A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship, developed in the 14th to 15th centuries in Europe. Evolved from the single-masted cog, the carrack was first used for European trade from the Mediterranean to the Baltic and found use with the newly found wealth of the trans-Atlantic trade between Europe and the Americas. In their most advanced forms, they were used by the Portuguese for trade between Europe and Asia starting in the late 15th century, before being superseded in the 17th century by the galleon, introduced in the 16th century. In its most developed form, the carrack was a carvel-built ocean-going ship: large enough to be stable in heavy seas, for a large cargo and the provisions needed for long voyages; the carracks were square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and lateen-rigged on the mizzenmast. They had a high rounded stern with large aftcastle and bowsprit at the stem; as the predecessor of the galleon, the carrack was one of the most influential ship designs in history.

English carrack was loaned in the late 14th century, via Old French caraque, from carraca, a term for a large, square-rigged sailing vessel used in Spanish and Middle Latin. These ships were called caravela or nau in Portuguese and Genoese, carabela or nao in Spanish, caraque or nef in French, kraak in Dutch; the origin of the term carraca is unclear from Arabic qaraqir "merchant ship", itself of unknown origin or the Arabic القُرْقُورُ and from thence to the Greek κέρκουρος meaning "lighter". Its attestation in Greek literature is distributed in two related lobes; the first distribution lobe, or area, associates it with certain light and fast merchantmen found near Cyprus and Corfu. The second is an extensive attestation in the Oxyrhynchus corpus, where it seems most to describe the Nile barges of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Both of these usages may lead back through the Phoenician to the Akkadian kalakku, which denotes a type of river barge; the Akkadian term is assumed to be derived from a Sumerian antecedent.

A modern reflex of the word is found in Turkish kelek "raft. By the Late Middle Ages the cog, cog-like square-rigged vessels equipped with a rudder at the stern, were used along the coasts of Europe, from the Mediterranean, to the Baltic. Given the conditions of the Mediterranean, galley type vessels were extensively used there, as were various two masted vessels, including the caravels with their lateen sails; these and similar ship types were familiar to Portuguese shipwrights. As the Portuguese extended their trade further south along Africa's Atlantic coast during the 15th century, they needed larger, more durable and more advanced sailing ships for their long oceanic ventures, they developed their own models of oceanic carracks from a fusion and modification of aspects of the ship types they knew operating in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean, generalizing their use in the end of the century for inter-oceanic travel with a more advanced form of sail rigging that allowed much improved sailing characteristics in the heavy winds and waves of the Atlantic Ocean and a hull shape and size that permitted larger cargoes.

In addition to the average tonnage naus, some large naus were built in the reign of John II of Portugal, but were only widespread after the turn of the century. The Portuguese carracks were very large ships for their time over 1000 tons, having the future large naus of the India run and of the China and Japan trade other new types of design. A typical three-masted carrack such as the São Gabriel had six sails: bowsprit, mainsail and two topsails. In the middle of the 16th century the first galleons were developed from the carrack; the galleon design came to replace that of the carrack although carracks were still in use as late as the middle of the 17th century due to their larger cargo capacity. Starting in 1498, Portugal initiated for the first time direct and regular exchanges between Europe and India - and the rest of Asia thereafter - through the Cape Route, a journey that required the use of larger vessels, such as carracks, due to its unprecedented length, about 6 months. On average, 4 carracks connected Lisbon to Goa carrying gold to purchase spices and other exotic items, but pepper.

From Goa, one carrack went on to Ming China. Starting in 1541, the Portuguese began trading with Japan, exchanging Chinese silk for Japanese silver. In 1557 the Portuguese acquired Macau to develop this trade in partnership with the Chinese; that trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited by the rulers of Japan on the grounds that the ships were smuggling Catholic priests into the country. The Japanese called referring to the colour of the ship's hulls; this term would come to refer to any western vessel, not just Portuguese. Santa María, in which Christopher Columbus made his first voyage to America in 1492. São Gabriel, flagship of Vasco da Gama, in the 1497 Portuguese expedition from Europe to India by circu

Calculus of concepts

The calculus of concepts is an abstract language and theory, developed to simplify the reasons behind effective messaging when delivered to a specific target or set of targets. The theory aims to maximize the likelihood of desired outcomes, by using messaging elements and techniques while analyzing the delivery mechanisms in certain scenarios; the reduction of uncertainty, but not its elimination, is cost effective and practical. Empowered by the internet of things the framework looks at numerous device such as smart phones, laptops, hand held gaming devices, GPS devices, automobile Event Data Recorders and other electronic devices as remote sensors capable of providing data channels. By using elements, the theory discovers underlying key concepts and their relations to better understand how messages can by used to elicit desired behaviors through mental model heuristics and biases; the framework does not serve up spam to potential consumers. The nature of the data produced and consumed by devices in the IoT lends itself to location-based awareness.

Just-in-time and real-time broadcasting of key messages gives the framework an extra dimension, putting it at the forefront of behavioral methodologies. Broadcasting can take place across a number of platforms, photographic, audio or direct human contact; the use of anchoring-and-adjustment and representativeness heuristics provides fertile grounds for “re-wiring” the decision making processes to include either positive or mitigating mental models of a given concept or set of related concepts. The “re-wiring” will produce results that have a significant impact on decisions and behaviors on the target audience; the framework analyses key factors that influence the effectiveness of messaging mechanisms and how differing approaches can lead to different results. The calculus of concepts framework has been implemented utilizing a combination of Naive Bayes classification and Support Vector Machines algorithms to identify the key components of a messaging campaign and its effectiveness; the effectiveness of a communications campaign is measured by numerous results including reach and duration.

The training data set for the model implementation utilized the potential messages and delivery mechanisms with Actors, Objects and Indicia as a few examples. Each concept within the framework is treated by the practical implementation as either an independent or dependent variable and therefore may have a meaningful effect on the outcome of any communication; as with any machine-learning tool the Calculus of Concepts model implementation inputs can be either nominal or ordinal and depending on the particular case. Between 2005 and 2012 one of the largest oil companies in China attempted to buy the twelfth biggest oil company in Canada. Initial proposals and takeover plans were rejected due to a number of issues surrounding political tensions. Stakeholders identified Environment, Domain, Condition, Decision, Actor and Object concepts that needed to be in place to have the key decision makers utilizing the mental models needed to secure the takeover. Over the next 7 years messaging activities were fielded by the Chinese company and its authorized agents designed to elicit Ideations and Decisions that would result in the takeover going through.

In 2012, the takeover was completed after concerted field messaging activity. The process of communication: an introduction to theory and practice David Kenneth Berlo The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America Boorstin, Daniel J Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking Hadnagy, Christopher Sway: The Irresistible Pull of Irrational Behavior Brafman, Brafman, Rom

Marshallton, Chester County, Pennsylvania

Marshallton is an unincorporated community and federal historic district in West Bradford Township, Chester County, United States. It is one of three historic districts in West Bradford Township that are on the National Register of Historic Places; the village is known for its historic buildings, some notable restaurants, the nearby Highland Orchards, a pick-your-own orchard offering a variety of produce year round and popular for its apples and pumpkins as well as products made from the same. Highland Orchards is a frequent field trip destination for local schools in the fall; the Marshallton Historic District encompasses 3 contributing sites. It includes the separately listed Humphry Marshall House, Marshalton Inn, Bradford Friends Meetinghouse, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. History of West Bradford and Marshallton