diagram at right, with the added dimension of brightness; the axes in these diagrams are the responses of the short-wavelength, middle-wavelength, long-wavelength cones in the human eye. The other letters indicate black, green, cyan, magenta and white colors; the top left diagram shows that the shape of the RGB gamut is a triangle between red and blue at lower luminosities. The exact positions of the apexes depends on the emission spectra of the phosphors in the computer monitor, on the ratio between the maximum luminosities of the three phosphors.

The gamut of the CMYK color space is, ideally the same as that for RGB, with different apexes, depending on both the exact properties of the dyes and the light source. In practice, due to the way raster-printed colors interact with each other and the paper and due to their non-ideal absorption spectra, the gamut is smaller and has rounded corners; the gamut of reflective colors in nature has a similar, though more rounded, shape. An object that reflects only a narrow band of wavelengths will have a color close to the edge of the CIE diagram, but it will have a low luminosity at the same time. At higher luminosities, the accessible area in the CIE diagram becomes smaller and smaller, up to a single point of white, where all wavelengths are reflected 100 per cent. In the beginning of the 20th century, industrial demands for a controllable way to describe colors and the new possibility to measure light spectra initiated intense research on mathematical descriptions of colors; the idea of optimal colors was introduced by the Baltic German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald.

Erwin Schrödinger showed in his 1919 article Theorie der Pigmente von größter Leuchtkraft that the most-saturated colors that can be created with a given total reflectivity are generated by surfaces having either zero or full reflectance at any given wavelength, the reflectivity spectrum must have at most two transitions between zero and full. Thus two types of "optimal color" spectra ar