Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art is a drama school in London, England that provides training for film and theatre. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious drama schools in the United Kingdom, founded in 1904 by Herbert Beerbohm Tree. RADA is an affiliate school of the Conservatoire for Drama, its higher education awards are validated by King's College London and its students graduate alongside members of the departments which form the King's Faculty of Arts & Humanities. It is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London, close to the Senate House complex of the University of London. Undergraduate students are eligible for government student loan through the Conservatoire for Dance and Drama. RADA has a significant scholarships and bursaries scheme, offering financial assistance to many students at the Academy; the current director of the academy is Edward Kemp. The president is Sir Kenneth Branagh, the chairman is Sir Stephen Waley-Cohen and its vice-chairman was Alan Rickman until his death in 2016.
RADA was founded in 1904 by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, an actor manager, at His Majesty's Theatre in the Haymarket. In 1905, RADA moved to 52 Gower Street, a managing council was set up to oversee the school, its members included George Bernard Shaw, who donated his royalties from his play Pygmalion to RADA, gave lectures to students at the school. In 1920, RADA was granted a Royal Charter, in 1921, a new theatre was built on Malet Street, behind the Gower Street buildings; the Prince of Wales opened the theatre. The Gower Street buildings were torn down in 1927, replaced with a new building, financed by George Bernard Shaw, who left one third of his royalties to the academy on his death in 1950. In 1923, John Gielgud studied at RADA for a year, he became President of the academy, its first honorary fellow. A number of famous actors took on leading roles at RADA, such as Richard Attenborough, Oliver Neville, Nicholas Barter, Alan Rickman. 1924 saw RADA's first government subsidy, a grant of £500.
The academy received other government funding over the years, including a £22.7m grant from the Arts Council National Lottery Board, used to renovate its premises, rebuild the Varnbrugh Theatre. In 2001, RADA joined forces with the London Contemporary dance School to create the UK's first Conservatoire for Dance and Drama; the Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance joined this Conservatoire in 2005. RADA expanded its course offering over the years, adding Short Courses for actors and courses for American and Japanese students in London in 1995-98. In 2000 the Academy founded RADA Enterprises Ltd, which includes RADA in Business, providing training in communications and teambuilding that uses drama training techniques in a business context; the profits are fed back into the Academy to fund students' training. RADA is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London; the main RADA building is with a second premises nearby in Chenies Street. The Goodge Street and Euston Square underground stations are both within walking distance.
The Gower and Malet Street building was re-devoloped in the late 1990s to designs by Bryan Avery, incorporated the new theatres and linking the entrances on both streets. RADA has a cinema. In the Malet Street building, the Jerwood Vanburgh Theatre is the largest performance space with a capacity of 183. There is a 150-seat cinema. In January 2012, RADA acquired the lease to the adjacent Drill Hall venue in Chenies Street and renamed it RADA Studios; the Drill Hall is a Grade II listed building with a long performing arts history, was where Nijinsky rehearsed with Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes in 1911. This venue has a 200-seat space, the Studio Theatre, a 50-seat space, the Club Theatre. In April 2016, planning permission was granted for the redevelopment of the Chenies Street premises, to comprise the new Richard Attenborough Theatre, new library and office spaces, a refectory with public access and the Academy’s first on-site student accommodation; the RADA library contains around 30,000 items.
Works include around 10,000 plays. The collection was started in 1904 with donations from actors and writers of the time such as Sir Squire Bancroft, William Archer, Arthur Wing Pinero and George Bernard Shaw. Other facilities at RADA include acting studios, a scenic art workshop with paint frame, costume workrooms and extensive costume store and fight studios, design studios and metal workshops, sound studios, rehearsal studios, the RADA Foyer Bar, which includes a licensed bar, a café and a box office. RADA accepts up to 28 new students each year into its three-year BA in Acting course, with a 50-50 split of male and female students. Admission is based via the four-stage audition process. Auditions are held in London as well as in New York, Dublin and Leicester. RADA teaches Technical Theatre & Stage Management - a two-year Foundation Degree and with a further'completion' year to BA level which has to be separately applied for and which allows for specialisation in all theatre craft areas.
The TTSM course admits up to 36 s
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Pasadena High School (California)
Pasadena High School is a public high school in Pasadena, California. It is one of four high schools in the Pasadena Unified School District; the school was first established as a district school in 1884 and became Pasadena High School in 1891. In 1928, the school merged into Pasadena Junior College and operated as a four-year school, grades 11, 12, 13 and 14. Pasadena realigned its 6-4-4 school system in 1954 with Pasadena High School regaining its separate identity. PHS, shared the Pasadena City College Colorado Boulevard campus through the graduating class of 1960 when PHS moved to its present campus on Sierra Madre Boulevard at Washington Boulevard; the Rose Parade, post parade Showcase of Floats takes place in front of the high school utilizing some of the school grounds and parking lots. Pasadena High School's athletic field was renovated, adding light towers, a new track and replacing the grass field with artificial turf, it opened at the start of the 2009-10 school year. The school's junior varsity and varsity football teams as well as the boys' and girls' soccer teams play their home games.
The school is used for its track meets in the spring. On January 8, 2019, Pasadena High School opened the renovated Tom Hamilton Gymnasium at the cost of $19 million dollars, it is used for boys and girls junior varsity and varsity basketball teams and the girls volleyball team for their home games. The school's auditorium is named after Gladiss Edwards, the principal during the late 1950's and into the 1960's. In 2013, Pasadena High School's student population consisted of 2,028 students, with 56% of students being Latino, 20% white, 16% African-American, 5% Asian and Pacific Islander. Pasadena High School offers several special unique programs; the Graphic Communications Academy was established in partnership with the Printing Industry of Southern California and Pasadena City College. The Visual Arts and Design Academy is linked with the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena City College and the Pasadena Art Armory; the Center for Independent Study program is a remedial program to help students who are behind in credits.
PHS offers a career pathway called the App Academy, which helps students learn about web design. Pasadena High School competes against John Muir High School at the Rose Bowl in a football game known as the Turkey Tussle; the tradition began in 1947, Muir leads the series 42-18-2. Pasadena High School has a NNDCC unit, a non-funded version of the US Navy's NJROTC program. Pasadena High School has had a Reserves Officer's Training Corps since 1920 starting as Army but has been Air Force and Marines as well in the past, they disbanded in 2017-2018 academic year. Kim Anderson, 1975, NFL defensive back, Baltimore Colts Louise Beavers, 1920, Actress Walt Becker, 1986, director of films Van Wilder and Wild Hogs Mario Clark, 1973, NFL Boston Patriots Carol Cleveland, 1960, associated with Monty Python's Flying Circus TV show Mike Connelly, 1952, NFL lineman, Dallas Cowboys Michael Cooper, 1974, basketball player and coach, 5-time NBA champion, WNBA head coach Donald D. Engen, 1941, US Navy Vice Admiral, former Administrator of Federal Aviation Administration and Director of National Air and Space Museum Bob Eubanks, 1955, radio-TV personality, host of The Newlywed Game and longtime broadcaster of Rose Parade Howard Hawks, 1914, Hollywood film director Chris Holden, 1978, 53rd Mayor of Pasadena, city councilman, California State Assemblyman, 41st District Michael Holton, 1979, basketball player and ESPN analyst Yeon Jung-hoon, popular Korean actor Chidi Iwuoma, 1996, Former cornerback for the Pittsburgh Steelers Payton Jordan, Hall of Fame Olympic track coach and Masters track and field world record holder Jim Matheny, UCLA and professional football player Chris McAlister, 1995, NFL cornerback for Baltimore Ravens and New Orleans Saints Edwin McMillan, co-recipient of 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Yura Movsisyan, soccer player for FC Spartak Moscow Charley Paddock, two-time Olympic champion, "fastest man in the world" George S. Patton, 1903/1904, famed US Army general in World War II William H. Press, 1965, astrophysicist and 165th president of American Association for the Advancement of Science QUIÑ, singer James Sanford, 1980 world's fastest human Stan Smith, 1964, tennis player and two-time Grand Slam singles champion Bill Sweek, 1964, basketball player and coach Jerry Tarkanian, college basketball coach, NCAA champion and Hall of Famer Kevin Tighe, 1962, actor Emergency!
Mark Trahant, 1975, Native American journalist Lester Towns, 1995, NFL player Alex Van Halen, 1972, member of rock band Van Halen Eddie Van Halen, 1973, founding member of Van Halen Lee Walls, Major League Baseball outfielder Cynthia Whitcomb, 1969, television writer and playwright Jim Wilks, 1976, NFL player New Orleans Saints Pasadena High School website
The Two Ronnies
The Two Ronnies is a BBC television comedy sketch show created by Bill Cotton for the BBC, which aired on BBC One from April 1971 to December 1987. It featured the two Ronnies of the title; the usual format included solo sections, serial stories and musical finales. Ronnie Barker and Ronnie Corbett met at the Buckstone Club in the Haymarket, where Ronnie Corbett was serving drinks between acting jobs, they were invited by David Frost to appear in his new show, The Frost Report, with John Cleese, but the pair's big break came when they filled in, unprepared and unscripted, for eleven minutes during a technical hitch at a British Academy of Film and Television Arts awards ceremony at the London Palladium in 1970. In the audience was Bill Cotton, the Head of Light Entertainment for the BBC, Sir Paul Fox, the Controller of BBC1. Cotton was so impressed by the duo that he turned to Fox and asked: "How would you like those two on your network?" Unbeknown to them the pair had just had the renewal of their contract declined by London Weekend Television of rival network ITV, so were free to change channels.
Barker and Corbett were given their own show by the BBC. The show was based on the complementary personalities of Barker and Corbett, who never became an exclusive pairing, but continued to work independently in television outside of the editions of the Two Ronnies; the show was produced annually between 1971 and 1987. It had many notable writers including Ray Alan, John Cleese, Barry Cryer, Spike Milligan, David Nobbs, David Renwick, Eric Idle, John Sullivan, Michael Palin, Terry Jones and Laurie Rowley. In addition, Barker used the pseudonym Gerald Wiley; the show featured comic sketches in which Barker and Corbett appeared both together and separately, with various additions giving the programme the feeling of a variety show. The sketches involved complex word-play, much of it written by Barker, who liked to parody officialdom and establishment figures, as well as eccentrics. Corbett appeared quieter, more acting as a foil for Barker, but remained an important part of the chemistry. Many of the jokes revolved around his lack of height, with him delivering many of them himself: when Barker said that the next part "does suit Ronnie C. right down to the ground", Corbett replied "Mind you, that's not far is it?".
Other jokes could be of a sexual nature of the sort found on seaside postcards: for example: "Tickle your botty with a feather tonight?""I beg your pardon?" "Particularly grotty weather tonight" Some of the show's material contained elements of surreal or left field humour, in the vein of Monty Python, was considered edgier and more sophisticated than the more traditional routines of Morecambe and Wise. The duo had formed some time after their peers by which time the comedy world had moved on to satire, absurdist surrealism and the beginnings of alternative humour. Furthermore, there was more comedic parity between the show's two stars, with the diminutive Corbett less of a foil to Barker than Ernie Wise was to Eric Morecambe - they were clear comedic equals, their best known sketch was "Four Candles". Both Barker and Corbett had their own solo sections on each show. Barker would have his own wordplay-based sketch as the head of a ridiculous-sounding organisation. Corbett always had a discursive solo monologue in each show, when he sat in a chair, facing the camera, attempting to tell a simple joke, but distracting himself into relating other humorous incidents.
The joke itself was deliberately corny. An example of Ronnie Corbett's humour is this short excerpt from a monologue: It became a tradition of the shows to have a continuing serial story which progressed through the eight episodes of a series; these were fairly bawdy tales with special guest stars. The Two Ronnies starred in two spin-off silent films labelled The Two Ronnies Present... By the Sea and The Picnic, written by Barker silent comedies featuring a squabbling upper-class family with a 1920s feel about them; the first serial of The Two Ronnies was written by Barker, began as a pastiche of costume dramas about a governess called Henrietta Beckett, played by Madeline Smith. Barker played a sex-starved aristocrat called Sir Geoffrey, Corbett played his son Edward, but further into the serial, the Ronnies portrayed a wide variety of other characters, including pick-pockets and royals. At the end it is revealed to be just a dream when she wakes up in Hampton Wick Cottage Hospital after having an accident.
Piggy Malone and Charley Farley are private detectives who investigate a mystery about a murdered family, featuring Sue Lloyd as Blanche Brimstone. As soon as Piggy finds out about the murder in the newspaper, a decision's made that means a trip to the country, there's a second murder during an unusual gathering. Featuring are secretary Miss Whizzer and the rest of the Brimstone family, through which the detectives narrow down the culprit. Piggy and Charley's second serial begins when a frogman delivers a note, the duo are sent in search of the formula for the Clumsy Drug, alongside Cyd Hayman as Madame Eloise Coqoutte. Corbett and Barker play the two villains, the notorious Mr Greensleeves and his Japanese henchman Bobjob. In the end the mystery is solved. Written by Spike Milligan and Ronnie Barker but credited as "Spike Milligan and a Gentleman". Set in Victorian times, it is a Jack the Ripper parody in which a mysterious figure goes around blowing raspberrie
The Saint (TV series)
The Saint is a British ITC mystery spy thriller television series that aired in the United Kingdom on ITV between 1962 and 1969. It was based on the literary character Simon Templar created by Leslie Charteris in the 1920s and featured in many novels over the years, he was played by Roger Moore. Templar helps those whom conventional agencies are powerless or unwilling to protect using methods that skirt the law. Chief Inspector Claud Eustace Teal is his nominal nemesis who considers Templar a common criminal, but grudgingly tolerates his actions for the greater good. NBC picked up the show as a summer replacement in its evening schedule in 1966 because of the strong performance in the United States of the first two series in first-run syndication; the programme, ended its run with both trans-Atlantic primetime scheduling and colour episodes. It proved popular beyond the UK and US airing in over 60 countries, made a profit in excess of £350m for ITC. With 120 episodes, the programme is exceeded only by The Avengers as the most productive show of its genre produced in the UK.
As with The Avengers, the colour episodes were broadcast in the UK in black and white before the advent of colour transmissions on ITV. Roger Moore had earlier tried to buy the production rights to the Saint books himself, was delighted to be able to play the part. Moore became co-owner of the show with Robert S. Baker when the show moved to colour and the production credit became Bamore Productions. Most of the wardrobe Moore wore, he was offered the role of James Bond at least twice during the run of the series, but he had to turn it down both times due to his television commitments. In one early episode of the series, another character mistakes Templar for Bond. Moore accepted the Bond role. Moore had a few recurring co-stars Ivor Dean, who played Templar's nemesis, Inspector Teal. In three early episodes, Teal had been played by Campbell Singer, Norman Pitt, Wensley Pithey. Teal's relationship with Templar was broadly similar to that depicted in the novels, but in the series, he is depicted as bungling, rather than Charteris's characterisation of him as an officious, unimaginative policeman.
When in France, Templar had a similar relationship with Colonel Latignant. Latignant is depicted as being less competent than Teal, is keener than Teal to find Templar guilty, though Templar helps him solve the case. Unlike Teal, Latignant did not appear in Charteris's novels. In all, Inspector Teal featured in Colonel Latignant in six; the Saint began as a straightforward mystery series, but over the years adopted more secret agent- and fantasy-style plots. It made a well-publicised switch from black-and-white to colour production midway through its run; the early episodes are distinguished by Moore breaking the fourth wall and speaking to the audience in character at the start of every episode. With the switch to colour, this was replaced by simple narration; the precredits sequence ended with someone referring to the Saint by name – "Simon Templar". Some episodes, such as "Iris", broke away from this formula and had Templar address the audience for the entire precredits sequence and referring to himself by name, setting up the story that followed.
Many episodes were based upon Charteris's stories, although a higher percentage of original scripts were used as the series progressed. The novel Vendetta for the Saint, credited to Charteris but written by Harry Harrison, was one of the last Saint stories to be adapted; some of the scripts were novelised and published as part of the ongoing series of The Saint novels, such as The Fiction Makers and The People Importers. The first of these books, which gave cover credit to Charteris, but were written by others, was The Saint on TV, the series of novelisations continued for several years after the television programme had ended. Templar's car, when it appeared, was a white Volvo P1800 with the number plate ST1; this model Volvo is still referred to as "the Saint's car", with miniature versions made by Corgi which have proved popular. Volvo was pleased to supply their introduced car in 1962 for its promotional value, after Jaguar Cars had rejected a request from the producers to provide an E-type.
Unlike its contemporary rival, The Avengers, The Saint was shot on film from the beginning, whereas the first three series of the other series were videotaped, with minimal location shooting. All episodes of The Saint were syndicated abroad; the black-and-white series were first syndicated in the US by NBC affiliate stations in 1967 and 1968, 32 of the 47 colour episodes were broadcast by NBC from 1968 to 1969, have since played in syndication in the US for many years after. Most series are available on DVD in North America. Two two-part episodes from series 6, "Vendetta for the Saint" and "The Fiction Makers", were made into feature films and distributed to theatres in Europe, show up on late-night television in America, they are available on DVD. In the UK, ITV4 has broadcast colour episodes. In the US, FamilyNet and RTV have airied both the colour episodes. Me-TV has broadcast the series. In March 2015, the
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a