The Carolinian forest is a life zone in eastern North America characterized by a predominance of deciduous trees. The term "Carolinian forest" is used in Canada, therefore refers only to the northernmost portion of the overall region, in Southern Ontario. Various terms, including "eastern deciduous forest" or "eastern woodlands", are used in the United States; these types of forest reside on southern Ontario near lake Erie. The Carolinian zone extends across much of the eastern United States, from the Carolinas northward, into Southern Ontario, Canada; the Canadian portion of the region is in the fertile ecozone of the Mixedwood Plains and includes ecodistricts 7E-1 to 7E-6. The greatest extent of forest coverage in the region as a whole is in the Carolinas, the Virginias, Tennessee, Delaware, eastern Ohio, parts of New York state and Rhode Island, it covers much less area in parts of southern Michigan and western Ohio. Trees found here include various species of ash, chestnut, hickory and walnut.
Fruit trees native to this zone include the pawpaw. Animal life includes raccoons, squirrels and chickadees; the Carolinian forest in Canada is located at the southern tip of Ontario and contains an high biodiversity of species, over 500 of which are considered rare. A list of rare species found in the Carolinian forest of Ontario can be found here; the reason for the high biodiversity in this region is its unique climate. This distinctive climate is due to the nearby Great Lakes which moderate the temperature of the surrounding land; the high fertility of the land has seen the region become developed and populated, with agricultural, industrial and urban areas. Today, the Carolinian Zone contains major cities and is home to one quarter of Canada's population despite being 0.25% of the total land area. The deforestation of the region for this development has led to significant habitat loss and fragmentation, leaving the remaining portions of land scattered and disconnected, with some areas still threatened by human development.
In total, it is estimated that forest cover has been reduced from 80% to 11.3% while wetlands reduced from 28.3% to 5.1%. In addition to habitat loss and fragmentation, the native Carolinian species are being threatened by invasive species such as garlic mustard and buckthorn, overgrazing by White-tailed deer. A list of invasive species in the Carolinian zone can be found here; this has resulted in the Carolinian zone becoming the most threatened region in Ontario, with over 125 species of plants and animals listed as either vulnerable, threatened or endangered by the federal or provincial governments. This is endangered species in Canada. A full list of these species can be found here. Along with being diverse, the Carolinian Forest has many threatened species. One reason for this is urbranization in Southern Ontario; some of these threatened or endangered species are the American Badger, Midland Painted Turtle, Jefferson Salamander, Monarch Butterfly, Southern Flying Squirrel, the Canada Warbler.
When it comes to the American Badger, fewer than 200 are left in the wild. Some parts of the remaining natural area in the Carolinian zone are protected in an effort to conserve the region and its unique, diverse biota. For example, today there are many protected areas including Point Pelee National Park, 21 provincial parks, many conservation areas; some of the best preserved areas of Canada's Carolinian forest are located in Windsor's Ojibway Park and Rondeau Provincial Park near Morpeth, Ontario. There are organizations like the Carolinian Canada Coalitionwho aim to restore the region as much as possible. One group, working on conservation in the Carolinian Forest is a group by the name, In the zone, their aim is to help guide individuals on how to turn their gardens into places that help the local wildlife. Fauna: White-tailed deer Virginia opossum American badger Hooded warbler Prothonotary warbler Carolina wren Yellow-breasted chat Red bellied woodpecker Barn owl Grey fox Southern flying squirrel Eastern hognose snake Eastern spiny softshell turtle Eastern fox snake Karner blue butterflyFlora: Eastern prickly pear cactus Tulip tree Sassafras Miami mist Kentucky Coffee Tree Flowering Dogwood Black Walnut American Chestnut Sycamore Red Mulberry Black Gum Ausable River Catfish Creek Credit River Grand River Kettle Creek Sydenham River Thames River Twenty Mile Creek Welland River Nith River Oak Ridges Moraine Rouge Park Barker's Bush Awenda Provincial Park Point Pelee National Park Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Carolinian Canada
The premiership of Mariano Rajoy over Spain spanned from 2011 to 2018. Mariano Rajoy became Prime Minister of Spain on 20 December 2011, after his People's Party's landslide victory in the 2011 general election; the PP's overall majority of 186 seats gave Rajoy a free hand to handle the country's political and economic situation for the next four years, attaining a parliamentary stability that his predecessor, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, had not enjoyed. However, Rajoy's use of decree-laws and the blocking of opposition bill amendments and parliamentary committees would earn him strong criticism from both the media and opposition parties throughout the Legislature, because of the perceived undue use his party made of such an absolute majority. In contrast, the previous ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party had suffered from the worsening economic situation, having its worst electoral performance since 1977 and being ousted from power amidst a climate of high unpopularity. Then-Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero had decided to stand down as PM candidate in early 2011, as party leader once the quadrennial party conference—due for March 2012—was held.
Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, PSOE candidate for the 2011 election and former Deputy Prime Minister, was elected as the new party's Secretary General in a tight fight against former Defence Minister Carme Chacón. After taking office, Rajoy's government popularity in opinion polls began to erode after its U-turn on economic policy, which included the breaching of many election pledges. After it had promised to lower taxes during the election campaign of 2011, Rajoy's government announced a first austerity package ten days into office—including new tax rises and a spending cut worth €9 billion—as a result of a larger-than-expected public deficit of 8%; this was followed by a harsh labour reform, criticised as paving the way to cheapen dismissals and, met with widespread protests and two general strikes in March and November 2012, an austere state budget for 2012. The crash of Bankia, one of the largest banks of Spain, in May 2012 resulted in a dramatic rise of the Spanish risk premium, in June the country's banking system needed a bailout from the International Monetary Fund.
It was revealed that Bankia directed by Rodrigo Rato, former PP politician, had falsified its accounts between 2011 and 2012 in order to create a false illusion that it was creditworthy. A major spending cut of €65 billion followed in July 2012, including a VAT rise from 18% to 21% which the PP itself had opposed during its time in opposition, after the previous Socialist government had raised the VAT to 18%. At this time, incumbent Finance Minister Cristóbal Montoro came under public scrutiny after being accused of telling other opposition MPs, back in 2010, to "let Spain fall, we will get it up", in reference to a PP political opportunist attempt at forcing the fall of Zapatero's cabinet in order to have an early election, which the PP would have won. Montoro recognized this fact, but justified himself in that he "was working in an alternative. If Zapatero had shortened the legislature, he would have saved much suffering to all Spaniards". New spending cuts and legal reforms followed throughout 2012 and 2013, including cuts in budget credit lines for the health care and education systems, the implementation of a pharmaceutical copayment, a reform of the pension system which stopped guaranteeing the increase of pensioners' purchasing power accordingly to the consumer price index, the suppression of the bonus for public employees, or the withdrawal of public subsidies to the dependent people care system.
Other measures, such as a fiscal amnesty in 2012 allowing tax evaders to regularize their situation by paying a 10% tax—later reduced to 3%—and no criminal penalty, had been rejected by the PP during its time in opposition. Additionally, public funding to rescue the Spanish banking system from bankruptcy amounted to €61 billion by late 2013, despite Rajoy having stated during the 2011 campaign that he "would never give public money to help banks". Most of these measures were not included in the PP 2011 election manifesto and, many of the pledges included within were not fulfilled. Rajoy argued that "reality" prevented him from fulfilling his programme, that he had been forced to adapt to the new economic situation he found upon his accession to government; the impact of the government's economic reforms on the Spanish economy was mixed. Unemployment, which peaked in Q1 2013 at 6,202,700 and an unprecedented unemployment rate of 27.16%, had decreased to 2011 levels by late 2015, with 4,850,800 unemployed and 21.18%.
This fall was attributed by critics and economists to a decrease in the labour force—resulting from many Spaniards emigrating in search of job in other countries—and an increase in temporary contracts, with newly created employments being dubbed as precarious. The risk premium decreased from a record 638 basis points in July 2012 to 113 in October 2015, but it was considered that it had come as a result from the European Central Bank actions under Mario Draghi of reducing interest rates, which had benefitted other countries. Public deficit was reduced from 10.3% in 2012 to 5.8% in 2014, while public debt peaked at 98.0% of the GDP in mid-2015 from 69.2% in 2011. In the domestic field, the 2011–2015 period was dominated by a perceived regression in social and political rights. Spending cuts on the health care and education systems had fueled an increase in inequality among those without enough financial resources to afford those services. Justice Minister Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón's authorization of the enforcement and increase of court fees, requiring the payment of between €50 and €750 to appeal to the c
Anaheim Canyon is a Metrolink train station in Anaheim, Orange County, United States, served by the Inland Empire–Orange County Line. The station is adjacent to the Anaheim Canyon professional area, it is located at 1039 North Pacificenter Drive, near La Palma Avenue and North Tustin Avenue. It is a stop for Orange County Transportation Authority buses. Anaheim Canyon at the Metrolink website "MetroLink Adds Later Evening Train to Inland Empire" - Los Angeles Times "Agenda" - Los Angeles Times "Train collision near LA kills one, hurts 265" - The Deseret News "Ocean-bound residents flock to train for access" - The Press Enterprise "Trains collide in California" - The Free Lance Star