The Caroline Islands are a scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia in the eastern part of the group, Palau at the extreme western end; this area was called Nuevas Filipinas or New Philippines as they were part of the Spanish East Indies and governed from Manila in the Philippines. The Carolines span a distance of 3540 kilometers, from Tobi, Palau at the westernmost point to Kosrae at the easternmost; the group consists in the Pacific Ocean. Most of the islands comprise low, flat coral atolls; the native inhabitants speak a variety of Micronesian languages including Pohnpeian, Chuukese and Kosraean, as well as the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages Palauan and Chamorro, the unclassified language Yapese. Other significant populations include Filipinos and Japanese; the natives live on horticulture and fishing supplementing their diet with many different varieties of bananas and taro, either of the "swamp" or "purple" varieties.
On some islands housing continues to be built with local materials including coconut thatch. The language spoken in commerce is English, they traditionally believe in a Supreme Being and in a bad spirit, yet they have hardly any religious rites. Due to extensive missionary work, Christianity is the primary religion practiced in this region of Micronesia. Micronesian Navigator Mau Piailug was from the Carolinian island of Satawal, he learned the traditional navigation techniques of the Weriyeng school. These techniques had been preserved while similar techniques had been forgotten elsewhere due to the remoteness of the Carolinian Islands. In the 1970s Mau shared his knowledge with the Polynesian Voyaging Society which led to a revival of traditional Polynesian navigation and a new anthropological understanding of the history of Polynesian and Micronesian peoples. In 1985 a study was made on the origin of the sidereal compass used in the Caroline Islands. Different islands and island groups in the Carolines passed down unique and variant oral legends recounting the origins and early histories of their peoples.
On Pohnpei, for example, pre-colonial history is divided into three eras: Mwehin Kawa or Mwehin Aramas. Pohnpeian legend recounts that the Saudeleur rulers, the first to bring government to Pohnpei, were of foreign origin; the Saudeleur centralized form of absolute rule is characterized in Pohnpeian legend as becoming oppressive over several generations. Arbitrary and onerous demands, as well as a reputation for offending Pohnpeian deities, sowed resentment among Pohnpeians; the Saudeleur Dynasty ended with the invasion of Isokelekel, another semi-mythical foreigner, who replaced the Saudeleur rule with the more decentralized nahnmwarki system in existence today. In mid-1525 a storm carried the Portuguese navigators Diogo da Rocha and Gomes de Sequeira eastward from the Moluccas; the Spanish explorers Toribio Alonso de Salazar and Diego de Saavedra arrived on August 22, 1526, sighting the Island of San Bartolomé or Taongui. On 1 January 1528 the discoverer Álvaro de Saavedra took possession of the Ulithi Islands on behalf of the King of Spain.
Spanish explorers visited the archipelago in 1542, 1543, 1545. In 1565 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Governor-General of the Philippines, passed through; the islands, known to contemporary Spaniards as Islas de las Hermanas, Hombres Pintados and Los Jardines, dropped out of European consciousness until 1686, when Francisco de Lezcano came to Yap and called the islands Las Carolinas, in honor of Charles II of Spain. The name was extended to include the Palau Islands and the archipelagos which were named the Gilbert Islands and the Marshall Islands by British explorers who visited them a century between 1788 and 1799; the colonization of the Caroline Islands had, as in most of the Spanish colonies, a marked religious character. A royal decree of October 19, 1707 granted authorization for the sending of missionaries in several expeditions to the islands. One such expedition was made by Father Juan Antonio Cantova, killed; as a result, Spain ceased relations with the Caroline Islands until 1787.
Relations resumed but with a distinctly commercial character. In 1852 the Spanish colonel Coello suggested to the Spanish government that the effective occupation of the Caroline Islands provided trade advantages between the Philippines and Australia, New Guinea and the Americas, but Spain ignored his suggestions until 1885. In that year, the Spanish representative Butron and the kings of Koror and Artingal signed an act which recognized the sovereignty of the king of Spain on the Carolines. Having secured the territory, Spain attempted to establish custom duties in the region in 1875, but Germany and the United Kingdom protested because Spain's previous abandonment of the islands had allowed the arrival of German and British missions there. A conflict arose, leading to the submission of these facts for arbitration by Pope Leo XIII, who recognized Spanish rights on the islands west of the 164th meridian east.
Nasty Habits is a 1977 British comedy film directed by Michael Lindsay-Hogg, starring Glenda Jackson, Melina Mercouri, Geraldine Page, Rip Torn and Susan Penhaligon. It is based on Muriel Spark's novel The Abbess of Crewe. At the little-known and wealthy Abbey of Philadelphia the Abbess, Sister Hildegard, is dying, she wishes her favorite, Sister Alexandra, to succeed her but dies moments before she can make her endorsement public. Alexandra conspires with Sisters Gertrude and Walburga to win the coming election, to defeat her rival, Sister Felicity, carrying on an affair with a Jesuit priest, Father Thomas. Alexandra orders hidden microphones and cameras installed throughout the convent, hires a pair of Jesuit students and Ambrose, to break in and steal Thomas's compromising letters from Sister Felicity's sewing box; the break-in is discovered, but the real meaning is kept hidden and Alexandra wins the election by a landslide. Once she is made Abbess, Alexandra expels and excommunicates Felicity, who begins a public campaign to topple Alexandra.
At the same time, the publicity brings the abbey to the attention of the Holy See, which discovers that the order is an unofficial one, with no actual ties to the Roman Catholic Church. To make matters worse and Ambrose blackmail Gertrude and Walburga, who send the bungling Sister Winifred to pay them off only to have the whole scandal made public; the film and the original novel were a satire on the presidency of Richard Nixon and the Watergate scandal, including Alexandra's parting line as she boards a plane to Rome to answer charges from the Vatican. The characters are parallels of Watergate conspirators. Vincent Canby in The New York Times wrote that Glenda Jackson had her best role in years, that the film was "very funny" but was too uneven to be successful; the film was released on VHS tape in 1989, on DVD in 2014
John Robert Ruddy is a Scottish footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for CD Leganés B in Spain. Born in Glasgow, Ruddy was on the books of hometown team Rangers from the age of seven to twelve, being coached by Andy Goram, before emigrating to Murcia in Spain in 2010. At the age of fifteen, after impressing for Torre Pacheco, he signed a contract for Real Murcia. Ruddy went on trial with Villarreal, but he was unable to sign a professional contract with any Spanish club due to a regulation requiring young players to have resided in Spain for at least five years. On 30 July 2014, Ruddy returned to the United Kingdom, he was first featured in a matchday squad on 8 November, remaining an unused substitute for their 3–1 win over Hemel Hempstead Town at Gigg Lane in the first round of the FA Cup. Ruddy was first included in a league game on 28 December, again remaining on the bench in a 2–0 League Two triumph of the same score against Mansfield Town, repeating the feat four times as the team earned promotion to League One.
Ruddy made his professional debut on 14 November 2015, playing the full 90 minutes of a 3–1 League One loss at Gillingham in what turned out to be his only first team appearance for Bury. On 29 August 2016 Ruddy signed for Championship club Wolverhampton Wanderers on a two-year deal, with the option of a further year, for an undisclosed fee, he was named on the bench once over the season, for a 3–1 loss at Derby County on 29 April 2017. In December 2017, he extended his contract until the end of the 2019–20 campaign. On 31 August 2017, Ruddy was sent on loan to League One side Oldham Athletic until 1 January, he was loaned to Scottish League One club Ayr United. Ruddy was one of nine Wolves youngsters loaned to Spanish Segunda División B team FC Jumilla in August 2018, he made four appearances and was sent off at the end of his last game, a 2–2 draw at CD El Ejido, for insulting the referee. On 1 February 2019, he joined S. S. Reyes of the same league until the end of the season. Ruddy was released by Wolves during the 2019 close season.
Ruddy signed a six-month contract with Ross County in July 2019. Ruddy has represented Scotland at the under-19 and under-21 levels; as of match played 23 July 2019 Scottish League One: 2017–18 Jack Ruddy at Soccerbase Jack Ruddy at the Scottish Football Association Jack Ruddy at Soccerway