Carsharing or car sharing or car clubs is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time by the hour. It differs from traditional car rental in that the owners of the cars are private individuals themselves, the carsharing facilitator is distinct from the car owner. Carsharing is part of a larger trend of shared mobility. Carsharing enables an occasional use of a access to different brands of vehicles; the renting organization may be a commercial business. Users can organize as a company, public agency, cooperative, or ad hoc grouping; the network of cars on the network becomes available to the users through a variety of means, ranging from the simplicity of using an app to unlock the car in real time, to meeting the owner of the car in order to exchange keys. The first reference to carsharing in print identifies the Selbstfahrergenossenschaft carshare program in a housing cooperative that got underway in Zürich in 1948, but there was no known formal development of the concept in the next few years.
By the 1960s, as innovators, industrialists and public authorities studied the possibility of high-technology transportation – computer-based small vehicle systems – it was possible to spot some early precursors to present-day service ideas and control technologies. The early 1970s saw the first whole-system carshare projects; the ProcoTip system in France lasted only about two years. A much more ambitious project called the Witkar was launched in Amsterdam by the founders of the 1965 white bicycles project. A sophisticated project based on small electric vehicles, electronic controls for reservations and return, plans for a large number of stations covering the entire city, the project endured into the mid-1980s before being abandoned. In July 1977, the first official British experiment in carsharing started in Suffolk. An office in Ipswich provided a Share-a-Car service for "putting motorists who are interested in sharing car journeys in touch with each other." In 1978, the Agricultural Research Council granted the University of Leeds £16,577 "for an investigation and simulation of carsharing".
The scheme was not intended for different drivers of a single car but for a driver offering seats in his car. The 1980s and first half of the 1990s was a "coming of age" period for carsharing, with continued slow growth of smaller non-profit systems, many in Switzerland and Germany but on a smaller scale in Canada, the Netherlands and the United States. Carsharing in North America was founded in Quebec City in 1994 by Benoît Robert, with a company called Communauto, still a leader in carsharing globally. Cycling advocate and environmentalist Claire Morissette played a major role in its evolution starting in 1995, when Communauto established itself in Montreal as a private company; the company goal is to provide a economical alternative to owning a car. Zipcar and City Car Club were all started in 2000. City CarShare was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area as a non-profit. Several car rental companies launched their own carsharing services beginning in 2008, including Avis on Location by Avis, Hertz on Demand, operating in the U.
S. and Europe. By 2010, when various peer-to-peer carsharing systems were introduced; as of September 2012 Zipcar accounted for 80% of the U. S carsharing market and half of all car-sharers worldwide with 730,000 members sharing 11,000 vehicles. In 2008, City CarShare introduced the first wheelchair carrying car share vehicle, the Access Mobile designed as a fleet vehicle shared with non-wheelchair users. Carsharing is noted as a tool for achieving VMT and GHG reduction targets in the California Transport Plan 2040 to reduce congestion and pollution. Carsharing has spread to other global markets with dense urban populations given that population density is a critical determinant of success for carsharing. Successful carsharing development has tended to be associated with densely populated areas, such as city centers and more university and other campuses. There are some programs for providing services in rural areas. Low-density areas are considered more difficult to serve with carsharing because of the lack of alternative modes of transportation and the larger distance that users must travel to reach the cars.
Many building developers are now incorporating share-cars into their developments as an added value to tenants, municipal government bodies around the world are starting to stipulate the implementation of a carsharing service in new buildings, as a sustainability initiative. These trends have created a demand for a new model of carsharing – residential, private-access share-cars that are underwritten by the Homeowner association. In Germany a pilot project has been started by the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon to replace regular pool vehicles with a corporate carsharing system. Replacing private automobiles with shared ones directly reduces demand for parking spaces; the fact that only a certain number of cars can be in use at any one time may reduce traffic congestion at peak times. More important for congestion, the strong metering of costs provides a cost incentive to drive less. With owned automobiles many expenses are sunk costs and thus independent of how much the car is driven. According to Navigant Consulting, gl
Judith Elizabeth Kazantzis was a British poet and political and social activist. Judith Kazantzis was born in Oxford and grew up in East Sussex, the fourth child and second daughter of the eight children born to Lord and Lady Longford, sister of novelist Rachel Billington and historians Dame Antonia Fraser and Thomas Pakenham, she attended St Leonards-Mayfield School, which she found stifling, More House School in Kensington, which she enjoyed. She wrote her first poem aged seven, she took a Modern History degree at Oxford. She began writing textbooks on history, worked for the Chelsea Labour Party and reviewed for the Evening Standard, she avoided the usage of the title "Lady" as the daughter of an earl. During the 1970s she turned to poetry, fiction and printmaking, she was a committed feminist, writing for the magazine Spare Rib and was influenced by Sylvia Plath's poetry. In her own poetry she wrote about injustice and she contributed short stories to Critical Quarterly, which Plath had written for.
She supported the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and joined the protestors at RAF Greenham Common air base in the 1980s. She lived in London and in East Sussex again, spent three months a year in Key West where her second husband, Irving Weinman, taught. In the 1990s she worked for Kalayaan - Justice for Migrant Domestic Workers. In 1999 she left Tony Blair’s Labour Party, since 2001 helped to campaign for Occupied Palestine, she chaired the judges of the Longford Prize in support of prison reform. In 2003, she signed the Statement for Peace of the 21st Key West Literary Seminar. In August 2010 Kazantzis contributed to an eBook collection of political poems entitled Emergency Verse - Poetry in Defence of the Welfare State edited by Alan Morrison, her poems have appeared in London Magazine, Ambit, Poetry Review, Poetry London, Poetry Wales, Bete Noire, The Honest Ulsterman, Poetry Ireland, Red Pepper, The Independent, The New Statesman and Banipal. She married lawyer Alexander John Kazantzis on 26 February 1963 and had two children and Arthur.
The couple divorced in 1982. On 22 February 1998, she married writer Irving Weinman. Harry Mathews wrote an Epithalamium for Irving Weinman. Judith Kazantzis died on 18 September 2018, aged 78, from undisclosed causes, she was survived by her two children, two stepchildren, seven siblings, a large extended family. 2005-06 Royal Literary Fund Fellow at Sussex University 2007 Society of Authors' Cholmondeley Award "Tropic". Poemhunter. Just After Midnight. Enitharmon Press. 2004. ISBN 978-1-904634-02-7; the Odysseus Poems: Fictions on the Odyssey of Homer. Cargo Press. 1999. ISBN 978-1-899980-07-9. Swimming Through The Grand Hotel. Enitharmon Press. 1997. ISBN 978-1-900564-20-5. Selected Poems 1977-1992. Sinclair-Stevenson. 1995. ISBN 1-85619-552-X; the Rabbit Magician Plate. Sinclair-Stevenson. 1992. ISBN 978-1-85619-169-2. Flame Tree. Methuen. 1988. ISBN 978-0-413-17880-0. Poem for Guatemala. Bedlam. 1986. ISBN 978-1-870260-01-5. Freight Song. Cassell. 1986. Let's Pretend. 1984, Virago Press Touch Papers: Three Women Poets.
The Wicked Queen. Sidgwick and Jackson. 1980. Minefield. Sidgwick and Jackson. 1977. Of Love and Terror. London: Saqi Books. 2002. ISBN 978-0-86356-316-4. In Cyclops' Cave: The Odyssey, Book IX, LI 105-566; the Greville Press. 2002. ISBN 978-0-906887-74-5. Christmas Cards A Celebration of Wilfred Owen Poems On The Underground Parents Red Sky At Night A Ring of Words Mind Readings, Dancing in the Street, The Faber Book of Blue Verse and the Virago Book of Love Poetry. Poems on the Underground featured her poem "Freight Song". Michelene Wandor, ed.. "The Errant Unicorn". On Gender and Writing. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-86358-021-5. Official website Profile, contemporarywriters.com Profile, britishcouncil.org
The Savages is a 2007 American independent comedy-drama film written and directed by Tamara Jenkins. It stars Philip Seymour Hoffman. Alexander Payne and Jenkins' husband Jim Taylor were two of the executive producers; the film premiered at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival to critical acclaim. After drifting apart over the years, two single siblings — Jon and Wendy, the younger of the two — band together to care for their estranged, elderly father, slipping into dementia. Wendy and Jon first travel to Sun City, Arizona to attend the funeral of their father's girlfriend of 20 years; when they arrive, they are told that their father signed a non-marriage agreement and will not have rights to any of her property. They move him to a nursing home in Buffalo, where Jon is a theater professor working on a book about Bertolt Brecht. Wendy, an aspiring, but unsuccessful, moves from New York City to help establish their father in Buffalo. Neither of the siblings are close with Lenny, it is implied that he was a physically and abusive father when Jon and Wendy were growing up and they cut him out of their lives.
They were abandoned by their mother at a young age. Their dysfunctional family life appears to have left Wendy and Jon crippled and unable to sustain a relationship, she is sleeping with an unattainable married man 13 years her senior and Jon cannot commit to a Polish woman who must return to Kraków after her visa expires. Their visits to the nursing home and their father's eventual death allow them to reevaluate their lives and to grow emotionally. In the end, Wendy has broken up with her married lover, but has adopted his dog, which he had planned to put down, she is seen working on the production of her play about their terrible childhood, while Jon is leaving for a conference in Poland where it is suggested he may reconnect with the woman he had let go. The film closes with Wendy running with her lover's dog alive, running with the aid of a wheeled hip cast, suggesting a mode of flawed yet persevering life for both siblings. Laura Linney as Wendy Savage Philip Seymour Hoffman as Jon Savage Philip Bosco as Lenny Savage Peter Friedman as Larry Guy Boyd as Bill Lachman Debra Monk as Nancy Lachman Margo Martindale as Roz Rosemary Murphy as Doris Metzger David Zayas as Eduardo Gbenga Akinnagbe as Jimmy Tonye Patano as Mrs. Robinson Cara Seymour as Kasia Kristine Nielsen as Nurse The film received favorable reviews from critics.
As of October 14, 2012, the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 89% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 113 reviews. Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 85 based on 35 reviews. Time magazine's Richard Schickel named the film #7 of his Top 10 Movies of 2007, praises both the cast and writer-director: These actors are unimprovable as, they find a certain decency under the pressure of their grinding familial chore, a reason to hope that better days may be ahead for them once their duty has been done. Writer-director Tamara Jenkins is less interested in heroically inspiring us than she is in showing us the values to be found in the more modest forms of dutifulness; the film appeared on many critics' top 10 lists of the best films of 2007. 1st - Carina Chocano, Los Angeles Times 3rd - Ella Taylor, LA Weekly 3rd - Sheri Linden, The Hollywood Reporter 5th - David Edelstein, New York magazine 5th - Marjorie Baumgarten, The Austin Chronicle 6th - Lawrence Toppman, The Charlotte Observer 7th - Kirk Honeycutt, The Hollywood Reporter 7th - Peter Hartlaub, San Francisco Chronicle 7th - Richard Schickel, TIME magazine 8th - Frank Scheck, The Hollywood Reporter 8th - Nathan Rabin, The A.
V. Club 8th - Ray Bennett, The Hollywood Reporter 9th - A. O. Scott, The New York Times 10th - Carrie Rickey, The Philadelphia Inquirer 10th - Manohla Dargis, The New York Times 80th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Actress Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay Central Ohio Film Critics Association Awards Actor of the Year -- WON Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Best Actress Best Screenplay, Original 65th Golden Globe Awards Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy Gotham Awards Best Ensemble Cast Independent Spirit Awards Best Cinematography Best Director Best Male Lead -- WON Best Screenplay -- WON London Critics Circle Film Awards Actress of the Year Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards Best Screenplay -- WON National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Screenplay -- WON Nilsson Awards for Film Best Picture Best Actor in a Leading Role Best Actress in a Leading Role Best Actor in a Supporting Role Best Original Screenplay Best Cast Best Original Score Online Film Critics Society Awards Best Actress San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards Best Screenplay - Original -- WON Satellite Awards Best Actress in a Motion Picture, Drama Women Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actress -- WON Writers Guild of America Awards Best Original Screenplay The Savages on IMDb The Savages at AllMovie The Savages at Rotten Tomatoes The Savages at Metacritic The Savages at Box Office Mojo