Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the region still tend to identify with its traditional parts Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, to a lesser degree with Inner Carniola. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola. A state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Austrian Circle and a duchy in the hereditary possession of the Habsburgs part of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land from 1849, when it was subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, Inner Carniola, until 1918. From the second half of the 13th century, its capital was Ljubljana. Previous overlords of Carniola had their seats in Kranj and Kamnik, which are therefore sometimes referred to as its earlier capitals. Nowadays, its territory is entirely located in Slovenia, except for a small part in northwest Italy, around Fusine in Valromana.
Carniola in its final form, established in 1815, encompassed 9,904 km2. In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of under 530,000 inhabitants, of whom 95% were Slovenes; the Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country. The highest mountain peaks are 4,200 feet; the principal rivers are Sava, Tržič Bistrica, Kamnik Bistrica, Ljubljanica, Mirna and Kolpa, which serves as a boundary with Croatia. The principal lakes are Black Lake, spreading into seven lakes, of which the highest is over 6,000 feet above sea level, it was known to the Romans as Lacus Lugens or Lugea Palus, is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his Divine Comedy; the Ljubljana Marshes cover an area of 76 square miles. Hot and mineral springs are found at Dolenjske Toplice, Šmarješke Toplice, Izlake. There is an interesting cave at Postojna. Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola; the Vipava Valley is famous for its wine and vegetables, for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, carvings and honey.
In the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, quicksilver, manganese and zinc. Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, woollen stuffs, lace, straw hats, wicker-work, tobacco. In 1910 the railroads were the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, the Vrhniska; the principal cities and towns are: Kamnik, Kranj, Tržič, Vipava, Turjak, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vače. The mean average temperature in spring is 56 °F. In 1910, the inhabitants were 95 per cent Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats. In the districts of Gottschee and Črnomelj dwell the people of White Carniola for a connecting link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gottschee, 5,000 in Ljubljana, 3,500 at Novo Mesto, 1,000 at Radovljica; the Germans at Gottschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, followed by Slavs around the sixth century AD.
As a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the area was successively ruled by Bavarian and local nobility, by the Austrian Habsburgs continuously from 1335 to 1918, though beset by many raids from the Ottomans and rebellions by local residents against Habsburg rule from the 15th to the 17th centuries. From about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniola's ruling classes and urban areas spoke German, while the peasantry spoke Slovene; the capital of Carniola situated at Kranj, was moved to Kamnik and to the current capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana. Fourth century: Germanic settlements of Herules. Fifth century: Germanic settlements of Langobards. Sixth century: Slovene settlements. Eighth century: Carniola a part of the Empire of Charlemagne. 10th century: Carniola a separate country. 1278: Death of Ottokar II of Bohemia. Carniola absorbed in the Habsburg dominions. 14th century: The province under Albert III. 15th–16th centuries: Ravages of the Ottomans. 1527–1564: Progress of the Reformation in Carniola. 1564: Death of Ferdinand I.
Carniola under the Archduke Charles. Religious persecutions begin. 1763: Political administration of "Inner Austria" centralized at Graz. 1790: Accession of Leopold II. Partial revival of autonomy. 1797: First French invasion. 1805: Second French invasion. 1809: Treaty of Schönbrunn. Carniola under French rule. 1814: Congress of Vienna. Carniola restored to Austria. Before the coming of the Romans, the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Carniola, the Pannonians in the southeast, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the southwest. Carniola formed part of the Roman province of Pannoni
Christopher Peter'Chris' Seal is a former English cricketer. Seal was a left-handed batsman, he was born in Kent. Seal made his debut for Suffolk in the 1997 Minor Counties Championship against Lincolnshire. Seal played Minor counties cricket for Suffolk from 1997 to 2005, which included 41 Minor Counties Championship appearances and 20 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches, he made his List A debut against the Hampshire Cricket Board in the 1999 NatWest Trophy. He made 6 further List A appearances, the last of which came against Herefordshire in the 2nd round of the 2001 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy, played in 2001. In his 7 List A matches, he scored 100 runs at an average of 25.00, with a high score of 41. With the ball, he took 2 wickets at a bowling average of 39.50, with best figures of 1/6. Chris Seal at ESPNcricinfo Chris Seal at CricketArchive
Grande America was a roll-on/roll-off cargo ship built by Fincantieri in 1997, owned and operated by Grimaldi Lines, a subsidiary of Grimaldi Group. It sank in the Bay of Biscay in March 2019. On 10 March 2019, Grande America caught fire while traveling the Atlantic Ocean between France and Spain on its route from Hamburg to Casablanca, sank 4,600 m into the Bay of Biscay on 12 March; the 27 people on board were rescued by the Royal Navy ship HMS Argyll after they abandoned ship on 11 March. After their lifeboat's engine broke down entering the water, a Royal Navy dinghy towed it to safety in a 6 m swell. Leading Seaman David Groves, the dinghy's commander, was awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal for his bravery in the rescue. An oil spill of about 10 km in length and 1 km in width began moving towards the French coast line, threatening the areas around La Rochelle and Vendée; the ship was carrying 365 containers, of which 45 contained material deemed to be hazardous, including 10 tonnes of hydrochloric acid and 70 tonnes of sulfuric acid.
The ship contained dozens of vehicles that were to be delivered to Brazilian importers, including 37 Porsche vehicles. Four of these were Porsche's last units of the 911 GT2 RS, which went out of production in February 2019; the sinking led to Porsche reactivating the production line for the Porsche 911 GT2 RS, so that these four last units could be delivered to their owners in Brazil. The ship was transporting dozens of Audi cars, including RS4 and RS5 models; the wreck was located by Island Pride. It arrived 30 March and started inspecting the wreck site using remotely operated underwater vehicles; the ROVs were used to seal light leaks of oil discovered during the inspection. List of roll-on/roll-off vessel accidents Grimaldi Group "Schedule". Net.grimaldi.co.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2019. "GRANDE AMERICA". FleetMon.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019. "GRANDE AMERICA, Ro-Ro Cargo Ship – Details and current position – IMO 9130937 MMSI 247594000". Vesselfinder.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019. "Vessel details for: GRANDE AMERICA – IMO 9130937, MMSI 247594000, Call Sign IBPG Registered in Italy – AIS Marine Traffic".
MarineTraffic.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019