London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Jonathan Pryce is a Welsh actor and singer. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and meeting his longtime girlfriend, English actress Kate Fahy, in 1974, he began his career as a stage actor in the 1970s, his work in theatre, including an award-winning performance in the title role of the Royal Court Theatre's Hamlet, led to several supporting roles in film and television. His breakthrough screen performance was in Terry Gilliam's 1985 cult film Brazil. Critically lauded for his versatility, Pryce has participated in big-budget films including Evita, Tomorrow Never Dies, Pirates of the Caribbean as well as independent films including Glengarry Glen Ross, The Age of Innocence, The New World, The Wife, his career in theatre has been prolific, he has won two Tony Awards—the first in 1977 for his Broadway debut in Comedians, the second for his 1991 role as The Engineer in the musical Miss Saigon. In 2015, Pryce was a guest actor in the HBO series Game of Thrones as the High Sparrow before becoming a main cast member in 2016.
Since early 2017, he stars in the series Taboo. Born John Price in Carmel, Flintshire, he is the son of Margaret Ellen and Isaac Price, a former coal miner who, along with his wife, ran a small general grocery shop. Pryce has two older sisters, he was educated at Holywell Grammar School, and, at the age of 16, he went to art college and started training to be a teacher at Edge Hill College in Ormskirk. While studying, he took part in a college theatre production. An impressed tutor suggested he should become an actor and, on Pryce's behalf, applied to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art for an application form; when he joined Equity he used Jonathan Pryce as his stage name because Equity will only have one actor with any particular name on its books. While at RADA Pryce worked as a door-to-door salesman of velvet paintings. Pryce was part of a'new wave' of actors to emerge from the Academy. Others included Bruce Payne, Juliet Stevenson, Alan Rickman, Anton Lesser, Kenneth Branagh and Fiona Shaw. Despite finding RADA "straight-laced", being told by his tutor that he could never aspire to do more than playing villains on Z-Cars, when he graduated he joined the Everyman Theatre Liverpool Company becoming the theatre's Artistic Director and went on to perform with the Royal Shakespeare Company and at the Nottingham Playhouse.
To gain his Equity card to work in Liverpool, he made his first screen appearance in a minor role on a 1972 episode of the British science fiction programme Doomwatch, called "Fire & Brimstone". He starred in two television films, both directed by Stephen Frears, Daft as a Brush and Playthings. After the Everyman, Pryce joined the director Sir Richard Eyre at the Nottingham Playhouse and starred in the Trevor Griffiths play Comedians in a role specially written for his talents, Gethin Price; the production transferred to London's Old Vic Theatre and in 1976 he reprised the role on Broadway, this time directed by Mike Nichols, for which he won the 1977 Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play, his first Tony Award. It was around this time that he appeared in his first movie role, playing the character Joseph Manasse in the film drama Voyage of the Damned, starring Faye Dunaway, he did not, abandon the stage, appearing from 1978 to 1979 in the Royal Shakespeare Company's productions of The Taming of the Shrew as Petruchio, Antony and Cleopatra as Octavius Caesar.
In 1980, his performance in the title role of Hamlet at the Royal Court Theatre won him an Olivier Award, was acclaimed by some critics as the definitive Hamlet of his generation. That year, Pryce had a small but pivotal role as Zarniwoop in the 12th episode of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series, one that he reprised for the Quintessential Phase, broadcast in 2005. In his original role as Zarniwoop, Pryce's character questions the "ruler of the Universe", a solipsist, chosen to rule arguably because of either his inherent manipulability, or immunity therefrom, on his philosophical opinions. Around the same time, in 1980, he appeared in the film Breaking Glass. In 1983, Pryce played the role of the sinister Mr. Dark in Something Wicked This Way Comes, based on the Ray Bradbury novel of the same title. After appearing in films, such as the Ian McEwan-scripted The Ploughman's Lunch, Martin Luther, Heretic, he achieved a breakthrough with his role as the subdued protagonist Sam Lowry in the Terry Gilliam film, Brazil.
After Brazil, Pryce appeared in the historical thriller The Doctor and the Devils and in the Gene Wilder-directed film Haunted Honeymoon. During this period of his life, Pryce continued to perform on stage, gained particular notice as the successful but self-doubting writer Trigorin in a London production of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull in late 1985. From 1986 to 1987 Pryce played the lead part in the Royal Shakespeare Company's production of Macbeth, which starred Sinéad Cusack as Lady Macbeth. In 1986 he starred in the film Jumpin' Jack Flash. Pryce worked once again with Gilliam in The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, playing "The Right Ordinary Horatio Jackson"; the film was a notorious financial fiasco, with production costing more than $40 million, when the original budget was $23.5 million. The following year Pryce appeared in three of the earliest episodes of the improvisation show Whose Line Is It Anyway?, alongside Paul Merton and John Sessions, in Uncle Vanya, again a play by Chekhov, at the Vaudeville Theatre.
After a series of major dramatic roles on stage, including V
A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used, they differ from films "based on a true story" or "historical drama films" in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley, Johnny Depp, Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in Gandhi, Depp as Ed Wood in Ed Wood, Carrey as Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon, Foxx as Ray Charles in Ray, Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything. In rare cases, sometimes called auto biopics, the subject of the film plays himself or herself: Jackie Robinson in The Jackie Robinson Story.
Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island and Dennis P. Bingham of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Custen, in Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Bingham's 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre shows how it perpetuates as a codified genre using many of the same tropes used in the studio era that has followed a similar trajectory as that shown by Rick Altman in his study, Film/Genre. Bingham addresses the male biopic and the female biopic as distinct genres from each other, the former dealing with great accomplishments, the latter dealing with female victimization. Ellen Cheshire's Bio-Pics: a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s; each chapter concludes with further viewing list. Christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, "Taking Hollywood Back" in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
Roger Ebert defended The Hurricane and distortions in biographical films in general, stating "those who seek the truth about a man from the film of his life might as well seek it from his loving grandmother.... The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable." Some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris' debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, in which he claimed to be a CIA agent. Kafka incorporated both the surreal aspects of his fiction; the Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is romanticized. The Oliver Stone film The Doors about Jim Morrison, was praised for the similarities between Jim Morrison and actor Val Kilmer, look-wise and singing-wise, but fans and band members did not like the way Val Kilmer portrayed Jim Morrison, a few of the scenes were completely made up. Casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person.
Anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in the 1982 TV miniseries Sadat. Some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American; the musical biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, based on the life of Queen singer Freddie Mercury, became the highest-grossing biopic of all time in 2018. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
Edward FitzGerald "Gerald" Brenan, CBE, MC was a British writer and hispanist who spent much of his life in Spain. Brenan is best known for The Spanish Labyrinth, a historical work on the background to the Spanish Civil War, for South from Granada: Seven Years in an Andalusian Village, he was appointed CBE in the Diplomatic Service and Overseas List of 1982. Brenan was born in Malta into a well-off Anglo-Irish family, while his father was serving there in the British Army, he was educated at Radley, a boarding school in England, which he hated due to the bullying he endured. His autobiographic works make it clear that he did not enjoy a good relationship with his father, Major Hugh Brenan. At the age of 18, to spite his father who wanted him to train for an army career at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he set off with an older friend, the occasional photographer and eccentric, John Hope-Johnstone, to walk to China. Between August 1912 and January 1913 they walked 1,560 miles, reaching Bosnia before lack of money made them turn back.
Brenan spent the next ten months in Germany, learning the language in preparation for joining the Indian Police Service, but this plan was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. He joined the British Army and served in France throughout the war. After being demobbed in 1919, Hope-Johnstone introduced Brenan to the Bloomsbury Group. In 1919 he moved to Spain, from 1920 on he rented a house in the small village of Yegen, in the Alpujarras district of the province of Granada, he spent his time catching up on the education which he felt he had missed by not attending university, in writing. An important factor in his moving to Spain was his calculation that his small income would go further there. Despite the remoteness of his new home, contacts with the Bloomsbury Group continued with his best friend Ralph Partridge and Partridge's first wife Dora Carrington, with whom Brenan had an affair. In the late 1920s he formed a relationship with his maid, Juliana Martin Pelegrina, which in 1931 resulted in the birth of a daughter, Miranda Helen, who became a physician based in France.
In 1930, he met novelist Gamel Woolsey in Dorset. During the Spanish Civil War and for many years afterwards they lived in Aldbourne in Wiltshire. Brenan was permitted to return to Spain in 1953 despite holding views which were critical of Franco's regime. Gamel Woolsey died in Spain in 1968 of cancer, is buried at the English Cemetery, Malaga. Brenan spent most of the remainder of his life in Churriana near Malaga and after her death in Alhaurín el Grande, Málaga. In 1984 Brenan was moved in controversial circumstances to a nursing home in Pinner, but he returned to Spain after the authorities there made special arrangements to provide him with the nursing care on which he depended. At the time of his death, his body was donated to the Medicine Faculty of Málaga for medical research and cremated. A Life of One's Own and A Personal Record together make up his autobiography. Jack Robinson. A Picaresque Novel as George Beaton Doctor Partridge's Almanack for 1935 as George Beaton Shanahan's Old Shebeen, or The Mornin's Mornin' The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Civil War The Spanish Scene Current Affairs No.7 The Face of Spain The Literature of the Spanish People – From Roman Times to the Present Day South From Granada: Seven Years in an Andalusian Village A Holiday by the Sea A Life of One's Own: Childhood and Youth The Lighthouse Always Says Yes St John of the Cross: His life and Poetry with Lynda Nicholson A Personal Record, 1920–1972 The Magnetic Moment.
He. Intended as an Autobiographical Sequence of Thoughts" Diarios sobre Dora Carrington y otros escritos, editorial Confluencias, 2012, he left uncompleted a work on Spanish poetry, published posthumously as La Copla Popular Española. Samuel West portrays Brenan in the 1995 British biographical film Carrington about the life of the English painter Dora Carrington and directed by Christopher Hampton based on the book Lytton Strachey by Michael Holroyd. Matthew Goode portrays Brenan in the 2003 Goya Award winning Spanish film Al sur de Granada and directed by Fernando Colomo, based on the 1957 autobiographical book South from Granada. Xan Fielding, Best of Friends; the Brenan–Partridge Letters Jonathan Gathorne-Hardy, The Life of Gerald Brenan The Writer Gerald Brenan Gerald Brenan Collection at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin Information on the Alpujarras English writer in the Alpujarras valley, in Spain Works at Open Library
Jeremy Philip Northam is an English actor. After a number of television roles, he earned attention as Mr. Knightley in the 1996 film adaptation of Jane Austen's Emma, he has appeared in the films Gosford Park, The Winslow Boy, Enigma and Lewis, amongst others. He played Thomas More in the Showtime series The Tudors. From 2016 to 2017 he appeared as Anthony Eden in the Netflix series The Crown. Northam was born in Cambridge, the youngest of four siblings, his mother, was a potter and professor of economics, his father, John Northam, was a professor of literature and theatre, as well as being an Ibsen specialist and lecturer. Northam was educated at King’s College School, Bristol Grammar School and Bedford College, London now part of Royal Holloway, University of London, trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, he married Canadian film/television make-up artist Liz Moro in April 2005, though they divorced. Northam performed at the Royal National Theatre – he replaced Daniel Day-Lewis in the role of Hamlet and won the Olivier Award in 1990 for "most promising newcomer" for his performance in The Voysey Inheritance.
He has appeared in British films such as Carrington, The Winslow Boy, An Ideal Husband, Enigma and as Welsh actor and singer Ivor Novello in Gosford Park. He made his American film debut in The Net. In 2002 he starred in the film Cypher; that same year, he portrayed singer Dean Martin in the CBS film Martin and Lewis and golfer Walter Hagen in Bobby Jones: Stroke of Genius in 2004. In 2007 and 2008, he portrayed Thomas More on The Tudors, he played John Brodie Innes in the 2009 film Creation, based on the life of Charles Darwin. In the 2015 film The Man Who Knew Infinity, he portrayed the philosopher Bertrand Russell, he played British Prime Minister Anthony Eden in the 2016 Netflix drama series The Crown. His audiobook work includes The Silver Chair by C. S. Lewis for Harper Audio and A Death Divided by Clare Francis for Macmillan. For SilkSoundBooks, he recorded The Real Thing and Other Short Stories and The Aspern Papers, both written by Henry James. In 2007 he recorded. In 2009, he recorded Our Man in Havana by Graham Greene for CSA Word.
He recorded the audio book Dark Matter, a ghost story by Michelle Paver, in September 2010. In the Gosford Park soundtrack, Northam sings the Ivor Novello songs "And Her Mother Came Too", "What a Duke Should Be", "Why Isn't It You", "I Can Give You the Starlight" and "The Land of Might Have Been" accompanied by his brother Christopher on piano. Edward Voysey, The Voysey Inheritance, National Theatre Company, Cottesloe Theatre, London, 1989 Also appeared in productions of School for Scandal and The Shaughraun, National Theatre Company. Osric later title role, National Theatre Company, Olivier Theatre, London, 1989 The Three Sisters, 1991 The Way of the World, 1992 Philip, The Gift of the Gorgon, Royal Shakespeare Company, The Pit, London, 1992 Elomire, La Bête, Really Useful Theatre Company, 1993 Berowne, Love's Labour's Lost, Royal Shakespeare Company, Barbican Theatre, London, 1994 Mr. Horner, The Country Wife, Royal Shakespeare Company, Pit Theatre, 1994 Obstetrician, Certain Young Men, Almeida Theatre, London, 1999 Old Times, Donmar Warehouse Theatre, London, 2004 Richard Greatham, Hay Fever, Noël Coward Theatre, London, 2012 Jeremy Northam on IMDb Jeremy Northam at the BFI's Screenonline