click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Carotene

The term carotene is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals. Carotenes are photosynthetic pigments important for photosynthesis. Carotenes contain no oxygen atoms, they absorb ultraviolet and blue light and scatter orange or red light, yellow light. Carotenes are responsible for the orange colour of the carrot, for which this class of chemicals is named, for the colours of many other fruits and fungi. Carotenes are responsible for the orange colours in dry foliage, they impart the yellow coloration to milk-fat and butter. Omnivorous animal species which are poor converters of coloured dietary carotenoids to colourless retinoids have yellowed-coloured body fat, as a result of the carotenoid retention from the vegetable portion of their diet; the typical yellow-coloured fat of humans and chickens is a result of fat storage of carotenes from their diets. Carotenes contribute to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy.

They protect plant tissues by helping to absorb the energy from singlet oxygen, an excited form of the oxygen molecule O2, formed during photosynthesis. Β-Carotene is composed of two retinyl groups, is broken down in the mucosa of the human small intestine by β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase to retinal, a form of vitamin A. β-Carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as needed, thus making it a form of vitamin A for humans and some other mammals. The carotenes α-carotene and γ-carotene, due to their single retinyl group have some vitamin A activity, as does the xanthophyll carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin. All other carotenoids, including lycopene, have no beta-ring and thus no vitamin A activity. Animal species differ in their ability to convert retinyl containing carotenoids to retinals. Carnivores in general are poor converters of dietary ionone-containing carotenoids. Pure carnivores such as ferrets lack β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase and cannot convert any carotenoids to retinals at all.

Chemically, carotenes are polyunsaturated hydrocarbons containing 40 carbon atoms per molecule, variable numbers of hydrogen atoms, no other elements. Some carotenes are terminated on one or both ends of the molecule. All are coloured to the human eye, due to extensive systems of conjugated double bonds. Structurally carotenes are tetraterpenes, meaning that they are synthesized biochemically from four 10-carbon terpene units, which in turn are formed from eight 5-carbon isoprene units. Carotenes are found in plants in two primary forms designated by characters from the Greek alphabet: alpha-carotene and beta-carotene. Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, zeta-carotene exist. Since they are hydrocarbons, therefore contain no oxygen, carotenes are fat-soluble and insoluble in water; the following foods contain carotenes in appreciable amounts: Absorption from these foods is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble, if the food is cooked for a few minutes until the plant cell wall splits and the color is released into any liquid.

12 μg of dietary β-carotene supplies the equivalent of 1 μg of retinol, 24 µg of α-carotene or β-cryptoxanthin provides the equivalent of 1 µg of retinol. The two primary isomers of carotene, α-carotene and β-carotene, differ in the position of a double bond in the cyclic group at one end. Β-Carotene is the more common form and can be found in yellow and green leafy fruits and vegetables. As a rule of thumb, the greater the intensity of the orange colour of the fruit or vegetable, the more β-carotene it contains. Carotene protects plant cells against the destructive effects of ultraviolet light. Β-Carotene is an antioxidant. An article on the American Cancer Society says that The Cancer Research Campaign has called for warning labels on β-carotene supplements to caution smokers that such supplements may increase the risk of lung cancer; the New England Journal of Medicine published an article in 1994 about a trial which examined the relationship between daily supplementation of β-carotene and vitamin E and the incidence of lung cancer.

The study was done using supplements and researchers were aware of the epidemiological correlation between carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and lower lung cancer rates. The research concluded that no reduction in lung cancer was found in the participants using these supplements, furthermore, these supplements may, in fact, have harmful effects; the Journal of the National Cancer Institute and The New England Journal of Medicine published articles in 1996 about a trial with a goal to determine if vitamin A and β-carotene supplements had any beneficial effects to prevent cancer. The results indicated an increased risk of lu

Allan Marat

Allan S. M. Marat CBE is a Papua New Guinean politician, he served as Minister for Justice and Attorney General in Prime Minister Michael Somare's Cabinet from August 2007 to May 2010. In May 2010, he publicly stated that major mining projects in the country brought little benefit to local communities, workers or businesses, he "questioned legislation affecting the Ombudsman Commission". Prime Minister Somare asked him to resign which he did; as a consequence of his resignation, Marat informed the Prime Minister that his Melanesian Liberal Party would "cut ties" with the government. He was replaced as Justice Minister by Ano Pala, he has served as Deputy Prime Minister and Acting Governor-General. In August 2011, Peter O'Neill became Prime Minister in the wake of a parliamentary motion of no confidence in the government of Acting Prime Minister Sam Abal. O'Neill appointed Marat as his Minister for Justice, Attorney General. In November, as the Supreme Court prepared to hear a case on the legitimacy of the O'Neill government, Deputy Prime Minister Belden Namah ordered the suspension of Chief Justice Sir Salamo Injia, as Injia was facing charges of "breaching a contempt order, mismanaging court finances".

The government said Injia's removal had nothing to do with the pending case on the government's legitimacy. The Supreme Court responded by ordering Namah's arrest, that of Allan Marat, he was, for a time, leader of the People's Progress Party, until he was ousted from that position in October 2003. He is now a member of the Melanesian Liberal Party, he was the first Papua New Guinean. His thesis was on the "official recognition of customary responses to homicide in Papua New Guinea". Marat was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 Birthday Honours for "service to law, the national government and the East New Britain community"

Strathmore Road Historic District

The Strathmore Road Historic District is a residential historic district on Strathmore Road and Clinton Path in Brookline, Massachusetts. It consists of six brick apartment blocks, four of which lie on Strathmore Road, two of which lie on Clinton Path; the two streets form a loop just south of the westernmost portion of Beacon Street, abutting the MBTA Green Line yard at Cleveland Circle. The district is reflective of the area's growth as a commuter suburb following the development of the rail line along Beacon Street, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Beacon Street and the rail line were extended to Cleveland Circle in the 1880s, the area was soon developed to provide housing for commuters into Boston. Charles Newhall and George Johnston were two major developers whose projects line Beacon Street, who were responsible for the development of Strathmore Road as well; this development took place between 1904 and 1908. The buildings are 3-1/2 story brick buildings, most designed by either James Hutchinson or Murdock Boyle.

Five of the six buildings were built by Johnston. They are built with consistent setbacks, large enough to provide each building with a small front yard, with sufficient space to allow for the planting of trees; the basic styling of most of the buildings is either Classical Revival. Typical features include limestone wedges above the windows, cornices with dentil molding and modillions. Two of the buildings are Romanesque in style, using rusticated brownstone and with round-arched entries. National Register of Historic Places listings in Brookline, Massachusetts

Dianthus plumarius

Dianthus plumarius known as the common pink, garden pink, or wild pink, is a species of pink-coloured flower in the family Caryophyllaceae. Dianthus plumarius is a compact ground cover evergreen reaching on average 30–60 centimetres of height; the stem is green, erect and branched on the top, the leaves are opposite, simple and sessile, more or less erect and flexuous, with a sheath embracing the stem. They are about 10 centimetres long; the calyx is a green cylindrical tube about 2 centimetres long, with reddish teeth. The flowers are radially symmetric, gathered in scapes of 3–5 flowers, with 10 stamens, they have 10 -- 15 millimetres long, with fringed margins. The flowering period extends from May through August; the fruits are capsules with a few seeds. This species is native to Austria and Slovenia, naturalized to Italy and the United Kingdom. In the United States, is known to grow, invasively, in Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Wisconsin, New York State, New Hampshire, Vermont and California While the origin of the name of the flower is uncertain, within two decades of its 1570 appearance in the written record, that flower's name was being used to refer to the pastel red known as pink in English today.

Whether the pinking shear shares a common origin, or is named after the flower, is uncertain. List of Award of Garden Merit dianthus

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Przemyƛl

The Archdiocese of Przemyśl is an archdiocese located in the city of Przemyśl in Poland. April 13, 1375: Established as Diocese of Przemyśl March 25, 1992: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Przemyśl Minor Basilicas: Bazylika Panny Marii, Jarosław Bazylika pw. Ducha Świętego, Przeworsk Bazylika pw. Trójcy Przenajświętszej, Krosno Bazylika pw. Trójcy Przenajświętszej, Leżajsk Bazylika pw. Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Marii Panny, Stara Wieś Archbishops of Przemyśl Archbishop Adam Szal Archbishop Józef Michalik Archbishop Ignacy Tokarczuk Bishops of Przemyśl Archbishop Ignacy Tokarczuk Bishop Franciszek Barda Bishop Anatol Nowak Bishop Józef Sebastian Pelczar Bishop Luca Solecki Bishop Mattia Hirschler Bishop Adam Jasiński Archbishop Francesco Saverio Wierzchleyski Bishop Józef Tadeusz Kierski Bishop Andrzej Mikołaj Stanisław Kostka Młodziejowski Bishop Walenty Franciszek Wężyk Archbishop Wacław Hieronim Sierakowski Bishop Waclaw Hieronim Sierakowski Bishop Alexander Antoni Pleszowice Fredro Bishop Krzysztof Andrzej Jan Szembek Bishop Jan Kazimierz de Alten Bokum Bishop Jan Stanisław Zbąski Bishop Piotr Gembicki Bishop Andrzej Szołdrski Archbishop Jan Wężyk Archbishop Wojciech Baranowski Rzeszów Zamość-Lubaczów Roman Catholicism in Poland GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy Diocese website

Beira Railroad Corporation

The Beira Railroad Corporation is a railway company formed by a lease from the Mozambique Ports and Railways to the Indian Rites and Ircon International consortium to operate a railroad that originates from the port of Beira, Mozambique as a terminal. The 1,067 mm Cape gauge Beira line is important as it provides port access for landlocked states such as Zimbabwe, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga Province; the Beira railroad established a connection to Salisbury, now Harare, in 1899 and had been a link in the rail system of southern Africa. Building of the Beira railway started in 1892, during the Portuguese rule of the territory of Mozambique. First, a 610 mm narrow gauge railway was constructed from Beira to the border city Mutare in Zimbabwe, in total 357 kilometres long and opened on 4 February 1898. In 1893 work started in Vryburg, Cape Province, South Africa, to construct a 1,067 mm Cape gauge railway to the north to be connected to the Beira Railway. In 1898 a 1,067 mm Cape gauge line from Salisbury to Mutare was opened, with subsequent conversion of the connecting 610 mm narrow gauge stretch to Beira in 1900.

In 1905, the railway was completed after the opening of the Victoria Falls Bridge at the border of Zambia. The 610 mm narrow gauge locomotives were acquired by the South African Railways to be designated to SAR Class NG6. Nineteenth-century 610 mm narrow gauge steam locomotives of the Beira Railway; the Beira railway has two major segments, the Machipanda line to Zimbabwe, the Sena line to the coal fields of Moatize with further connection to Malawi. After Mozambique gained independence in 1975, both segments were damaged during the guerrilla fighting in the 1980s when RENAMO sabotaged the railroad. Operational activity has been regained on the Machipanda line, rehabilitation of the Sena line has been completed to Moatize, a town in Central Mozambique, the first coal train from there to the port of Beira, operated by the Brazilian-based firm Vale, operated in August 2011. Benguela railway Congo Railway History of rail transport in Mozambique Malawi Railways National Railways of Zimbabwe Railway stations in Mozambique Transport in Mozambique Zambia Railways Indian management of Beira railroad A potted history of the railway Railroads of Central and Southern Africa Documents and clippings about Beira Railroad Corporation in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW