Carol II reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his abdication on 6 September 1940. Carol was the eldest son of Ferdinand I and became crown prince upon the death of his grand-uncle, King Carol I in 1914, he was the first of the Hohenzollern kings of Romania to be born in the country. As such, he was the first member of the Romanian branch of the Hohenzollerns who spoke Romanian as his first language, was the first member of the royal family to be raised in the Orthodox faith, he possessed a hedonistic personality that contributed to the controversies marring his reign, his life was marked by numerous scandals, among them marriages to Zizi Lambrino and Princess Helen of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Constantine I of Greece. His continued affairs with Magda Lupescu obliged him to renounce his succession rights in 1925 and leave the country. Princess Helen divorced him in 1928. King Ferdinand died in 1927 and Carol's five-year-old son ascended the throne as Michael I. Carol returned to Romania in 1930 and replaced his son and the regency, in place.
His reign was marked by re-alignment with Nazi Germany, adoption of anti-semitic laws and evolved into a personal dictatorship beginning in 1938. On 6 September 1940, he was forced by his Prime Minister Ion Antonescu to leave the country and withdraw abroad into exile, he was succeeded by his son Michael. Carol was born in Peleș Castle. Carol grew up under the thumb of his dominating grand-uncle, King Carol I, who excluded his parents, the German-born Crown Prince Ferdinand and the British-born Crown Princess Marie, from any role in bringing him up. Romania in the early 20th century had a famously relaxed "Latin" sexual morality, the British Princess Marie of Edinburgh who despite or because of her Victorian upbringing ended up "going native", having a long series of affairs with various Romanian men with whom she could obtain more emotional and sexual satisfaction than she could with Ferdinand, who fiercely resented being cuckolded; the stern Carol I felt that Marie was unqualified to raise Prince Carol because of her affairs and her young age, as she was only seventeen when Carol was born, while Marie regarded the King as cold, overbearing tyrant who would crush the life out of her son.
Additionally, the childless Carol I, who had always wanted a son, treated Prince Carol as his surrogate son and spoiled him, indulging his every whim. Ferdinand was a rather shy and weak man, overshadowed by the charismatic Marie, who become the most loved member of the Romanian royal family. Growing up, Carol felt ashamed of his father, whom both mother pushed around. Carol's childhood was spent being caught up in an emotional tug-of-war between Carol I and Marie, who had different ideas about how to raise him; the Romanian historian Marie Bucur described the battle between Carol I and Princess Marie as one between traditional 19th century Prussian conservatism as personified by Carol I versus the 20th century liberal and sexually liberated values of the "New Woman" as personified by Princess Marie. Aspects of both Marie's and Carol I's personalities were present in Carol II; because of the battle between the King and Marie, Carol ended being both spoiled and deprived of love. During his teenage years, Carol acquired the "playboy" image, to become his defining persona for the rest of his life.
Carol I expressed some concern at the direction that Prince Carol was taking, as the young Prince's only serious interest was stamp collecting and he spent an inordinate amount of time drinking, chasing after women. Carol become a favorite of gossip columnists around the world owing to the frequent photographs that appeared in the newspapers showing him at various parties with him holding a drink in one hand and a woman in the other. In order to teach the Prince the value of the Prussian virtues, the King had the Prince commissioned as an officer into a Prussian guards regiment in 1913, his time with the 1st Prussian Guards regiment did not achieve the desired results, Carol remained the "playboy prince". Romania in the early 20th century was an intensely Francophile nation, indeed the most Francophile nation in the entire world as the Romanian elite obsessively went about embracing all things French as the model for perfection in everything. To certain extent, Carol was influenced by the prevailing Francophilia, but at the same time he inherited from Carol I, in the words of the American historian Margaret Sankey, a "profound love of German militarism" and the idea that all democratic governments were weak governments.
In November 1914, Carol joined the Romanian Senate, as the 1866 Constitution guaranteed him a seat there upon reaching maturity. Known more for his romantic misadventures than for any leadership skills, Carol was first married in the Cathedral Church of Odessa, Ukraine, 31 August 1918, to Joanna Marie Valentina Lambrino, known as "Zizi", the daughter of a Romanian general, Constantin Lambrino; the fact that Carol technically had deserted as he left his post at the Army without permission to marry Zizi Lambrino caused immense controversy at the time. The marriage was annulled on 29 March 1919 by the Ilfov County Court. Carol and Zizi continued to live together after the annulment, their only child, Mircea Gregor Carol Lambrino, was born 8 January 1920. Carol next married Princess Helen of Greece and Denmark, known in Romania
The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is a biological research center in Maryland. It is one of 17 research centers in the United States run by the U. S. Geological Survey; the center is located on the grounds of the 12,841-acre Patuxent Research Refuge, managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; this is the only National Wildlife Refuge with the purpose of supporting wildlife research. Since its establishment in 1936 as the first wildlife experiment station in the United States, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has been a leading international research institute for wildlife and applied environmental research, for transmitting research findings to those responsible for managing the United States's natural resources, for providing technical assistance in implementing research findings so as to improve natural resource management. Patuxent's scientists have been responsible for many important advances in natural resource conservation in such areas as migratory birds, national monitoring programs for amphibians and birds, wildlife population analysis, waterfowl harvest, habitat management, coastal zone and flood plain management, endangered species, urban wildlife, ecosystem management, management of national parks and national wildlife refuges.
The Center develops and manages national inventory and monitoring programs and is responsible for the North American Bird Banding Program and leadership of other national bird monitoring programs. The Center's scientific and technical assistance publications, wildlife databases, electronic media are used nationally and worldwide in managing biological resources; the focus of the Center's mission and vision for the future is to continue its dynamic international and regional leadership in wildlife research. The Center will enhance its accomplishments in generating, interpreting and transmitting the scientific information needed to better address the pressing problems of managing the United States's biological resources those under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior, other Federal and non-Federal partners. Today's challenges in natural resource management involve new approaches such as adaptive management and ecosystem scale management, partnerships among multiple stakeholders, transfer and use of the huge store of existing information using modern technology.
The Center is a Federal research facility which supports programs in the Department of the Interior. The USGS Biological Resources Division, of which the Center is a part, works with others to provide the information needed to manage the United States's biological resources. Thus, scientific information needs of partner agencies influence much of the Center's scientific agenda; the Center receives funds directly from agencies benefiting from our research and from other partner organizations, such as those co-located at its Laurel headquarters. Such support provides critical resources that enhance the scope and value of the Center's activities, within the mission of the Division. Science conducted at the Center, like any scientific enterprise is driven by the pressing public natural resource needs coupled with the intellectual creativity and motivation of its scientists and technical staff. No research program will succeed; the research of Center scientists must be engaged at the cutting edge of scientific understanding to assure the long term success of natural resources management.
Note: much of this material was copied directly from the USGS web page on Patuxent, a public domain resource. Please edit to make more encyclopedic; the land that now comprises the 12,841 acres of the Patuxent Research Refuge was farmland from the colonial period through at least World War I. Well-known landholders such as the Snowden and Duvall families owned substantial amounts of land during the colonial period and well through the 19th century; the legacy of the Snowden family can still be found in two historic homes of the area, one of which stands on Patuxent Research Refuge property. In addition to these dwellings, there still exists 19 cemeteries between the center and Fort Meade whose headstones bear the inscriptions of both the Snowdens and Duvalls, in addition to lesser-known surnames such as the Woodwards and Waters families. All of the 8,100 acres that makes up what is now called the "North Tract" were transferred in 1991 from the Defense Department's Fort Meade landholdings, it is here.
Prior to the Department of Defense's ownership of the land in 1917, many old roads that would be incorporated into use for training exercises by the Army existed. Part of the DOD's Trainfire Road, now known as the Wildlife Loop, once linked the railroad town of Woodwardville with Laurel, Maryland. Long before the area became a densely wooded haven for wildlife amidst a populated urban corridor, the old Duvall and Lemons Bridges transported people between Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties; the former still exists as a newer bridge rebuilt in the 1940s, whereas only cement posts along either side of the river offer any vestige of what was Lemon's Bridge. The most historic old road of all, which utilized Duvall Bridge, was the old Telegraph Road, it once linked Baltimore and Washington, today it is still possible to see century-old telegraph poles along the road in both the Central and South Tracts. In 1946, scientists found that DDT tests was killing wildlife in tree canopies and causing significant fish kills in the
The 1978 Australian Sports Car Championship was a CAMS sanctioned Australian motor racing title for Group D Production Sports Cars. The title, the tenth Australian Sports Car Championship, was won by Ross Mathiesen, driving a Porsche Carrera; the championship was contested over a four round series. Cars competed in two engine displacement classes. Up to and including 2000cc Over 2000cc Championship points were awarded at each round on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis to the first six finishers in each class, on a 4-3-2-1 to the first four finisher outright, irrespective of class. At rounds which were contested over two heats, round placings were determined by allocating "points" to the first fourteen placegetters in each heat on a 20-16-13-11-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1 basis. Where more than one driver attained the same total, the relevant round placing was awarded to driver gaining the higher place in the last heat. Actual championship points were awarded based on the calculated round placings. Jim Shepherd, Australian Sports Car Championship, 1978, A History of Australian Motor Sport, 1980, pages 178 to 179
Donna Polseno is a contemporary American visual artist known for pottery and sculpture. Donna Polseno earned her Bachelor of Fine Arts at the Kansas City Art Institute and her Master of Arts in Teaching at the Rhode Island School of Design, she lives and works in Floyd and teaches ceramics at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia. Polseno is a founding member of the 16 Hands Studio Tour and director of the Women Working with Clay Symposium. 16 Hands Studio Tour, held annually. Floyd, VA Embodied Form, 2018. List Gallery at Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA Reverences, 2009. Taubman Museum of Art, Roanoke, VA For the Love of Flowers, 2005. Kentucky Museum of Art and Craft, Louisville, KY Biennial of Piedmont Crafts, 1978. Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte, NC American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, CA Ceramics Monthly, March 1990, November 2015
Charles Frederick Horn was an English musician and composer. Born in Germany, he emigrated to London with few possessions and no knowledge of the English language, yet rose to become a music teacher in the Royal Household; as an editor and arranger, he helped introduce the music of Johann Sebastian Bach to England. Born in Nordhausen, Germany to John Wolfgang Horn and Sophia Dorothea Shenaman, Charles Frederick Horn was the third of their four children. According to the memoirs of Charles Frederick's son, Charles Edward Horn, John Wolfgang wished for his son to become a surveyor. Horn would furtively practice music instead. This, did not dissuade Horn from taking music lessons from Nordhausen organist Christoph Gottlieb Schröter. On Schröter's death in 1782, Horn decided to move to Paris to try a living as a musician, he left his home with a suitcase of clothes. En route to Paris, he encountered a stranger in Hamburg by the name of Winkelman, who persuaded the impressionable Horn that London would better serve the aspirations of a young German musician than France.
Winkelman accompanied him to London, but upon arriving, stole all of Horn's money and disappeared. Destitute and knowing no English, he wandered the streets of London before encountering a German-speaking Irishman, who sympathised with his plight; the man took Horn to the piano shop of Longman and Broderip at Cheapside, where Horn played the piano for its co-proprietor, Francis Fane Broderip. Impressed, Broderip introduced Horn to the Saxon ambassador John Maurice de Brühl. de Brühl recommended Horn to Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, who hired him as his daughters' music teacher. The appointment meant that Trentham Hall, Leveson-Gower's estate in Staffordshire, became Horn's new residence. There, he fell in love with Diana Dupont, the French tutor of Leveson-Gower's daughters; the two married on 28 September 1785, subsequently moved to London, where Dupont gave birth to the couple's first child, Charles Edward Horn, on 21 June 1786. Horn published his first composition, Six Sonatas for the Piano and Violoncello, earlier that year in May.
Subscribers to the work included such luminaries as Muzio Clementi, Johann Peter Salomon, George IV, Lady Caroline Waldegrave. The latter introduced Horn to Queen Charlotte. While in her service, he maintained one in London and the other in Windsor, he was engaged from June 1789 to October 1812 to teach music to the royal princesses. During his employment in the royal household, he composed a set of three Sonatas, which he dedicated to the Queen. Horn continued composing numerous pieces, but he is best known for his work in arranging and editing music—in particular, the works of Bach. In 1807, he published an arrangement for two violins and cello/piano for 12 of Bach's organ fugues; the next year, he met Samuel Wesley, with whom he would collaborate in editing and publishing the first complete edition of Bach's six trio sonatas for organ and the first English edition of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Horn, whom Wesley described as "indefatigable", had plans to publish all of Bach's works, but this never came to fruition.
In June 1824, King George IV appointed Horn as organist of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. He stepped down after King George's death on 26 June 1830, died shortly after in Windsor, he was buried at St George's Chapel. Horn was survived by his wife. Six Sonatas for the Piano and Violoncello Three Sonatas for the Piano Forte or Harpsichord, with an Accompaniment for a Violin or a Flute Three Sonatas Twelve Country Dance for the Piano Forte A Collection of Divertimentos The Boatman Themes with Variations A Favorite Overture – Joseph Haydn Sinfonia for a Grand Orchestra – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Celebrated Concertante – Ignaz Pleyel A Sett of 12 Fugues Composed for the Organ by Sebastian Bach arranged as Quartettos – Johann Sebastian Bach A Trio composed for the organ by John Sebastian Bach and now adapted for 3 hands – Johann Sebastian Bach New and correct edition of the Preludes and Fugues of John Sebastian Bach – Johann Sebastian Bach Horn, Charles Edward. Charles Edward Horn's memoirs of his father and himself..
Aldershot: Ashgate. Kassler, Michael. "Horn, Charles Frederick". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 15 May 2008. Kassler, Michael. "Horn, Charles Frederick ". Grove Music Online. Ed. L. Macy. Retrieved on 15 May 2008
Links is the name of a series of golf simulation computer games, first developed by Access Software, later by Microsoft after it acquired Access Software in 1999. Microsoft produced its own series of golf games based on Links, under the title Microsoft Golf; the Links series was a flagship brand for Access, was continued from 1990 to 2003. The first game in the series, Links: The Challenge of Golf, won Computer Gaming World's 1991 Action Game of the Year award. Several versions of the game and expansion packs were created for the PC over the years. In 1996, Access Software introduced Links LS 1997, the first of several Links games to use the LS title. A version for the Xbox named Links 2004 was released in November 2003, it would be the final game in the series. In March 2004, Microsoft announced the cancellation of its 2004 lineup of sports games, allowing the company to focus on improving such games; the company stated, "Links is something that we're taking a hard look at what we need to do."
At the end of 2004, Microsoft sold Indie Built to Take-Two Interactive. Indie Built was shut down in 2006. Many members of the development team now work for TruGolf, a golf simulator company based out of Centerville, Utah; the following games were developed by Access Software Links: The Challenge of Golf Amiga, DOS, Sega CD Links 386 Pro DOS Links Pro, the Macintosh version of Links 386 Pro Links LS 1997 DOS Links LS 1998 Microsoft Windows 95 Links LS 1999 WindowsMicrosoft produced the following games after its purchase of Access Software in 1999. Links Extreme Windows Links LS 2000 Windows Links 2001 Windows Links Championship Edition Windows Links 2003 Windows Microsoft Game StudiosLinks 2003 Championship Edition Windows Links 2004 Xbox The following disks add additional courses to the main Links games. Links: Championship Course: Pinehurst Country Club DOS Links: Championship Course: Firestone Country Club Amiga, DOS Links: Championship Course: Hyatt Dorado Beach Resort DOS Links: Championship Course: Bay Hill Club & Lodge DOS Links: Championship Course: Bountiful Golf Course Amiga, DOS Links: Championship Course: Barton Creek DOS Links: Championship Course: Mauna Kea DOS Links: Championship Course: Troon North DOS Links: Championship Course: Banff Springs DOS Links: Championship Course: The Belfry DOS Links: Championship Course: Innisbrook - Copperhead DOS Links: Championship Course: Pebble Beach DOS Links: Championship Course: Bighorn DOS Links: Championship Course: Castlepines DOS Links: Championship Course: Prairie Dunes DOS Links: Championship Course: Cog Hill DOS Links: Championship Course: Riviera DOS Links: Fantasy Course: Devils Island DOS Links Championship Course: Pelican Hill DOS, Windows Links Championship Course: Valderrama Windows Links Championship Course: Oakland Hills Windows Links: Championship Course: Valhalla Windows Links Championship Course: Congressional Country Club Windows Links LS 2000 10-Course Pack Windows Links Expansion Pack Windows Links 2003 Championship Courses Windows Links Golf Courses Library Before its purchase of Access Software, Microsoft published a series of golf games similar to Links, under the title Microsoft Golf.
The first three games in the series are Windows-compatible versions of the early Links games, which were published for DOS. The first three entries in the Microsoft Golf series were developed by Access Software for Microsoft, were sometimes labeled by publications as Links Lite. Microsoft subsequently published Microsoft Golf 1998 Edition and 1999 Edition, which were developed by Friendly Software as separate games not based on Links. After Access Software was acquired by Microsoft in 1999, Microsoft produced Microsoft Golf 2001 Edition, based on Links, discontinued the Microsoft Golf series to continue with the Links series; the following games were produced in the Microsoft Golf series: Microsoft Golf Windows 3.1 Microsoft Golf 2.0 Windows 3.1/95 Microsoft Golf 3.0 Windows 95 Microsoft Golf 1998 Edition Windows 95 Microsoft Golf 1999 Edition Windows 95 Microsoft Golf 2001 Edition Computer Gaming World in 1996 ranked the 1990 version of Links fifth on the magazine's list of the most innovative computer games, stating that the game "may have inspired more'business machine upgrades' than any other game".
In 1996 Next Generation ranked it 69th on their "Top 100 Games of All Time", contending that "many prefer EA's PGA series, but Links takes the title by a hair's breadth. With real life courses, enough stats and options to choke a horse, Links re-creates everything but the swing."During 1999, Links LS 2000 sold 104,225 copies and earned $4.6 million in the United States. Links 2001 rose to 240,000 copies and $8.2 million in the United States by August 2006, which made it the 84th-best-selling computer game released between January 2000 and August 2006 in the region. Combined sales of all Links games released in the 2000s reached 720,000 copies in the United States by August 2006. In the United States, Links Championship Edition sold over 100,000 copies by August 2006. Links 2003 was a nominee for PC Gamer US's "2002 Best Sports Game" award, which went to Tiger Woods PGA Tour 2003; the magazine's Dan Morris called Li