click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Carroll County, Arkansas

Carroll County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,446; the county has two county seats and Eureka Springs. Carroll County is Arkansas's 26th county, formed on November 1, 1833, named after Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 639 square miles, of which 630 square miles is land and 8.7 square miles is water. Stone County, Missouri Taney County, Missouri Boone County Newton County Madison County Benton County Barry County, Missouri As of the 2000 census, there were 25,357 people, 10,189 households, 7,111 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 11,828 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.63% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.88% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.34% from other races, 1.55% from two or more races.

9.74 % of the population were Latino of any race. 10.03% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 10,189 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,924, the median income for a family was $33,218. Males had a median income of $21,896 versus $18,159 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,003.

About 11.00% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.70% of those under age 18 and 13.60% of those age 65 or over. The Eastern District is Republican; the Western District tilts Democratic despite the fact that Holiday Island, a community with a large percentage of relocated snowbirds in the Western District, is overwhelmingly Republican. In presidential elections, Carroll County has voted for the Democratic candidate only twice since 1952, it voted for Jimmy Carter in 1976 and for Bill Clinton in 1992. Berryville Eureka Springs Green Forest Alpena Beaver Blue Eye Oak Grove Holiday Island CarrolltonRudd Osage Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.

The townships of Carroll County are listed below. List of lakes in Carroll County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, Arkansas Carroll County Government site Map of Carroll County by the U. S. Census Bureau Map of Carroll County at the Encyclopedia of Arkansas Carroll County entry at the Encyclopedia of Arkansas Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society

Shire of Jerramungup

The Shire of Jerramungup is a local government area in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, about 180 kilometres northeast of Albany and about 440 kilometres southeast of the state capital, Perth. The Shire covers an area of 6,507 square kilometres, its seat of government is the town of Jerramungup; the Fitzgerald River National Park, within the Shire, covers an area of 329,039 hectares, making it one of the largest national parks in Australia. The park is one of the most diverse botanical regions in the world, containing 20% of Western Australia's described plant species - more than 1,800 in total; the Shire of Jerramungup was established on 1 July 1982. It comprised the eastern half of the Shire of Gnowangerup; as of the 2003 elections, the shire is not divided into wards, its 7 councillors sit at large. Jerramungup Boxwood Hill Bremer Bay Fitzgerald River Gairdner Jacup Needilup Official website

Imbongi

An imbongi, or a Xhosa Praise Poet, is a member of the Xhosa community who performs ceremonial activities at important events. An imbongi is traditionally a male who recites emotive poetry, explains family relationships, re-tells historical events, comments on current affairs; the earliest written record of izibongo was made by Methodist missionary James Whitworth. Whitworth noted in his 6 April 1825 journal entry while visiting Gcaleka king Hintsa: ‘'At sunset, a man proclaimed aloud the transactions of the day, which seems to be the usual custom, ending with'Our Captain is a great Captain; when the white men came to see him, he received them kindly and gave them an ox to eat.' The imbongi draws poetic inspiration from his ancestors when appropriate. When praising a chief, his poetry includes references to the praise names of the chief and the chief's ancestors. In this way the imbongi seeks to garner favor from royal ancestors for the prosperity of his nation. During the mining era in South Africa, a now discarded type of imbongi emerged.

Unlike'home' izibongo, the mine imbongi had no special social standing because their activities were informal and unofficial. They helped to reinforce mine rules, discouraged violence and excessive materialism. Izibongo help to maintain social harmony by Zulu cultural traditions; the South African government incorporated the imbongi into official national events. In 2015, 74-year-old Kgato Masemola became the first female praise singer to be given the honor of heralding the arrival of a President to Parliament, she serves as Kgoshigadi Mogoshadi Marishane's official praise poet. An imbongi is a member of the welcoming party on royal visits, as such, is referred to as "the poet who walks before any great chief". An imbongi claims to be able to summon the presence of departed ancestors and facilitate communication between them and the living, it is believed. Ceremonial praises of an imbongi are used to ensure the beneficent attention of royal ancestors to the king and to his kingdom; the Xhosa imbongi is not an entertainer, nor is he limited to just performing poetry for the royal family.

The imbongi is permitted to criticize communities, use suggestive language, make outrageous statements that are regarded as unacceptable for the average Xhosa man. It is considered shameful to kill an imbongi in battle if he aggravates soldiers; the imbongi's performance style is aggressive and intimidating, may include brandishing spears or fighting sticks and hurling them into the ground to agitate the ancestors. Imbongi performances can be cryptic, referring to circumstances or qualities in abstracted, allusive metaphors, they are comparable to the court jester in European literature. As an important aspect of Xhosan political ritual, the imbongi on occasion deliberately bewilders his audience by making outrageous claims or using obscene language; the Xhosa imbongi is a member of the royal entourage. On significant public occasions, he recites poetry in praise of the chief, referring to the chief's lineage and actions; the imbongi may include relevant political commentary. Outside of his royal duties, an imbongi performs for his community on a regular basis.

Although the majority of izibongo are male and children may take on the role. Only men, dress in the traditional garments of an imbongi during ceremonial occasions; the primary consideration made when selecting a praise poet for the president's address is to rotate between languages to give each of South Africa's indigenous cultures fair representation. Parliamentary presiding officers decide who will receive the honor. Nofinishi Dywili Nontsizi Mgqwetho Opland, Jeff. Xhosa Oral Poetry: Aspects of a Black South African Tadition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521241137. Xhosa Poetry Xhosa Culture, Imbongi - Xhosa Poet - Jongela Nojozi, retrieved 2019-01-26 The WDB Trust, Poet Jessica Mbangeni, retrieved 2019-01-26

Abell 2142

Abell 2142, or A2142, is a huge, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the constellation Corona Borealis. It is the result of a still ongoing merger between two galaxy clusters; the combined cluster is six million light years across, contains hundreds of galaxies and enough gas to make a thousand more. It is "one of the most massive objects in the universe." The adjacent image was taken 20 August 1999 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 0.3-10.0 keV Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, covers an area of 7.5 x 7.2 arc minutes. It shows a colossal cosmic "weather system" produced by the collision of two giant clusters of galaxies. For the first time, the pressure fronts in the system have been traced in detail, show a bright, but cool 50 million degree Celsius central region embedded in large elongated cloud of 70 million degree Celsius gas, all of, roiling in a faint "atmosphere" of 100 million degree Celsius gas; the bright source in the upper left is an active galaxy in the cluster. Abell 2142 is part of the Abell catalogue of rich clusters of galaxies published by UCLA astronomer George O. Abell in 1958.

It has a heliocentric redshift of 0.0909 and a visual magnitude of 16.0. It is about 1.2 billion light years away. A2142 has attracted attention because of its potential to shed light on the dynamics of mergers between galaxies. Clusters of galaxies grow through gravitational attraction of smaller clusters. During a merger the kinetic energy of colliding objects heats the gas between subclusters, causing marked variations in gas temperature; these variations contain information on the stage and velocity of the merger. An accurate temperature map can provide a great deal of information on the nature of the underlying physical processes. Previous instruments did not have the capabilities of Chandra and XMM-Newton and were unable to map the region in detail. Chandra has been able to measure variations of temperature and pressure with high resolution. "Now we can begin to understand the physics of these mergers, which are among the most energetic events in the universe," said Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge and leader of the international team involved in the analysis of the observations.

"The pressure and density maps of the cluster show a sharp boundary that can only exist in the moving environment of a merger." A2142's observed X-ray emissions are smooth and symmetric, suggesting it is a result of a merger between two galaxy clusters viewed at least 1–2 billion years after the initial core crossing. One would expect to observe uneven X-ray emission and obvious shock fronts if the merger was at an early stage. Markevitch et al. have proposed that the central galaxy of a more massive cluster has merged with the former central galaxy of the less massive cluster. The cool central area suggests that the heating caused by previous shock fronts missed the central core, interacting instead with the surrounding gas. List of Abell clusters X-ray astronomy

Harchandpur

Harchandpur is a Block and satellite city of Lucknow in Raebareli district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Harchandpur was established by a learned kayastha Harchand Rai about 600 years ago; this town serves as the main marketplace for the people living nearby. A railway station named Harchandpur Railway Station is of great importance to a vast population of people living in nearby places; the Pin Code of the town is 229303 and there are 47 Gram panchayats under Harchandpur. Harchandpur is a Constituency under the district of Raebareli. State Bank Of India Bank Of Baroda Dena Bank Union Bank Vijaya Bank Baroda U. P. Gramin Bank Corporate Bank The gram panchayats in Harchandpur block include: Baragadaha Kandaura Padera Paharpur Harchandpur is on the route of National Highway 30, between Lucknow and Rae Bareli. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation buses run here. A rail line is Rae Bareli to Lucknow, on the Northern Railways network. Lucknow International Airport towards west Raebareli Airport toward east National Highway 30 NH 30 - Lucknow 》 Raebareli 》 Allahabad Harchandpur has quality educational institutions affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education, Uttar Pradesh Board, CSJM University Kanpur.

Janpad Inter College, Harchandpur Raebareli. Vishvanath Siksha Sansthan, Achleshwar. Bal Vidya Mandir Inter College, Gangaganj. Dayawati Modi Public School, Harchandpur. P. D. Public School, Achleshwar. Chandrapal Inter College, Gangaganj. Mahaveer Institute Of Harchandpur. Vishvanath Singh Smarak Degree College, Rahwan. ABS Public School, Raliway station Road Harchandpur Aastik Baba Temple, Lalupur Achleshwar Dham, Achleshwar Market Maa Hulka Mandir, Baragadaha Sevareshwar Temple, Seonthi Shani Temple, Harchandpur

Paleontology in Maine

Paleontology in Maine refers to paleontological research occurring within or conducted by people from the U. S. state of Maine. The fossil record of Maine is sparse. Maine came into existence during the Ordovician as other ancient land masses accreted onto North America. At the time Maine was covered by a sea inhabited by a menagerie of invertebrates which included graptolites. During the Devonian, geologic uplift raised Maine above sea level. Early land plants flourished in the terrestrial environments. There is a gap in the local rock record spanning the remainder of the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era. During the Ice Age, Maine was varyingly covered by glaciers or seawater; the Devonian Pertica plant, Pertica quadrifaria, is the Maine state fossil. Maine came into existence during the Ordovician as other ancient land masses accreted onto North America. At the time, Maine was covered by a sea and located in the southern hemisphere. Large numbers of invertebrates living at a variety of depths inhabited this sea.

Ordovician graptolites left fossils behind at a location 100 miles north of Lake Memphremagog but the quality of these remains is so low that specimens worthy of collection are uncommon according to author Marian Murray. Remains left behind by Silurian marine life were preserved in the areas of Maine that border what is now New Brunswick, Canada; the fossils are preserved sedimentary deposits within a stratigraphic interval that alternates between the fossil-bearing beds and beds laid down by volcanic activity that are made of lava and volcanic ash. In the Devonian, mountain building began elevating regions of Maine. By this time the state included terrestrial habitats. Deposits from these environments reveal a contemporary flora, although these plant fossils are fragmentary. By the end of the Devonian, all of Maine was dry land. For the rest of the Paleozoic, local sediments were being eroded rather than deposited, so no fossils are known from this interval; this erosive interval continued throughout the entire Mesozoic era.

As such, no dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Maine. Erosion continued from the start of the Cenozoic until the Ice Age. During the Ice Age, Maine was most covered in glaciers about 20,000 years ago, their incredible weight pushed down the land relative to sea level. Seawater began to flood the state as the glaciers retreated; as the state returned to its original elevation relative to sea level it dried out and became terrestrial once again. Local ecosystems became more temperate as temperatures warmed. Benjamin Franklin Mudge was born in Orrington on August 11, 1817. David P. Penhallow was born in Kittery Point on 25 May, 1854. Jack Sepkoski was born in Presque Isle on July 26, 1948. George B. Dorr Museum of Natural History, Bar Harbor L. C. Bates Museum, Hinckley Maine State Museum, Augusta Northern Maine Museum of Science, Presque Isle The Nylander Museum, Caribou Wilson Museum, Castine Paleontology in New Hampshire Churchill-Dickson, Dale Springer, Judy Scotchmoor. September 17, 2010. "Maine, US."

The Paleontology Portal. Accessed September 21, 2012. Murray, Marian. Hunting for Fossils: A Guide to Finding and Collecting Fossils in All 50 States. Collier Books. P. 348. ISBN 9780020935506. Weishampel, D. B. & L. Young. 1996. Dinosaurs of the East Coast; the Johns Hopkins University Press. Geologic units in Maine Maine Geological Survey: Maine Fossils Remains of Life from Another Time and Place