A barn is an agricultural building on farms and used for various purposes. In the North American area, a barn refers to structures that house livestock, including cattle and horses, as well as equipment and fodder, grain; as a result, the term barn is qualified e.g. tobacco barn, dairy barn, sheep barn, potato barn. In the British Isles, the term barn is restricted to storage structures for unthreshed cereals and fodder, the terms byre or shippon being applied to cow shelters, whereas horses are kept in buildings known as stables. On the Continent, barns were part of integrated structures known as byre-dwellings. In addition, barns may be used for equipment storage, as a covered workplace, for activities such as threshing; the word barn comes from the Old English bere, for barley, aern, for a storage place—thus, a storehouse for barley. The word bere-ern spelled bern and bearn, is attested to at least sixty times in homilies and other Old English prose; the related words bere-tun and bere-flor both meant threshing floor.
Bere-tun meant granary. While the only literary attestation of bere-hus comes from the Dialogi of Gregory the Great, there are four known mentions of bere-tun and two of bere-flor. A Thesaurus of Old English lists melu-hudern as synonyms for barn; the modern barn developed from the three aisled medieval barn known as tithe barn or monastic barn. This, in turn, originated in a 12th-century building tradition applied in halls and ecclesiastical buildings. In the 15th century several thousands of these huge barns were to be found in Western-Europe. In the course of time, its construction method was adopted by normal farms and it spread to simpler buildings and other rural areas; as a rule, the aisled barn had a passage corridor for loaded wagons. The storage floors between the central posts or in the aisles were known as mows; the main types were large barns with sideway passages, compact barns with a central entrance and smaller barns with a transverse passage. The latter spread to Eastern Europe.
Whenever stone walls were applied, the aisled timber frame gave way to single-naved buildings. A special type were byre-dwellings, which included living quarters and stables, such as the Frisian farmhouse or Gulf house and the Black Forest house. Not all, evolved from the medieval barn. Other types descended from other building traditions. One of the latter was the Low German house. In many cases, the New World colonial barn evolved from the Low German house, transformed to a real barn by first generation colonists from the Netherlands and Germany. In the U. S. older barns were built from timbers hewn from trees on the farm and built as a log crib barn or timber frame, although stone barns were sometimes built in areas where stone was a cheaper building material. In the mid to late 19th century in the U. S. barn framing methods began to shift away from traditional timber framing to "truss framed" or "plank framed" buildings. Truss or plank framed barns reduced the number of timbers instead using dimensional lumber for the rafters and sometimes the trusses.
The joints began to become nailed instead of being mortised and tenoned. The inventor and patentee of the Jennings Barn claimed his design used less lumber, less work, less time, less cost to build and were durable and provided more room for hay storage. Mechanization on the farm, better transportation infrastructure, new technology like a hay fork mounted on a track contributed to a need for larger, more open barns, sawmills using steam power could produce smaller pieces of lumber affordably, machine cut nails were much less expensive than hand-made nails. Concrete block began to be used for barns in the early 20th century in the U. S. Modern barns are more steel buildings. From about 1900 to 1940, many large dairy barns were built in northern USA; these have gambrel or hip roofs to maximize the size of the hay loft above the dairy roof, have become associated in the popular image of a dairy farm. The barns that were common to the wheatbelt held large numbers of pulling horses such as Clydesdales or Percherons.
These large wooden barns when filled with hay, could make spectacular fires that were total losses for the farmers. With the advent of balers it became possible to store hay and straw outdoors in stacks surrounded by a plowed fireguard. Many barns in the northern United States are painted barn red with a white trim. One possible reason for this is that ferric oxide, used to create red paint, was the cheapest and most available chemical for farmers in New England and nearby areas. Another possible reason is that ferric oxide acts a preservative and so painting a barn with it would help to protect the structure. With the popularity of tractors following World War II many barns were taken down or replaced with modern Quonset huts made of plywood or galvanized steel. Beef ranches and dairies began building smaller loftless barns of Quonset huts or of steel walls on a treated wood frame. By the 1960s it was found. In older style North American barns, the upper area was used to store hay and sometimes grain.
This is called the hayloft. A large door at the top of the ends of the barn could be opened up so that hay could be put in the loft
Charles O. Boynton Carriage House
The Charles O. Boynton Carriage House is a prominent structure in the Sycamore Historic District, located in Sycamore, Illinois; the Sycamore Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The Carriage House is considered one of more than 150 contributing properties to the overall historic integrity of the district; the carriage house was built at the same time as the Queen Anne residence, next door, of Sycamore businessman and land speculator, Charles O. Boyton, in 1887; the home and the carriage house were held as one property until the Charles O. Boynton House was sold out of the Boynton family in 1986. At that time the building was converted for use as office space, a function it still served in 2007
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people horse-drawn. The carriage is designed for private passenger use, though some are used to transport goods. A public passenger vehicle would not be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach and omnibus, it may be light and fast or heavy and comfortable or luxurious. Carriages have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. Working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot; the word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage. The word car meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century. A carriage is sometimes called a team, as in "horse and team". A carriage with its horse is a rig. An elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout. A procession of carriages is a cavalcade. X Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints.
Four-wheeled wagons were used in the Bronze Age Europe, their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then. Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as harappa, mohenjo daro and chanhu daro; the earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC. Used for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses; the chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness. First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys, it is that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. During the Zhou dynasty of China, the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation.
With the decline of these city-states and kingdoms, these techniques disappeared. The medieval carriage was a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it likely employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were used by royalty and could be elaborately decorated and gilded; these carriages were on four wheels and were pulled by two to four horses depending on how they were decorated. Wood and iron were the primary requirements needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the size of pageant wagons; the pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or 3 wheels.
Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages. Pivotal axles were used on the middle set of wheels; this allowed the horse to move and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path. One of the great innovations of the carriage was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant. The'chariot branlant' of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed. Chains provided a smoother ride in the chariot branlant because the compartment no longer rested on the turning axles. In the 15th century, carriages were needed only one horse to haul the carriage; this carriage innovated in Hungary. Both innovations appeared around the same time and historians believe that people began comparing the chariot branlant and the Hungarian light coach.
However, the earliest illustrations of the Hungarian'Kochi-wagon' do not indicate any suspension, the use of three horses in harness. Under King Mathias Corvinus, who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and
A guest house is a kind of lodging. In some parts of the world, guest houses are a type of inexpensive hotel-like lodging. In still others, it is a private home, converted for the exclusive use of guest accommodation; the owner lives in an separate area within the property and the guest house may serve as a form of lodging business. This type of accommodation presents some major benefits such as: Personalized attention Healthy and homemade food Quietness Inexpensiveness Modern design In some areas of the world, guest houses are the only kind of accommodation available for visitors who have no local relatives to stay with. Among the features which distinguish a guest house from a hotel, or inn is the lack of a full-time staff. Bed and breakfasts and guest houses in England are family owned and the family live on the premises though family members are not available during the evening; however most family members work a 10- to 12-hour day from 6am as they may employ part-time service staff. Hotels maintain a staff presence 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, whereas a guest house has a more limited staff presence.
Because of limited staff presence, check in at a guest house is by appointment. An inn usually has a restaurant attached. In India, a tremendous growth can be seen in the guest house business in Delhi-NCR where progress in IT sector and Commonwealth Games 2010 were two most influential factor. Nowadays guest house accommodation sector has improved itself a lot. A home converted guest house is offering 3 stars equivalent facilities to its guests. People living in a paying guest house can be from different states and cultures so one who lives in PG accommodation choose these good points so that their life become easy and comfortable. Sharing and adjustments Acknowledging the small matters Exchanging of contact numbers Keeping focus on study Using of eye band and ear plugs Participating in get-together Safety check Generally there are two variations of paying guest house: Home converted guest house Professionally run guest house with all necessary amenities and staffIn the first version of the guest house you have to live with a family where you get shelter and food only and for rest of the jobs like washing of clothes and utensils, cleaning of room or area around your bed is to be done by yourself.
In the second version, you get the all necessary amenities which are required to live life comfortably like a furnished room, comfortable bed, air-conditioner, TV, hot and cold water supply and one important aspect, security. A big plus point of a professionally run paying guest accommodation service is that the owner follows the safety norms set by their local government; some of the important safety points are: Fire safety with regular fire drills Disaster management Updated safety equipments Information sign boards for guests and staff Government certifications Hotel Ryokan Secondary suite
Carriage House Studios
Carriage House Studios is a recording studio located in the suburbs of Stamford, Connecticut. Established in 1980, the Carriage House has recorded well-known artists like Diana Ross, Derek Trucks, Johnny Winter, Rakim, Ronnie Dio, Phyllis Hyman, Spyro Gyra, Pixies. Throughout the 1980s, the Carriage House recorded orchestral parts for B-movies, such as Missing in Action and Silver Bullet. Voice-overs for Shrek 2 were recorded at the Carriage House. Albums recorded and/or mixed at Carriage House Studios, included the Pixies' Doolittle, Pantera's Cowboys from Hell, the Deftones' Saturday Night Wrist. Metal bands Fates Warning and Overkill recorded albums here. Artists Blind Hate Experiment Diana Ross Deftones Derek Trucks Johnny Winter Meatloaf Rakim Pantera Ronnie James Dio Phyllis Hyman Spyro Gyra Fistful of Mercy Pixies Sugar Beyoncé Ayọ Bob Mintzer Dave Brubeck Dave Eggar Gordon Gano Jupiter One Michel Camilo Mike Stern Ode To Orpheus Rachel Sage The Yellowjackets The Vanderbuilts Throwing Muses Victor Borge Paul Nelson Sisario, Ben.
Doolittle 33⅓. Continuum, 2006. ISBN 0-8264-1774-4. Official website
An office is a room or other area where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it; when used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In law, a company or organization has offices in any place where it has an official presence if that presence consists of a storage silo rather than an establishment with desk-and-chair. An office is an architectural and design phenomenon: ranging from a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of small size, through entire floors of buildings, up to and including massive buildings dedicated to one company. In modern terms an office is the location where white-collar workers carry out their functions; as per James Stephenson, "Office is that part of business enterprise, devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities."
Offices in classical antiquity were part of a palace complex or of a large temple. The High Middle Ages saw the rise of the medieval chancery, the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom. With the growth of large, complex organizations in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed; as the Industrial Revolution intensified in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industries of banking, insurance, retail and telegraphy grew requiring a large number of clerks, as a result more office space was assigned to house their activities. The time-and-motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor led to the "Modern Efficiency Desk" of 1915 with a flat top and drawers below, designed to allow managers an easy view of the workers. However, by the middle of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, the cubicle system evolved; the main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their jobs.
Work spaces in an office are used for conventional office activities such as reading and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities. In addition to individual cubicles, one can find meeting rooms and spaces for support activities, such as photocopying and filing; some offices have a kitchen area where workers can make their lunches. There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be more important. While offices can be built in any location and in any building, some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult, such as requirements for light and security; the major purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment - for administrative and managerial workers. These workers occupy set areas within the office building, are provided with desks, PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.
The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as construction materials and may or may not have walls or barriers. The word stems from the Latin officium, its equivalents in various romance, languages. An officium was not a place, but rather an mobile'bureau' in the sense of a human staff or the abstract notion of a formal position, such as a magistrature; the elaborate Roman bureaucracy would not be equaled for centuries in the West after the fall of Rome partially reverting to illiteracy, while the East preserved a more sophisticated administrative culture, both under Byzantium and under Islam. Offices in classical antiquity were part of a palace complex or a large temple. There was a room where scrolls were kept and scribes did their work. Ancient texts mentioning the work of scribes allude to the existence of such "offices"; these rooms are sometimes called "libraries" by some archaeologists and the general press because one associates scrolls with literature.
In fact they were true offices since the scrolls were meant for record keeping and other management functions such as treaties and edicts, not for writing or keeping poetry or other works of fiction. The High Middle Ages saw the rise of the medieval chancery, the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom; the rooms of the chancery had walls full of pigeonholes, constructed to hold rolled up pieces of parchment for safekeeping or ready reference, a precursor to the bookshelf. The introduction of printing during the Renaissance did not change these early government offices much. Medieval illustrations, such as paintings or tapestries show people in their private offices handling record-keeping books or writing on scrolls of parchment. All kinds of writings seemed to be mixed in these early forms of offices. Before the invention of the printing press and its distribution there was a thin line between a private office and a private library since books were read or written in the same space at the same desk or table, general accounting and personal or private letters were done there.
It was during the 13th century that the English form of the word first appeared w
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot