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Carronade

A carronade is a short, cast-iron cannon, used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland. It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s, its main function was to serve as a short-range, anti-ship and anti-crew weapon. Carronades were found to be successful, but they disappeared as naval artillery advanced, with the introduction of rifling and consequent change in the shape of the projectile, exploding shells replacing solid shot, naval engagements being fought at longer ranges; the carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity for merchant ships, but it found a niche role on warships. It was produced by the Carron ironworks and was at first sold as a system with the gun and shot all together; the standard package of shot per gun was 25 roundshot, 15 barshot, 15 double-headed shot, 10 "single" grapeshot, 10 "single" canister shot. "Single" meant that the shot weighed the same as the roundshot, while some other canister and grapeshot were included which weighed one and a half times the roundshot.

Its invention is variously ascribed to Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759, or to Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. In its early years, the weapon was sometimes called a "mellvinade" or a "gasconade"; the carronade can be seen as the culmination of a development of naval guns reducing the barrel length and gunpowder charge. The Carron Company was selling a "new light-constructed" gun, two-thirds of the weight of the standard naval gun and charged with one sixth of the weight of ball in powder before it introduced the carronade, which further halved the gunpowder charge; the advantages for merchant ships are described in an advertising pamphlet of 1779. Production of both shot and gun by the same firm allowed a reduction in the windage, the gap between the bore of the gun and the diameter of the ball; the smaller gunpowder charge reduced the barrel heating in action, reduced the recoil. The mounting, attached to the side of the ship on a pivot, took the recoil on a slider, without altering the alignment of the gun.

The pamphlet advocated the use of woollen cartridges, which eliminated the need for wadding and worming, although they were more expensive. Simplifying gunnery for comparatively untrained merchant seamen in both aiming and reloading was part of the rationale for the gun; the replacement of trunnions by a bolt underneath, to connect the gun to the mounting, reduced the width of the carriage enhancing the wide angle of fire. A merchant ship would always be running away from an enemy, so a wide angle of fire was much more important than on a warship. A carronade weighed a quarter as much and used a quarter to a third of the gunpowder charge as a long gun firing the same cannonball; the reduced charge allowed carronades to have a shorter length and much lighter weight than long guns. Increasing the size of the bore and ball reduces the required length of barrel; the force acting on the ball is proportional to the square of the diameter, while the mass of the ball rises by the cube, so acceleration is slower.

Long guns were much heavier than carronades because they were over-specified to be capable of being double-shotted, whereas it was dangerous to do this in a carronade. A ship could carry more carronades, or carronades of a larger caliber, than long guns, carronades could be mounted on the upper decks, where heavy long guns could cause the ship to be top-heavy and unstable. Carronades required a smaller gun crew, important for merchant ships, they were faster to reload. Carronades became popular on British merchant ships during the American Revolutionary War. A lightweight gun that needed only a small gun crew and was devastating at short range was well suited to defending merchant ships against French and American privateers; the French came in possession of their first carronades in December 1779 with the capture of the brig Finkastre by the frigate Précieuse, but the weapon was judged ineffective and was not adopted by them at the time. However, in the Action of 4 September 1782, the impact of a single carronade broadside fired at close range by the frigate HMS Rainbow under Henry Trollope caused a wounded French captain to capitulate and surrender the Hébé after a short fight.

The Royal Navy was reluctant to adopt the guns due to mistrust of the Carron Company, which had developed a reputation for incompetence and commercial sharp dealing. Carronades were not counted in numbering the guns of a ship. Lord Sandwich started mounting them in place of the light guns on the forecastle and quarterdeck of ships, they soon proved their effectiveness in battle. French gun foundries were unable to produce equivalents for twenty years, so carronades gave British warships a significant tactical advantage during the latter part of the 18th century—though French ships mounted another type of weapon in the same role, the obusier de vaisseau. HMS Victory used the two 68-pounder carronades which she carried on her forecastle to great effect at the Battle of Trafalgar, clearing the gun deck of the Bucentaure by firing a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls through the Bucentaure's stern windows; the carronade was very successful and adopted, a few experimental ships were fitted with a carronade-only armament, such as HMS Glatton and HMS Rainbow.

Glatton, a fourth-rate ship with 56 guns, had a more destructive broadside than HMS Victory, a first-rate ship with 100 guns. Glatton and Rainbow were both successful in battle, though the carronade's lack of range was an arguable tactical disadvantage of this arrangement ag

Arena Naucalpan 27th Anniversary Show

The Arena Naucalpan 27st Anniversary Show was a major annual professional wrestling event produced and scripted by the Mexican professional wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group, which took place on December 19, 2004 in Arena Naucalpan, State of Mexico, Mexico. As the name implies the show celebrated the 27th Anniversary of the construction of Arena Naucalpan, IWRG's main venue in 1977; the show is IWRG's longest running show, predating IWRG being founded in 1996 and is the fourth oldest, still held, annual show in professional wrestling. In the main event Japanese wrestler MAZADA faced off against the Mexican Dr. Cerebro in a Lucha de Apuestas, or "bet match", where both wrestlers put their hair on the line in the match; the match saw two falls to one. The show included four additional matches and featured a mixture of IWRG and Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre wrestlers; the location at Calle Jardín 19, Naucalpan Centro, 53000 Naucalpan de Juárez, México, Mexico was an indoor roller rink for the locals in the late part of the 1950s known as "Cafe Algusto".

By the early-1960s, the building was sold and turned into "Arena KO Al Gusto" and became a local lucha libre or professional wrestling arena, with a ring permanently set up in the center of the building. Promoter Adolfo Moreno began holding shows on a regular basis from the late 1960s, working with various Mexican promotions such as Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre to bring lucha libre to Naucalpan. By the mid-1970s the existing building was so run down that it was no longer suitable for hosting any events. Moreno bought the old build and had it demolished, building Arena Naucalpan on the same location, becoming the permanent home of Promociones Moreno. Arena Naucalpan opened its doors for the first lucha libre show on December 17, 1977. From that point on the arena hosted regular weekly shows for Promociones Moreno and hosted EMLL and Universal Wrestling Association on a regular basis. In the 1990s the UWA folded and Promociones Moreno worked with EMLL, now rebranded as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre.

In late 1995 Adolfo Moreno decided to create his own promotion, creating a regular roster instead of relying on wrestlers from other promotions, creating the International Wrestling Revolution Group on January 1, 1996. From that point on Arena Naucalpan became the main venue for IWRG, hosting the majority of their weekly shows and all of their major shows as well. While IWRG was a fresh start for the Moreno promotion they kept the annual Arena Naucalpan Anniversary Show tradition alive, making it the only IWRG show series that preceded their foundation; the Arena Naucalpan Anniversary Show is the fourth oldest still ongoing annual show in professional wrestling, the only annual shows that older are the Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre Anniversary Shows, the Arena Coliseo Anniversary Show, the Aniversario de Arena México.= The event featured five professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches.

Alejandro Jiménez Cruz began his wrestling career as the enmascarado or masked character Dr. Cerebro, wearing a mask, decorated to look like his brain was exposed. On July 26, 1998 he won his first Lucha de Apuestas, or "bet match", as he defeated Oro Jr. forcing him to unmask as a result. On March 1, 2001 he himself lost his mask as he lost to El Hijo del Santo and was forced to unmask and state his real name. Subsequently, he won two Luchas de Apuestas matches against Black Terry and American Gigolo, in both cases forcing them to have their hair shaved off afterwards. Japanese wrestler MAZADA came to Japan in 2000 as part of a group of Toryumon working and training with IWRG. Since Japanese wrestlers from Toryumon would make annual trips to Mexico. Between 2000 and 2003 MAZADA lost several Lucha de Apuestas matches, each time leaving the arena without any hair. In the second match of the night the most recent IWRG "identical trio" Los Comandos faced off against one of IWRG's longest established trios in Los Oficiales.

Los Comandos took the victory in the match made challenges to Los Megas once more, but they were not answered on the night. In the main event of the Arena Naucalpan 27th Anniversary Show Dr. Cerebro and MAZADA split the first two falls between rather going to the third, much longer fall as both wrestlers tried to defend their hair. In the end, Mazada pinned Dr. Cerebro, winning his first Lucha de Apuestas match, while forcing Dr. Cerebro to have his hair shaved off for the first time in the eight years since becoming a luchador. IWRG official website

Stranger in the City

Stranger in the City was the second solo album by John Miles and was released in 1977. It was awarded BPI Silver Certification on 19 July 1977. Recording sessions with its producer and orchestral arranger Rupert Holmes started in the summer of 1976 in the United States when Miles was promoting his first album "Rebel." The bulk of the album was recorded in England. For this album, Miles recruited Australian keyboardist Gary Moberley because Miles felt that his previous album was missing something funky. Both "Remember Yesterday" and "Slow Down" charted in the UK and would be the last Miles singles to chart in Britain until 1983. Although the singles did well, the album itself cracked the top 40 of the UK chart. However, the cut "Slow Down" proved to be Miles' biggest US chart hit, peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard Disco chart, No. 34 on the Billboard Hot 100 in June 1977. "Remember Yesterday" was written about Bob Marshall, according to Miles a romantic type, because he drifted around from girl to girl.

A track of the title song had been recorded during the sessions of Rebel and was planned to be released as the B-side of "Highfly", but was shelved. It was orchestrated by Holmes who added percussion in New York performed by recording legend Jimmy Maelen. "Manhattan Skyline" was written about the first impressions Miles and Marshall had of New York and was recorded in Manhattan. In 1977, singer-songwriter Melissa Manchester covered the beautiful Miles-Marshall ballad "Time" which on "Stranger in the City" was performed by Miles at the piano accompanied by strings and brass. In 2007, the album was remastered with several bonus tracks. All tracks written by Bob Marshall and John Miles except where noted "Stranger in the City" 4:30 "Slow Down" 4:46 "Stand up" 7:03 "Time" 3:57 "Manhattan Skyline" 3:06 "Glamour Boy" 4:49 "Do it Anyway" 2:46 "Remember Yesterday" 5:23 "Music Man" 4:53 "House On The Hill" 4:21 "Man Behind The Guitar" 4:03 "Putting My New Song Together" 4:21 "Sweet Lorraine" 3:02 Bonus tracks on reissue "House on the Hill" 4:19 "Slow Down" 4:14 "Stand Up" 3:45 "Remember Yesterday" 3:18 John Miles: Vocals, Guitar Bob Marshall: Bass Barry Black: Drums Gary Moberley: Keyboards Jimmie Maelen - Conga, Latin Percussion Rupert Holmes – Producer, Orchestral Arrangements, Conductor