South Side (Pittsburgh)
South Side is an area in Pittsburgh, United States, located along the Monongahela River across from Downtown Pittsburgh. The South Side is divided into two neighborhoods, South Side Flats and South Side Slopes. Both the Flats and the Slopes are represented on Pittsburgh City Council by Bruce Kraus; the business district stretches along East Carson Street, home to many small shops and bars. In 2006, more than 80 bars and pubs operated in the South Side Flats; the neighborhood has an urban fabric with rowhouses. The South Side is well-connected with public transit, its proximity and public transit connections have attracted professionals who work downtown. Pittsburgh Fire Station #24 is located on Mary Street in the neighborhood; the South Side, most of, the village of Birmingham, annexed to the city in 1872, was settled by German later Eastern European immigrants who came to Pittsburgh to work in heavy industry. Dr. Nathaniel Bedford planned a large part of Birmingham and named many streets after his friends and family, thus the predominance of streets named after people such as Jane and Carson.
For many years, much of the South Side was dominated by heavy industry and associated service businesses. The Jones and Laughlin Steel Company was located on the South Side but closed in the 1980s and has since been redeveloped; the Pittsburgh Terminal Properties building is located on the west end of Carson Street, next to the Liberty Bridge. When construction finished in 1906, it was the largest warehouse between New Chicago. Connections to river and road transport made it an ideal facility for merchants who sold goods and needed temporary storage, it has since been redeveloped into River Walk Corporate Centre and houses a mix of office and service businesses including Paper Products Company and City Center Self Storage. In more recent years, the South Side has become home to a larger student population. Many students at Duquesne University, University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University either live in the South Side or spend a portion of their nightlife there. A walk over the South Tenth Street Bridge that crosses the Monongahela River takes students to Duquesne University.
Due to the large number of college students and young professionals, in addition to the thriving bar scene, South Side has developed into a nightlife destination for young people in Pittsburgh. Important streets in South Side are E. Carson Street, Josephine Street, S. 18th street. The business district is located along E. Carson Street; the Birmingham Bridge makes South Side accessible from Oakland, around 2 miles away from South Side. Station Square is about 1.5 miles west of South Side, Mt. Washington is 2.5 miles away. The average South Side family income in 2003 was $41,353. East Carson St. has restaurants and shops that help support the economy of the South Side. The large variety of shopping along E. Carson Street and SouthSide Works is a factor in the South Side's economy. There are a variety of locally owned stores such as Pittsburgh Jeans Co. and widespread stores such as American Eagle, H&M, Nine West. The Urban Redevelopment Authority started the SouthSide Works project hoping to create over 6,000 jobs.
Today, SouthSide Works has over 10 restaurants & bars. The restoration of the business district has improved South Sides economy and house sales have jumped $75,000 in the past 10 years along with vacancy dropping below 10%; the South Side is home to a variety of service businesses and reconverted office buildings. Many businesses locate here; the Pittsburgh Terminal Properties building has been converted into River Walk Corporate Center. Tenants are a mix of light industrial and storage for Pittsburgh businesses and residents. South Side Local Development Company helps the economic development in the neighborhood. Under LDC, the Neighborhood Assistance Program was created; the NAP is partners with PNC bank and able to fund programs to create jobs and housing production with their $2.5 million grant. Since 1982, LDC has created over 250 new businesses, renovated over 200 stores, built over 700 new homes. South Sides redeveloped downtown has increased apartment sales and attracted a lot of nightlife in the neighborhood.
The Flats has one of the largest Victorian main streets in the United States. The entire length of East Carson Street is designated as a historic district. Strict rules dictate; this neighborhood is a prime example of adaptive reuse of historic structures to spur community revitalization. One of the famous steel mills of Pittsburgh, the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company was located on the South Side but closed in the 1980s and today the land is home to the SouthSide Works shopping and entertainment complex. In the 1980s, this neighborhood was declining but historic preservation propelled it to a new and bright future. Today, the South Side is a desirable city neighborhood and is known for its multitude of bars and restaurants; the South Side is a popular destination for Pittsburgh residents. The popularity of the neighborhood has costs. Older, lifelong residents clash with the values of the young urban professionals and students moving in. Parking in the South Side is among the tightest in the city, as narrow streets and high density of buildings leave little empty street space.
Nuisance crime has been a growing issue, but in mid-2018, city leaders announced that crime in the South Si
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Lawrenceville Branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
The Lawrenceville Branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, located at 279 Fisk Street in the Lawrenceville neighborhood of Pittsburgh, opened May 10, 1898. It was commissioned as part of Andrew Carnegie's first grant to Pittsburgh and was the second library in the Pittsburgh city system to open, following the Main Branch, it was the sixth Carnegie funded library to open in America and the first to have the new revolutionary policy of open or self-service shelves. The first five libraries to open in America, as well as the seventh, Carnegie Library of Homestead, which opened 6 months after Lawrenceville, were closed stack libraries where a clerk was needed to fetch books for the patrons; the eighth to open in America, the West End Branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, opened January 31, 1899, would have open stacks. The Lawrenceville Branch was the first library to have a dedicated Children's room, it was designed by the architectural firm Alden & Harlow, it was added to the List of City of Pittsburgh historic designations on July 28, 2004, the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks in 1988
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Pittsburgh City-County Building
The Pittsburgh City-County Building is the seat of government for the City of Pittsburgh, houses both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County offices. It is located in Downtown Pittsburgh at 414 Grant Street, Pennsylvania. Built from 1915-17 it is the third seat of government of Pittsburgh. Today the building is occupied by Pittsburgh offices with Allegheny County located in adjacent county facilities. At the start of the 20th century, City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County officials began to realize that the current structure which housed the city and county government offices was insufficient for the city's rapid growth; the offices at that time were located in the Smithfield Street City Hall building, built in 1868-1872. The demand for new offices grew exponentially with the incorporation of Allegheny City into the City of Pittsburgh in 1907, which added 130,000 new residents to the city. In 1909 plans for a new City Hall began. Mayor William A. McGee proposed selling the current offices in the Smithfield Street City Hall and the Public Safety building, using these funds to buy the Allegheny County Courthouse and use it as the space for construction of a new City Hall.
By 1912 the plans moved forward with both the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County approving a joint venture to purchase the land and both occupy the new building. The architect for the new building was to be chosen through a competition, only accepting architects residing and doing business within Allegheny County. Regional favoritism was used in the building's construction as well, as in 1914 Mayor Joseph Armstrong claimed that all material for the building should come from manufactures who produce and are located in Pittsburgh, that all labor employed should be obtained or taken from Allegheny County; the plans for the development of the new building extended to some of the prominent organization within Pittsburgh such as the Carnegie Library, the Civic Club of Allegheny County who both had plans for space in the new building. Construction was postponed for more than a year though as the general contracting firm of W. F. Trimble & Sons filed an injunction claiming that the selection of James L. Stuart as consulting and supervising engineer was done through an improper bidding process.
The case was decided by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and resolved by a legislative act, development on the building was allowed to continue. The groundbreaking on the building occurred with a ceremony on July 6, 1915 with County Commissioner I. K. Campbell striking the first blow with a pick and Joseph G. Armstrong Jr. lifting the first shovel of dirt. Both the pick and the shovel were silver plated and preserved as mementos in the office of the Mayor. Following significant progress in construction a cornerstone laying ceremony was planned to coincide with the celebration of Pittsburgh's Centennial. On March 26, 1916 the celebration of the 100th anniversary of incorporation was held in Pittsburgh and a parade wound through downtown Pittsburgh ending at a steel-framework of what would become the new City-Council Building. Three cornerstones were laid during the celebration, including one for the City, one for the County, one for the workers, each of which contained time capsules; the construction on the new building finished in 1917, was completed under budget.
In April 1917, the City Law Department was the first to switch into the new building, with the rest of the remaining offices allocated by June. The building was nominated in January 2016 to become a City Historic Site by Preservation Pittsburgh. In 1914, a competition was held for a new Pittsburgh City Hall; the 16-entry competition led to the commissioning of Edward B. Lee, a respected Pittsburgh architect, with Palmer, Hornbostel, & Jones as associated architects; the completed design was done by Henry Hornbostel. The building was designed with elements of the City Beautiful Movement; the City-County building is a representation of a distinctly American extrapolation of the Beaux Arts mode. Hornbostel was known for this architectural style, architectural historian James Van Trump has stated that Hornbostel kept the principles of the Beaux Arts central with his designs, but frequently departed from the precepts, integrated elements of other styles akin to industrially-inspired brutalism; the design of the building was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement.
This movement featured urban planning with soaring Neoclassical buildings and orderly designs, included the concept of the “White City”. The City-County Building was one of Pittsburgh's first attempts at incorporating the City Beautiful Movement into its urban design; some of the most significant design elements of the building include the Grand Lobby, a lit atrium with a 47-foot high barrel-vaulted ceiling. The ceiling is held up by bronze columns crafted by Louis Tiffany Studios, they feature at their bases, the Seals of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, frontiersman Guyasuta, Pittsburgh's oldest surviving building, the Fort Pitt Blockhouse. The rooms ornate elevator doors feature a series of reliefs detailing the previous homes of municipal government; the reliefs age with the building's they clutch, reaching adulthood with the present City-County Building and Allegheny County Courthouse. The building is unique in that most of the furniture was designed by the building's architect, Hornbostel.
The Office of the Mayor, Council Chamber, Supreme Court Room all feature 1917 furniture still in use today. On the seventh floor of the building is a massive mural completed in 1940 entitled "Justice" by award-winning artist Harry Scheuch. 1922's In the Name of the Law starred Pittsburgh Pirates great and future Hall of Famer Honus Wagner as the hero, as a Pit
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh – South Side
The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh – South Side located at 2205 East Carson Street in the South Side Flats neighborhood of Pittsburgh, was built in 1909. It was designed by the architectural firm Alden & Harlow, it was added to the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks in 1990