The State Hospital is a psychiatric hospital near the village of Carstairs, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It provides care and treatment in conditions of high security for around 140 patients from Scotland and Northern Ireland; the hospital is managed by the State Hospitals Board for Scotland, a public body accountable to the First Minister of Scotland through the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates. It is a Special Health Board, part of the NHS Scotland and the only hospital of its kind within Scotland. Carstairs Hospital was constructed between 1936 and 1939. Although it was planned and financed as a facility for "mental defectives", it was first used as an military hospital, during the Second World War; the War Office relinquished control of the hospital in 1948, when it became the State Institution for Mental Defectives. On 1 October 1957 there was a large transfer of 90 criminally insane prisoners from the criminal lunatic department at HM Prison Perth to Carstairs, this new combined unit became the State Mental Hospital.
In 1994 the State Hospitals Act 1994 enabled management of the hospital to be transferred from the Secretary of State for Scotland to NHS Scotland, coming under the control of the State Hospitals Board for Scotland. A redevelopment of the hospital was approved by The Scottish Government in September 2007. Construction began in April 2008 and the new hospital facilities were opened on 26 June 2012; the hospital has an alarm system, activated if any patient escapes to alert people in the vicinity, including those in the surrounding town of Lanark, local villages such as Ravenstruther. This alarm system is based on World War II air-raid sirens, a two-tone alarm sounds across the whole area in the event of an escape; the system is tested on the third Thursday of every month at 1300hrs when the all clear siren, consisting of three 30 second blasts, sounds. One infamous incident of a break out happened in 1976, when two patients, Thomas McCulloch and Robert Mone, murdered a nurse, a patient and a police officer with axes in an escape attempt.
In August 1999, a convicted killer walked free from Carstairs after his lawyers exploited a legal loophole. Noel Ruddle, who served seven years for shooting his next door neighbour with a semi-automatic Kalashnikov type rifle in 1991, was given an absolute discharge by a sheriff because his mental illness was deemed untreatable, he admitted that he had not been cured and had boasted about beating the system. A year after his release, Ruddle escaped a prison sentence for threatening to kill a priest. An emergency Bill was brought forward by the Scottish Executive to prevent further exploitation of this loophole, becoming the Mental Health Act 1999, the first Act of the Scottish Parliament; as emergency legislation, it was repealed and replaced by the Mental Health Act 2003 on 5 October 2005. In December 2004, Michael Ferguson was allowed an unsupervised visit to see his fiancée at East Kilbride Shopping Centre, he failed to report back to Carstairs staff two hours as agreed. First Minister Jack McConnell ordered an urgent report into the decision.
In September 2008, it was revealed that there was a cost of £630,000 a year to provide the only female patient at Carstairs State Hospital a ward to herself. Labour health spokeswoman Margaret Curran said: "This defies common sense; this cannot be in the interests of the NHS or the patient... We need immediate explanation and action." In 2011, a nurse was accused of giving romantic messages to a patient. In June 2013, a patient absconded while on an escorted outing to the McArthurGlen shopping centre in Livingston, was arrested and taken back into custody after being spotted by members of the public in Hamilton. Scottish Prison Service Scots law Northern Ireland Prison Service Northern Ireland law The State Hospitals Board for Scotland – official website, at NHS Scotland
Carstairs is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located on Highway 2A, 241 kilometres south of the provincial capital, 48 kilometres north of Calgary, the nearest major city; the closest neighbouring communities are the towns of Crossfield. Carstairs is located within the rural Mountain View County. Named after Carstairs, Carstairs began life as a loading platform on the railway connecting Calgary to Edmonton; the first post office opened in 1900. The first school district was established in 1901. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Carstairs recorded a population of 4,077 living in 1,544 of its 1,590 total private dwellings, a change of 18.4% from its 2011 population of 3,442. With a land area of 11.92 km2, it had a population density of 342.0/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Carstairs had a population of 3,442 living in 1,311 of its 1,397 total dwellings, a change of 27.5% from its 2006 adjusted population of 2,699. With a land area of 11.53 km2, it had a population density of 298.5/km2 in 2011.
First Student Canada provides commuter bus service to Calgary from Carstairs. The service loads commuters at the Carstairs Curling Club. Carstairs is home to an 18-hole golf course, a Memorial Complex with abundant parks and playgrounds, Tourist Information Center. Just west of town is the Silver Willow 9-hole golf course. Carstairs has been an agricultural community, as it once had seven grain elevators, it celebrates each year with the Ranch Rodeo in June, Beef & Barley Days and the annual rodeo in July, the High School Rodeo in September, 4-H Calf Show and Sale, Bull-A-Rama, Horticultural Show, Pumpkin Festival. There are seven churches in the town, including the Carstairs Church of God, St. Agnes Catholic Church, the Carstairs Bancroft United Church. One of the churches is being used as a museum that has religious services; the origins of the Town of Carstairs dates back centuries to a network of trails collectively known as the Ancient Trail. This important transportation corridor passed through the Carstairs area.
Several prominent rock formations along river and creek beds were found in the district, these were known resting and stopping sites for First Nations people as they moved up-and-down this corridor. As the fur trade developed and settlement grew, the newcomers to the region adopted the same network of trails, used for centuries. In 1883, one of those newcomers, Sam Scarlett, set up a Stopping House at one of the prominent rock formations along the Rosebud River. "Scarlett's" became an important and popular stop along the Calgary Edmonton Trail - frequented by freighters, the NWMP, military and the various stage coach lines. When the Calgary & Edmonton Railway arrived in 1890, the surveyors made an allotment for a siding, station house, townsite to be built in relative proximity to Scarlett's Stopping House. However, to avoid crossing the Rosebud River at that point, the rail line was laid 4 km west of Scarlett's. Named'Carstairs' the new townsite's development started-off but by the turn of the 20th Century, the area began a steady growth pattern that allowed it to be official recognized as Carstairs, NWT on May 15, 1903.
The name changed to Alta in 1905 when Alberta received official Provincial status. List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is variously known as Old Brittonic and Common or Old Brythonic. By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cornish and the Pictish language. Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish and south of the Firth of Forth by Old English. Brittonic was replaced by English throughout England.
O'Rahilly's historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance. O'Rahilly's model seems to be supported by the presence of Belgic tribes in Ptolemy's maps. No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified; the Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic. There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse: Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai The affixed – Deuina, Andagin, Uindiorix – I have bound An alternative translation taking into account case marking is: May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda. There is a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text; this seems to contain Brittonic names.
British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy's Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979, they show. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic; some Brittonic personal names are recorded. Tacitus' Agricola noted. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic. Pritenic is a modern term, coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain. Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages, "Pritenic" would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BC; the evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain.
These names have been discussed by Kenneth H. Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European; the rarity of survival of Pritenic names is due to Dál Riatan and Norse settlement in the area. The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Koch, their conclusions are that Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century. The Roman frontier between Britannia and Pictland is to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede considered Welsh/British to be separate languages. Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers; the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was replaced by Old English.
Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales and Devon, Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh and Breton, respectively; the early Common Brittonic vowel inventory is identical to that of Proto-Celtic. /ɨ/ and /ʉ/ have not developed yet. Notes: The central mid vowels /ə/ and /ɵ̞/ were allophonic developments of /i/ and /u/, respectively. Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic: Notes: The dative dual and plural represent the inherited instrumental forms, which replaced the inherited dative dual and plural, from Proto-Celtic *toutābom, *toutābos. Notes: Neuter 2nd declension stems deviate from the paradigm as such:Notes: Dual is same as singular All other declensions same as regular 2nd declension paradigm Common Brittonic survive
South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary authorities of Scotland. It contains some of Greater Glasgow's suburbs, it contains many towns and villages. It shares borders with Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire, North Lanarkshire, the Scottish Borders and West Lothian, it includes part of the historic county of Lanarkshire. South Lanarkshire Council has its headquarters in Hamilton, has 16,000 employees, a budget of £1bn; the large and varied geographical territory takes in rural and upland areas, market towns such as Lanark and Carluke, the urban burghs of Rutherglen and East Kilbride, Scotland's first new town. There are 20 council wards in South Lanarkshire, each serving a population ranging from 12,000 to 19,000 and each ward represented on the council by 3 or 4 elected councillors using single transferable vote. South Lanarkshire operates a cabinet style system, with key decisions being taken by the Executive Committee, under the leadership of the Council Leader, approved by the council, led by the provost.
South Lanarkshire shares borders with the unitary authorities of Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire, City of Glasgow, North Lanarkshire, West Lothian and Scottish Borders. The area was formed in 1996 from the areas of Clydesdale and East Kilbride districts, some outer areas of Glasgow District; the Council Headquarters building, on Almada Street, was built as the Lanark County Buildings in 1963, designed by Lanark council architect D G Bannerman. The 16 storey, 165 foot tower is the largest in Hamilton, is a visible landmark across this part of the Clyde Valley; the modernist design was influenced by the United Nations building in New York. Glass curtain walls cover the north and south facades, with the narrow east and west sides being blank white walls. At the front of the building is the circular council chamber, a plaza with water features, it is known by locals as the "County Buildings". Bothwell Castle Calderglen Country Park, East Kilbride Chatelherault Country Park, near Hamilton, including Cadzow Castle Clyde Valley Craignethan Castle David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre Dollan Aqua Centre, East Kilbride Falls of Clyde Hamilton Mausoleum James Hamilton Heritage Park, East Kilbride John Hastie Museum, Strathaven Lanark Loch Little Sparta, near Dunsyre near Lanark Low Parks Museum, Hamilton New Lanark, a World Heritage Site Rutherglen Town Hall and medieval church tower Sites of the Battle of Drumclog and the Battle of Bothwell Bridge Strathaven Castle Wilsontown Ironworks South Lanarkshire College University of the West of Scotland Routes To Work South South Lanarkshire Council homepage South Lanarkshire at Curlie
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Ministry of Labour (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Labour was a British government department established by the New Ministries and Secretaries Act 1916. It morphed into the Department of Employment. Most of its functions are now performed by the Department for Pensions. After the New Ministries and Secretaries Act 1916 the Ministry of Labour took over Board of Trade responsibilities for conciliation, labour exchanges and industrial relations and employment related statistics. Following the First World War it supervised the resettlement of ex-servicemen. In the 1920s it took over all Board of Education work relating to youth employment and responsibility for training and employment of the disabled from the Ministry of Pensions, it supervised trade union regulations. Under the Trade Boards Act 1918 the Ministry enforced the minimum wage, helped establish joint industrial councils, set up the Industrial Court in 1919 for arbitration of industrial disputes, it proposed multiple Unemployment Insurance Acts amendments, administered benefits through employment exchanges, employed the unemployed through special works schemes, represented the UK at the International Labour Organization from 1919).
From 1939, the department was renamed the Ministry of Labour and National Service, reflecting new duties under the National Service Act 1939. It allocated people to work between the armed forces, civil defence and industry, to administer the Schedule of Reserved Occupations; the National Joint Advisory Council, comprising employers' and workers' representatives, was consulted. From 1941, one Deputy Secretary for the Ministry controlled peacetime work, another coordinated work on manpower statistics, armed forces recruitment, civilian war work and training and labour supply. In April 1945, functions relating to unemployment insurance and assistance were transferred to the Ministry of National Insurance, but the Ministry of Labour retained responsibility for employment exchanges. In June 1945, the Board of Trade was handed responsibility for industrial policy, except that concerning labour power. At the end of the War, the National Service Department wing was wound up and its functions passed to the Military Recruitment Department.
In 1959 the department became the Ministry of Labour once more. It was renamed the Department of Employment and Productivity in 1968, became the Department for Employment in 1970. Ministry of Labour Staff Association UK labour law Catalogue of the Ministry of Labour Staff Association archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick