Kingston, Rhode Island
Kingston is a village and a census-designated place in the town of South Kingstown, Rhode Island, United States, the site of the main campus of the University of Rhode Island. Much of the village center is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Kingston Village Historic District. Kingston was first settled in the late seventeenth century. Known as Little Rest, the name was changed to Kingston in 1826, it was the county seat for Washington County from 1752 until 1894, when a new courthouse was built in nearby West Kingston. West Kingston is the site of the historic Kingston Railroad Station which opened in June, 1875; the station is served by Amtrak on its Northeast Corridor. South Kingstown established the Kingston Historic District in 1959, much of Kingston village became a National Register historic district in 1974 as Kingston Village Historic District; the historic district is located just outside the campus of the University of Rhode Island and contains many fine examples of 18th and 19th century architecture.
The historic district includes 38 buildings. The University of Rhode Island was established at Kingston in 1888 as the Rhode Island Agricultural School and Agricultural Experiment Station, by funding from the Hatch Act of 1887. In 1892 the Agricultural School became the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts with funding from the Second Morrill Land Grant Act of 1890 becoming Rhode Island State College in 1909 and the University of Rhode Island in 1951. In addition to the university, major businesses in Kingston include APC by Schneider Electric and the Arnold Lumber Company. Public schools are operated by the South Kingstown School District. Educational institutions in Kingston include: The Compass School, a public K-8 charter school Kingston Hill Academy, a public K-5 charter school University of Rhode Island Gordon Research Conferences center Religious denominations represented with churches and synagogues in Kingston or on the university campus are Roman Catholicism, the United Church of Christ, United Methodists, Baptists and Judaism.
Wakefield, Rhode Island Peace Dale, Rhode Island Narragansett, Rhode Island George Fayerweather Blacksmith Shop Great Swamp Fight Kingston South County History Center Tavern Hall Preservation Society/Elisha Reynolds House Tootell House Washington County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island Images of America: Kingston by Betty J. Cotter. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, c. 1999 ISBN 978-0-7385-6364-0 Lost South Kingstown: with a history of ten of its early villages by Kathleen Bossy and Mary Keane. Kingston, R. I.: Pettaquamscutt Historical Society, c. 2004 A History of Kingston, R. I. 1700 – 1900: Heart of Rural South County by Christian M. McBurney. Kingston, R. I.: The Pettaquamscutt Historical Society, c. 2004 Kingston, Rhode Island travel guide from Wikivoyage Town of South Kingstown, Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island at Curlie
Ashaway, Rhode Island
Ashaway is an unincorporated village and census-designated place in the town of Hopkinton in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. It is a principal village of Hopkinton, along with Hope Valley, although it is the smaller of the two; the population was 1,485 at the 2010 census. The name Ashaway is derived from the American Indian name for the river that runs through the village, the Ashawague or Ashawaug, which means "land in the middle" or "land between" in the Niantic and Mohegan languages; the name "Ashawague River" appears as late as 1832 on the Findley map of Rhode Island published in Philadelphia, PA. Ashaway is located at 41°25′23″N 71°47′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.2 km². 6.2 km² of it is land and 0.1 km² of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,485 people, 566 households, 418 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 239.5/km². There were 617 housing units at an average density of 99.5/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.14% White, 0.88% African American, 1.55% American Indian, 0.88% Asian, 1.48% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.83% of the population. There were 566 households, out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.1% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 19% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 24% from 25 to 44, 31% from 45 to 64, 19% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.3 years. There were 95.3 males for every 100 females, 92.3 males age 18 and over for every 100 females age 18 and over. The median income for a household in the CDP during 2000 was $47,271, the median income for a family was $49,125. Males had a median income of $41,375 versus $25,556 for females.
The per capita income for the CDP was $21,149. About 6.6% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Ashaway, RI is the city of license for radio station WSUB-LP known as 96.7 FM The Buzz. Its antenna is atop the old Bradford Dyeing Association smokestack, but the designated city of license is Ashaway by the Federal Communications Commission. WSUB-LP is owned and operated by The Buzz Alternative Radio Foundation, Inc
Queen Anne style architecture
The Queen Anne style in Britain refers to either the English Baroque architectural style of the reign of Queen Anne, or a revived form, popular in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century. In British architecture the term is used of domestic buildings up to the size of a manor house, designed elegantly but by local builders or architects, rather than the grand palaces of noble magnates. Contrary to the American usage of the term, it is characterised by bilateral symmetry with an Italianate or Palladian-derived pediment on the front formal elevation; the architectural historian Marcus Binney, writing in The Times in 2006, describes Poulton House built in 1706, during the reign of Queen Anne, as "... Queen Anne at its most delightful". Binney lists what he describes as the typical features of the style: a sweep of steps leading to a carved stone door-case rows of painted sash windows in boxes set flush with the brickwork stone quoins emphasizing corners a central triangular pediment set against a hipped roof with dormers box-like "double pile" plans, two rooms deepWhen used of revived "Queen Anne style" of the 19th and 20th century the historic reference in the name should not be taken too as buildings in the Queen Anne style bear as little resemblance to English buildings of the 18th century as those of any revival style to the original.
Furthermore, the Queen Anne style in other parts of the English-speaking world in the United States and Australia, is different from that in the United Kingdom, may hardly include any elements typical of the actual architecture of Anne's reign. George Devey and the better-known Norman Shaw popularized the Queen Anne style of British architecture of the industrial age in the 1870s. Norman Shaw published a book of architectural sketches as early as 1858, his evocative pen-and-ink drawings began to appear in trade journals and artistic magazines in the 1870s. Shaw's eclectic designs included Tudor elements, this "Old English" style became popular in the United States, where it became known as the Queen Anne style. Confusion between buildings constructed during the reign of Queen Anne and the "Queen Anne" style still persists in England. In the late 1850s the name "Queen Anne" was in the air, following publication in 1852 of William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, The History of Henry Esmond, Esq.
A Colonel in the Service of Her Majesty Queen Anne. One minor side-effect of Thackeray's novel and of Norman Shaw's freehand picturesque vernacular Renaissance survives to this day. When, in the early 1870s, Chinese-inspired Early Georgian furniture on cabriole legs, featuring smooth expanses of walnut, chairs with flowing lines and slat backs began to be looked for in out-of-the-way curio shops, the style was mis-attributed to the reign of Queen Anne, the "Queen Anne" misnomer has stuck to this day, in American as well as English furniture-style designations; the British Victorian version of the style empathises more with the Arts and Crafts movement than does its American counterpart. A good example is Severalls Hospital in Colchester, now defunct; the historic precedents of the Queen Anne style were broad: fine brickwork in a warmer, softer finish than the Victorians characteristically used, varied with terracotta panels, or tile-hung upper stories, with crisply-painted white woodwork, or blond limestone detailing oriel windows stacked one above another corner towers asymmetrical fronts and picturesque massing Flemish mannerist sunken panels of strapwork shadowed entrances broad porches overall, a domesticated free Renaissance style When an open architectural competition took place in 1892 for a county hall to be built in Wakefield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the instructions to competitors noted that "the style of architecture will be left to the competitors but the Queen Anne or Renaissance School of Architecture appears suited to an old town like Wakefield".
The executed design, by architects James Gibson and Samuel Russell of London, combines a corner turret, grandly domed and with gargoyles at the angles combined with Flemish Renaissance stepped gables. In the 20th century Edwin Lutyens and others used an elegant version of the style with red-brick walls contrasting with pale stone details. In the United States, the so-called "Queen Anne style" is loosely used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free Renaissance" details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. "Queen Anne", as an alternative both to the French-derived Second Empire and the less "domestic" Beaux-Arts architecture, is broadly applied to architecture and decorative arts of the period 1880 to 1910. The gabled and domestically scaled "Queen Anne" style arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry Sidney V. Stratton, architect, 1878). Distinctive features of American Queen Anne style may include an asymmetrical façade.
Hopkinton, Rhode Island
Hopkinton is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 8,188 at the 2010 census. Hopkinton is named after Stephen Hopkins, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations when the town was partitioned from Westerly and incorporated in 1757. Hopkinton once featured a number of industrial villages, such as Locustville, Moscow and Wood River Iron Works, each being named after the mill which they surrounded. Today only Hope Valley, Rockville and Bradford are recognized with a post office. A section of the town has its own post office known as "Hopkinton." The town hall is located in the village of Hopkinton City, once a major stagecoach hub.. Hopkinton borders Richmond and Charlestown, it is on the Pawcatuck River on the Connecticut border. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.1 square miles, of which 43.0 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Hopkinton is the southernmost town along Rhode Island's portion of Interstate 95 and is the first Rhode Island town that northbound travelers encounter.
Hope Valley in the north and Ashaway in the south are the two primary villages in Hopkinton. Two of the four elementary schools in the Chariho Regional School District are located in Hopkinton, one in Hope Valley and one in Ashaway. Other villages that are located in Hopkinton include Barberville, Bradford, Canonchet, Hopkinton City, Moscow, South Hopkinton and Yawgoog. All were formed from mills on rivers. Hope Valley and Ashaway have extended their borders as census-designated places into other less-known villages; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,836 people, 2,965 households, 2,182 families residing in the town. There were 3,112 housing units at an average density of 72.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.82% White, 0.61% African American, 0.89% American Indian, 0.43% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 2,965 households, out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families.
21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.07. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $52,181, the median income for a family was $59,143. Males had a median income of $39,804 versus $29,189 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,835. About 3.3% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature Hopkinton is located in the 34th Senate District, represented by Republican Francis T. Maher, Jr. and in the 38th District in the Rhode Island House of Representatives by Democrat Brian Patrick Kennedy.
At the Federal level, Hopkinton is located in Rhode Island's 2nd Congressional District, represented by James Langevin. In the United States Senate, Hopkinton is represented by U. S. Senator John F. Reed and U. S. Senator Sheldon Whitehouse; the Aldrich and the Rockefeller families each built a small mansion in the Hope Valley region of Hopkinton before the families merged. The Rockefeller house now serves as the rectory for St. Joseph's Parish. Prudence Crandall taught the first desegregated classroom in the United States.
Weekapaug, Rhode Island
Weekapaug is a census-designated place in southern Washington County, Rhode Island, part of the town of Westerly, Rhode Island. "Weekapaug" is a Narragansett word meaning "at the end of the pond". The area is not as well known as neighboring Watch Hill, Rhode Island though it has had summer cottages since 1877, it was known as "Noyes Beach" from 1701 to 1899, named after Reverend James Noyes who purchased 300 acres. The Winnapaug and Quonochontaug salt ponds dominate the area; each pond is open to the Atlantic Ocean via a breachway lined with rock jetties. Most of the rock is granite, available in the Westerly area and used to be its primary industry. Aubin, George Francis.. A Proto-Algonquian Dictionary. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Huden, John C.. Indian Place Names of New England, Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation. Weekapaug Foundation espo.gso.uri.edu timeline Phish History
A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system. Although some were driven by animal power, most early mills were built in rural areas at fast-flowing rivers and streams using water wheels for power; the development of viable steam engines by Boulton and Watt from 1781 led to the growth of larger, steam-powered mills allowing them to be concentrated in urban mill towns, like Manchester, which with neighboring Salford had more than 50 mills by 1802. The mechanization of the spinning process in the early factories was instrumental in the growth of the machine tool industry, enabling the construction of larger cotton mills. Limited companies were developed to construct mills, the trading floors of the cotton exchange in Manchester, created a vast commercial city. Mills generated employment, drawing workers from rural areas and expanding urban populations.
They provided incomes for women. Child labor was used in the mills, the factory system led to organized labor. Poor conditions became the subject of exposés, in England, the Factory Acts were written to regulate them; the cotton mill a Lancashire phenomenon, was copied in New England and in the southern states of America. In the 20th century, North West England lost its supremacy to the United States to Japan and subsequently to China. In the mid-16th century Manchester was an important manufacturing centre for woollens and linen and market for textiles made elsewhere; the fustian district of Lancashire, from Blackburn to Bolton, west to Wigan and Leigh and south towards Manchester, used flax and raw cotton imported along the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. During the Industrial Revolution cotton manufacture changed from a domestic to a mechanized industry, made possible by inventions and advances in technology; the weaving process was the first to be mechanized by the invention of John Kay's flying shuttle in 1733.
The manually-operated spinning jenny was developed by James Hargreaves in about 1764 speeded up the spinning process. The roller spinning principle of Paul and Bourne became the basis of Richard Arkwright's spinning frame and water frame, patented in 1769; the principles of the spinning jenny and water frame were combined by Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule of 1779, but water power was not applied to it until 1792. Many mills were built after Arkwright's patent expired in 1783 and by 1788, there were about 210 mills in Great Britain; the development of cotton mills was linked to the development of the machinery. By 1774, 30,000 people in Manchester were employed using the domestic system in cotton manufacture. Handloom weaving lingered into the mid-19th century but cotton spinning in mills relying on water power and subsequently steam power using fuel from the Lancashire Coalfield began to develop before 1800; the first cotton mills were established in the 1740s to house roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt.
The machines were the first to spin cotton mechanically "without the intervention of human fingers". They were driven by a single non-human power source which allowed the use of larger machinery and made it possible to concentrate production into organized factories. Four mills were set up to house Paul and Wyatt's machinery in the decade following its patent in 1738: the short-lived, animal-powered Upper Priory Cotton Mill in Birmingham in 1741; the Paul-Wyatt mills spun cotton for several decades but were not profitable, becoming the ancestors of the cotton mills that followed. Richard Arkwright obtained a patent for his water frame spinning machinery in 1769. Although its technology was similar to that of Lewis Paul, John Wyatt, James Hargreaves and Thomas Highs, Arkwright's powers of organization, business acumen and ambition established the cotton mill as a successful business model and revolutionary example of the factory system. Arkwright's first mill – powered by horses in Nottingham in 1768 – was similar to Paul and Wyatt's first Birmingham mill although by 1772 it had expanded to four storeys and employed 300 workers.
In 1771, while the Nottingham mill was at an experimental stage and his partners started work on Cromford Mill in Derbyshire, which "was to prove a major turning point in the history of the factory system". It resembled the Paul-Wyatt water-powered mill at Northampton in many respects, but was built on a different scale, influenced by John Lombe's Old Silk Mill in Derby and Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory in Birmingham. Constructed as a five-storey masonry box. Arkwright recruited large disciplined workforces for his mills, managed credit and supplies and cultivated mass consumer markets for his products. By 1782 his annual profits exceeded £40,000, by 1784 he had opened 10 more mills, he licensed his technology to other entrepreneurs and in 1782 boasted that his machinery was being used by "numbers of adventurers residing in the different counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, York and Lancashire" and by 1788 there were 143 Arkwrig
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c