Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Noam Baron Cohen is an English actor, comedian and film producer. He is known for creating and portraying many fictional satirical characters, including Ali G, Borat Sagdiyev, Brüno, Admiral General Aladeen, Erran Morad, multiple others. Like his idol Peter Sellers, he adopts a variety of accents and guises for his characters and appears out of character. In most of his routines, Baron Cohen's characters interact with unsuspecting people, documentary style, who do not realise they are being set up for comic situations and self-revealing ridicule, his other work includes voicing King Julien XIII in the Madagascar film series and appearing in Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street and Les Misérables. He made a cameo as a BBC News Anchor in Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues. In 2016, he played an English football hooligan brother of an MI6 spy in the comedy film Grimsby, co-starred as Time in the fantasy sequel Alice Through the Looking Glass.
In 2018, Baron Cohen created and starred in Who Is America? for Showtime, his first television project since Da Ali G Show. Baron Cohen was named Best Newcomer at the 1999 British Comedy Awards for The 11 O'Clock Show, since he has received two BAFTA Awards for Da Ali G Show, several Emmy nominations, a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Golden Globe for Best Actor for his work in the feature film Borat. After the release of Borat, Baron Cohen stated that because the public had become too familiar with the characters, he would retire Borat and Ali G. Similarly, after the release of Brüno, Baron Cohen stated he would retire the title character. At the 2012 British Comedy Awards, he received the Outstanding Achievement Award, accepting the award while reprising his Ali G character. In 2013, he received the BAFTA Charlie Chaplin Britannia Award for Excellence in Comedy. Baron Cohen was born in west London, his mother, Daniella Naomi, who worked as a movement instructor, was born in Israel.
His father, Gerald Baron Cohen, a clothing store owner, was raised in Wales. Baron Cohen was raised Jewish, he is fluent in Hebrew as well as his native English. Baron Cohen's maternal family were German Jews who moved to Israel, his paternal family were Ashkenazi Jews, who moved to Pontypridd and London in the United Kingdom, his paternal grandfather, Morris Cohen, added "Baron" to his surname. His maternal grandmother, who lived in Haifa, trained as a ballet dancer in Germany. Baron Cohen has two older brothers: Amnon. Erran has worked on several of Sacha's films. Baron Cohen's cousin, Simon, is an autism researcher. Baron Cohen was educated at The Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, an independent school in Elstree, Hertfordshire. Baron Cohen attended the University of Cambridge, entering Christ's College, where he read history, graduating in 1993 with upper-second-class honours. While attending the Cambridge University Amateur Dramatic Club, Baron Cohen performed in plays such as Fiddler on the Roof and Cyrano de Bergerac, as well as in Habonim Dror Jewish theatre.
After leaving university, Baron Cohen worked for a time as a fashion model. By the early 1990s, he was hosting a weekly programme on Windsor cable television's local broadcasts with Carol Kirkwood, who became a BBC weather forecaster. In 1995, Channel 4 was planning a replacement for its series The Word, disseminated an open call for new television presenters. Baron Cohen sent in a tape of himself in the character of Kristo, an Albanian fictional television reporter, which caught the attention of a producer. Baron Cohen hosted Pump TV from 1995 to 1996. Peter Sellers, known for portraying a wide range of comic characters using different accents and guises, was referred to by Baron Cohen as "the most seminal force in shaping early ideas on comedy". In 1996, he began presenting the youth chat programme F2F for Granada Talk TV and had a small role in an advert for McCain Microchips playing the role of a chef in a commercial entitled "Ping Pong", he took clown training in Paris, at the Ecole Philippe Gaulier, studying under master-clown Philippe Gaulier.
Of his former pupil, Gaulier says: "He was a good clown, full of spirit". In the late 1990s, Baron Cohen made his first feature film appearance in the British comedy The Jolly Boys' Last Stand. In 2000, Baron Cohen played the part of Super Greg for a series of TV advertisements for Lee Jeans. Baron Cohen appeared during two-minute sketches as his fashion reporter Brüno on the Paramount Comedy Channel during 1998, he shot to fame when his comic character Ali G, an uneducated, boorish junglist, hailing from Staines, started appearing on the British television show The 11 O'Clock Show on Channel 4, which first aired on 8 September 1998. A year after the première of the show, GQ named him comedian of the year, he won Best Newcomer at the 1999 British Comedy Awards, at the British Academy Television Awards he was nominated for Best British Entertainment Performance. Da Ali G Show began in 2000, won the BAFTA for Best Comedy in the following year. In 2000, Baron Cohen as Ali G appeared as the limousine driver in Madonna's 2000 video "Music", directed by Jonas Åkerlund, responsible for directing the titles for Da Ali G Show.
Baron Cohen is a supporter of the UK charity telethon Comic Relief, broadcast on the BBC, as Ali G interviewed David Beckham and wife Victoria in 2001. In 2002, Ali G was the central character in the fe
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
BBC Breakfast is a British Breakfast television programme on BBC One and BBC News channels. The simulcast is presented live from the BBC Television Centre before moving to MediaCityUK in 2012; the programme contains a mixture of news, weather and feature items and is broadcast 365 days a year. Breakfast Time was the first BBC breakfast programme, with Ron Neil as producer, it was conceived in response to the plans of the commercial television company TV-am to introduce a breakfast television show. Breakfast Time's first broadcast was on 17 January 1983 and was presented by Frank Bough, Selina Scott, Nick Ross and Russell Grant; the atmosphere of the set was intended to encourage a relaxed informality. Breakfast Time lasted 150 minutes being transmitted between 6.30 am and 9 am—moving to a 6.50 am to 9.20 am slot on 18 February 1985. A bomb detonated at 2:54 a.m. on 12 October 1984 in the Grand Hotel, with the purpose to kill Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet, who were staying at the hotel for the Conservative Party conference meant that Nick Ross presented Breakfast Time on his own, as live coverage came in from Brighton.
Ron Neil, the programme's first editor, departed from the programme and on 10 November 1986 a more conventional news focus was introduced featuring a news desk, presenters in smart dress and a time-reduced programme broadcast that began at 7 am and ended any time between 8.30 am and 8.55 am. Presenters included John Stapleton, Jeremy Paxman and Sally Magnusson. On 2 October 1989, the programme was renamed BBC Breakfast News, followed a more authoritative tone with a set modelled on the conventional desk style found with main news bulletins, started at 6.30 am. The programme had been planned to start in September but was postponed due to the set not being ready; the first episode was presented by Jill Dando. In January 1993, both programmes moved to the 6th floor N2 studio in a set used for the One and Nine o'clock news. Again composer, George Fenton reworked the theme tune for the Silicon Graphics CGI, where for title sequences were designed in-house by the BBC, with the set built by Television Production Design Ltd, the business news coverage extended to an hour-long programme in its own right, beginning at 6:00 am.
Breakfast News started at 7:00 am. A further revamp occurred in June 1997 when BBC was dropped from the logo and opening sequence becoming just Breakfast News. On 2 October 2000 the merging of the separate breakfast programmes of BBC One and BBC News 24 into one single simulcast called BBC Breakfast started, with the first show hosted by Sophie Raworth and Jeremy Bowen; the studio was replaced with a new set in 2003. Since April 2006, the BBC News channel has screened rolling news coverage from 8.30 am while Breakfast continues on BBC One until 9.15 am. In April 2008, BBC News 24 was renamed "BBC News", as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's news output, complete with a new studio and presentation. On 2 May 2006, Breakfast moved into studio N6 at Television Centre with other BBC One news programmes that required a larger set design that included walls of Barco video screens; the original screen scenes of cirrus clouds on a blue sky were changed as a result of viewer comments that'it looked too cold'—their replacement was with orange squares of the same design as those appearing in the programme's new title sequence, which were designed to hide any joins or faults between the screens, obvious.
The screens displayed visuals needed for story content: different backgrounds and still photographs. More the set had a generic visual style that could be used for other programmes, such as the national news bulletins, without much additional physical change; the programme celebrated its 20th anniversary on 17 January 2003. On 28 January 2008, Breakfast returned to the TC7 studios, where Breakfast Time had been based following its move from the BBC Lime Grove Studios. On 2 March 2009, Breakfast relaunched with a new studio background; the backdrop resembled that of the BBC News channel. In May 2009 as part of costcutting the live broadcasts of the business news from the London Stock Exchange were dropped. In July 2010, the BBC announced; the BBC announced that with the April 2012 move to Salford, co-presenter Sian Williams and sports presenter Chris Hollins preferred not be included in the move to the North of England. Williams left Breakfast on 15 March 2012. On 12 December 2011, the first of several presenter changes was announced.
Louise Minchin would, with the studio move to Salford, join the other main presenters of BBC Breakfast: Bill Turnbull, Susanna Reid and Charlie Stayt. Carol Kirkwood, on 26 March 2012, would remain in London presenting weather. Sports presenters Mike Bushell and Sally Nugent and business presenter Steph McGovern would locate to Salford; the first Breakfast edition from Salford occurred on Tuesday 10 April 2012. London-based newspapers have reported extensive criticism of the BBC move, but a decrease in audience has not occurred with the retention of an approximate average of 1.5 million viewers. The 2012 Summer Olympics prompted BBC Breakfast to temporarily broadcast from an interim studio near the Olympic Park in Stratford. During the games, former presenters Sian Williams and Chris Hollins returned to lead the morning programme, in addition to Bill Turnbull and BBC Sport presenter Hazel Irvine; the show ended its temporary London return with broadcasting from the BBC News Channel's studio on the morning f
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change. Once calculated by hand based upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, knowledge of model performance, knowledge of model biases; the inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes.
Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine. Since outdoor activities are curtailed by heavy rain and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, to plan ahead and survive them. In 2009, the US spent $5.1 billion on weather forecasting. For millennia people have tried to forecast the weather. In 650 BC, the Babylonians predicted the weather from cloud patterns as well as astrology.
In about 350 BC, Aristotle described weather patterns in Meteorologica. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. Chinese weather prediction lore extends at least as far back as 300 BC, around the same time ancient Indian astronomers developed weather-prediction methods. In New Testament times, Christ himself referred to deciphering and understanding local weather patterns, by saying, "When evening comes, you say,'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red', in the morning,'Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.' You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times."In 904 AD, Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, translated into Arabic from an earlier Aramaic work, discussed the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations. Ancient weather forecasting methods relied on observed patterns of events termed pattern recognition. For example, it might be observed that if the sunset was red, the following day brought fair weather.
This experience accumulated over the generations to produce weather lore. However, not all of these predictions prove reliable, many of them have since been found not to stand up to rigorous statistical testing, it was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 100 miles per day, but was more 40–75 miles per day. By the late 1840s, the telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received instantaneously, allowing forecasts to be made from knowledge of weather conditions further upwind; the two men credited with the birth of forecasting as a science were an officer of the Royal Navy Francis Beaufort and his protégé Robert FitzRoy. Both were influential men in British naval and governmental circles, though ridiculed in the press at the time, their work gained scientific credence, was accepted by the Royal Navy, formed the basis for all of today's weather forecasting knowledge.
Beaufort developed the Wind Force Scale and Weather Notation coding, which he was to use in his journals for the remainder of his life. He promoted the development of reliable tide tables around British shores, with his friend William Whewell, expanded weather record-keeping at 200 British Coast guard stations. Robert FitzRoy was appointed in 1854 as chief of a new department within the Board of Trade to deal with the collection of weather data at sea as a service to mariners; this was the forerunner of the modern Meteorological Office. All ship captains were tasked with collating data on the weather and computing it, with the use of tested instruments that were loaned for this purpose. A storm in 1859 that caused the loss of the Royal Charter inspired FitzRoy to develop charts to allow predictions to be made, which he called "forecasting the weather", thus coining the term "weather forecast". Fifteen land stations were established to use the telegraph to transmit to him daily reports of weather at set times leading to the first gale warning service.
His warning service for shipping was initiated in February 1861, with the use of telegraph communications. The first daily weather forecasts were published in The Times in 1861. In the following year a system was introduced of hoistin
BBC World News
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any channel, with an estimated 99 million viewers weekly in 2015/16, part of the estimated 265 million users of the BBC's four main international news services. Launched on 11 March 1991 as BBC World Service Television outside Europe, its name was changed to BBC World on 16 January 1995 and to BBC World News on 21 April 2008; the service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, DW, France 24 and RT. It broadcasts news bulletins, lifestyle programmes and interview shows. Unlike the BBC's domestic channels, BBC World News is owned and operated by BBC Global News Ltd. part of the BBC's commercial group of companies, is funded by subscription and advertising revenues, not by the United Kingdom television licence. It is not owned by BBC Studios; the channel started as BBC World Service Television and was a commercial operation. The British government refused to fund to the new television service using grant-in-aid.
The channel started broadcasting on 11 March 1991, after two weeks of real-time pilots as a half-hour bulletin once a day at 19:00 GMT. In 1995, BBC World Service Television was split into two services: BBC World started broadcasting on Monday, 16 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became a 24-hour English free-to-air international news channel. BBC Prime started broadcasting on Monday, 30 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became the BBC's light entertainment channel renamed BBC Entertainment. BBC World's on-air design was changed on 3 April 2000, bringing it closer to the look of its sister channel in the UK, known as BBC News 24, the on-air look of, redesigned in 1999; the look of both channels was made up of red and cream and designed by Lambie-Nairn, with music based on a style described as'drums and beeps' composed by David Lowe, a departure from the general orchestral nature of music used by other news programmes. On 8 December 2003 a second makeover, using the same'drums and beeps' style music but new graphics took place, although on a much smaller scale to that of 2000.
The music was changed while the main colour scheme became black and red, with studios using frosted glass and white and red colours. In 2004, the channel's slogan became Putting News First, replacing Demand a Broader View; the channel's present name -BBC World News- was introduced on 21 April 2008 as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's overall news output and visual identity. BBC World News moved to the renovated studio vacated by BBC News 24. New graphics were produced by the Lambie-Nairn design music reworked by David Lowe. BBC World News relocated to Broadcasting House from its previous home at Television Centre on 14 January 2013; this was part of the move of BBC News and other audio and vision departments of the BBC into one building in Central London. Broadcasting House was refurbished at a cost of £1 billion. A new newsroom and several state-of-the-art studios were built. Live news output originates from studios B and C in Broadcasting House with some recorded programming from Broadcasting House studio A and the BBC Millbank studio.
The BBC World News newsroom is now part of the new consolidated BBC Newsroom in Broadcasting House along with BBC World Service and UK domestic news services. The channel was broadcast in 4:3, with the news output fitted into a 14:9 frame for both digital and analogue broadcasting, resulting in black bands at the top and bottom of the screen. On 13 January 2009 at 09:57 GMT, BBC World News switched its broadcast to 16:9 format in Europe on Astra 1L satellite, Eutelsat Hot Bird 6 satellite to other broadcast feeds in the Asian region from 20 January 2009; as a result of the move to Broadcasting House, BBC World News gained high-definition studios and equipment to be able to broadcast in high-definition. On 5 August 2013, BBC World News was offered as a High Definition feed across the Middle East when it launched its international HD channel on Arabsat. Arabsat was the BBC's first distribution partner in the Middle East to offer the channel in HD. On 1 April 2015 BBC World News in English started broadcasting in high definition from the 11.229 GHz/V transponder on Astra 1KR at the 19.2°E orbital position, available free-to-air to viewers with 60 cm dishes across Europe and coastal North Africa.
BBC World News claims to be watched by a weekly audience of 74 million in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. BBC World News is most watched as a free-to-air channel; the channel is available in many parts of the world via satellite or cable platforms. In the United States, the channel is available through providers such as Cablevision, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-verse; as of 2014, U. S. distribution and advertising sales for the channel are handled by AMC Networks, who are the minority partner for the BBC's entertainment channel BBC America. In addition, BBC World News syndicates its daytime and evening news programmes to public television stations throughout the U. S. maintaining a distribution partnership with Garden City, New York-based WLIW that lasted from 1998 until October 2008, when the BBC and WLIW mutually decided not to renew the contract. BBC World News subsequently entered into an agreement with Community Television of Southern California, Inc. in which Los Angeles PBS member station KCET would take over distribution rights to BBC World News America (the KCET agreement has since been extended to encompass a half-hour simulcas