Carthaginian coinage

Carthaginian or Punic currency refers to the coins of ancient Carthage, a Phoenician city-state located near present-day Tunis, Tunisia. Between the late fifth century BC and its destruction in 146 BC, Carthage produced a wide range of coinage in gold, silver and bronze. Only a minority of Carthaginian coinage was used in North Africa. Instead, the majority derive from Carthage's holdings in western Sicily; the base denomination was the shekel pronounced /səˈḳel/ in Punic. Carthage issued ½-shekel, shekel, 1⅔-shekel, double shekel, triple shekel coins. 5-shekel pieces were issued in Sicily. Between the ninth and seventh centuries BC, the Phoenicians established colonies throughout the western Mediterranean in North Africa, western Sicily and southern Iberia. Carthage soon became the largest of these communities, establishing close economic and political ties with Motya in western Sicily and Sulci in Sardinia. Although coinage began to be minted by Greek communities in Sicily and Southern Italy around 540 BC, Punic communities did not begin producing coins until around 425 BC.

The first Punic mints were in western Sicily, at Motya and Ṣyṣ. The coinage that these communities produced is known as Siculo-Punic coinage. Like the coinage produced by the Greek communities in the western part of the island, it was minted in silver on the Attic-Euboic weight standard, its iconography was adapted from other pre-existing Sicilian coinages - principally those of Himera and Syracuse; this Siculo-Punic coinage preceded Phoenicia's own Tyrian shekels, which developed c. 400 BC. The first Carthaginian coinage seems to have been minted in 410 or 409 BC, to pay for the massive Carthaginian military intervention in Sicily that led to the Second Sicilian War and it continued through until the end of the Third Sicilian War; this coinage consisted of Attic-weight silver tetradrachms, known as Series I, containing five separate chronological sub-groups. The obverse of these earliest coins bears the front half of a horse facing right, with a Punic language legend reading QRTḤDŠT; the reverse depicts a date palm tree, with the inscription MḤNT.

From sub-group B, the obverse features a winged Nike flying over the horse, holding a caduceus and a wreath. In the final sub-group, F, the forepart of the horse is replaced with a full horse, prancing freely; this silver coinage may have been accompanied, in its stages by the first Carthaginian gold coinage, known as Jenkins-Lewis, Group I. This coinage is known from a single example, it was minted as a didrachm on the Phoenician weight standard. Its types, a horse on the obverse and a palm tree on the reverse are similar to those of the silver, Series I, sub-group F. Alongside these first Carthaginian issues, separate coinages continued to be produced by other cities within the Carthaginian sphere in western Sicily, notably Motya, Ṣyṣ-Panormus and Segesta; the date of Series I is established by several pieces of evidence. A coin from sub-group B was overstruck by a coin of Agrigentum. Since minting activity ended at Agrigentum in 406 BC, when the Carthaginians destroyed the city, Series I must have been in circulation before this date.

The series had come to an end by the early 380s BC, since a selection of all the sub-groups appears in two hoards deposited at that time: Contessa and Vito Superiore. The latter is significant since the most occasion for its deposition is the Siege of Rhegion in 387 BC; the patterns of die linkage within the series - with high ratio of reverse dies to obverse dies and few reverse dies shared by multiple obverse dies - indicate that minting was "intensive though spasmodic." Bringing this numismatic data into connection with the historical situation in these years as known from literary sources, Kenneth Jenkins argued that the Carthaginians initiated minting in order to pay for their initial expedition to Sicily in 410 BC, continued producing coinage as required by their fluctuating circumstances during the following seventeen years of war, until peace was declared in 393 BC, following the Battle of Chrysas. The reverse legend, MḤNT, meaning'encampment' has military overtones which support the idea that this coinage was intended to pay for ongoing military campaigns.

The location of the mint where this coinage was produced is not known. Issues of Carthaginian silver were produced in Sicily, at Lilybaeum, but this city was only founded in 397/396 BC, following the destruction of Motya, it is unlikely to have been produced in Motya before that date, since Motya seems to have continued minting its own coinage until its destruction. Therefore, the initial production of the series took place in Carthage itself. There is an iconographic shift at the transition from sub-group E to sub-group F, in which the obverse design goes from a depiction of the forepart of a horse to the depiction of a full horse, it is possible. The gold-issue, Jenkins-Lewis Group I, is dated on the basis of its iconographic similarity to the final sub-group of the silver, which suggests that it was minted at the same time, it may have been minted in Lilybaeum. In the ancient Mediterranean, the issue of gold coinage was connected to times of particular crisis, when silver stocks had been exhausted

Harold Ballard

Harold Edwin Ballard was a Canadian businessman and sportsman. Ballard was an owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League as well as their home arena, Maple Leaf Gardens. A member of the Leafs organization from 1940 and a senior executive from 1957, he became part-owner of the team in 1961 and was majority owner from February 1972 until his death, he was the owner of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League for 10 years from 1978 to 1988, winning a Grey Cup championship in 1986. He was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. Ballard was born in Toronto, Canada as Edwin Harold Ballard, he reversed the names and referred to himself as Harold E. Ballard. For six years before World War I, Ballard and his family lived in Pennsylvania, they returned to Toronto where his father, English-born Sidney Eustace Ballard, founded Ballard Machinery Supplies Co. a sewing machine manufacturer, which at one point was one of Canada's leading manufacturers of ice skates.

Harold attended Upper Canada College as a boarding student until dropping out in his third year in 1919. Ballard became a fan of speed skating and would attend skating events and hockey games, helping to promote the Ballard skates. For the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Ballard was appointed assistant manager of the Varsity Grads team that won the hockey gold medal; as a member of the National Yacht Club, Ballard became an avid racer of Sea Fleas, small outboard hydroplanes. He competed in several regattas, won the Toronto-Oakville marathon in 1929. Ballard was elected to the Yacht Club's executive committee in January 1930, he participated in the 133-mile Albany, New York-New York City marathon in April 1930, finishing second in his class. About a month Ballard and two friends from the Yacht club were hurled from a boat into a frigid Lake Ontario. Ballard was pulled from the water unconscious. None of the three was wearing a life jacket. Following the 1930 racing season, the Yacht Club sponsored a senior team in the Ontario Hockey Association called the Toronto National Sea Fleas.

Ballard was made business manager. Under coach Harry Watson, the team won the Allan Cup in 1932. Watson chose not to return the following season, Ballard took over the coaching duties. At first, the players welcomed Ballard behind the bench, but the mood soon changed after Ballard benched the team captain; that triggered a mutiny among some of the team's top players, who resigned from the squad in November. The team had a poor year with Ballard coaching, but Ballard arranged a European tour for the Nationals which included competing in the 1933 Ice Hockey World Championships in Prague. There, the Nationals lost 2–1 in overtime to a team from the U. S.—the first loss for a Canadian team at the world championships. While touring Europe, the Nationals were involved both on the ice and off. In one incident, Ballard was arrested in Paris following a fracas at a hotel; the tour marked the end of Ballard's career as a full-time hockey coach. In 1934, Ballard became manager of the West Toronto Nationals OHA junior team and hired Leaf captain Hap Day as coach.

When Day was busy with the Leafs and unavailable for games, Ballard would step behind the bench as acting coach. Under Day and Ballard, the Nationals won the Memorial Cup at the end of the 1935–36 season; the following season and Ballard worked together to run a senior team sponsored by E. P. Taylor's Dominion Brewery. At the same time, Ballard continued to work for Ballard Machinery, took over the business after his father's retirement in 1935. After Day became coach of the Leafs in 1940, he recommended Ballard to the Leaf organization to run the Toronto Marlboros, the senior and junior teams owned by the Leafs. Ballard was made general manager, he would coach one more game, for the senior Marlies, during the 1950 Allan Cup final, after head coach Joe Primeau's father died. The Marlboros won the series and the championship. In the early 1950s, Ballard hired his long-time friend Stafford Smythe, son of Leafs owner Conn Smythe, as managing director of the Marlboros; the Marlies won the Memorial Cup in 1955—their first championship in 26 years—and repeated the feat the following season.

In 1944, Ballard formed Harold E. Ballard Ltd. the personal holding company he would use to purchase shares in Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. In 1957, Ballard moved up to the Maple Leafs as a member of a committee chaired by Stafford Smythe which oversaw hockey operations after Conn Smythe stepped down as general manager and Hap Day was pushed out of the Leafs organization. Ballard wasn't named to the committee when it was unveiled in March 1957, but took the place of Ian Johnston nine months later. At age 54, Ballard was the oldest member of the group, which were otherwise all in their 30s and 40s; the committee came to be known as the "Silver Seven". During the hockey off-season in 1961, Ballard became founding president of the four-team Eastern Canada Professional Soccer League, which operated in Toronto and Montreal. Steve Stavro, who would succeed Ballard as Leafs owner 30 years was co-owner of the Toronto City team. For the 1962 season, Ballard tried to introduce a hockey-style penalty box to soccer, but the rule change was not allowed by FIFA.

In November 1961, Conn Smythe sold most of his shares in Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. to a consortium of his son Stafford, Toronto Telegram owner John Bassett, Ballard. Ballard fronted Stafford Smythe most of the $2.3 million purchase price. Co

Lt. Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Memorial Skating Rink

The Lieutenant Joseph Patrick Kennedy Junior Memorial Skating Rink was an ice skating rink in the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts. It was named after the late Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., killed when his B-24 Liberator exploded during a bombing mission. The facility doubled as an ice hockey rink for Barnstable High School; the last public skate occurred on March 22, 2009. It was replaced by the Hyannis Community Center; the Lt. Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Memorial Skating Centre rink opened in 1957 as an open-air skating rink, it was built with funds from the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. foundation. In 1960, the rink was extended in length from 185 to 215 feet, with its official 85 foot hockey width. At the time, this made it the second largest in the northeastern United States, behind one in West Point, New York; this was alright for skating during calm weather. Early skaters had to shovel the ice after a snowfall; this led to it being enclosed in 1965. Although the rink was enclosed, it was open to the outside warm air.

This led to fog forming on some nights. It was unable to be used during the summer, a thing that most modern rinks do not have to do; this shortcomings led to replacement plans. For many years, the rink was home to Barnstable High School's after prom celebration; the rink was used until 2008, when it was temporarily relocated to the high school because of the demolition of the rink. In the early 2000s, there were plans to replace the rink with one rink next door in the Hyannis Youth and Community Center; the original plans for the center consisted of an adjacent youth center. The plan was scrapped and new plans incorporated the usage of two rinks, one gymnasium, a youth center, a raised jogging track around the gymnasium; the rink held its last public skate on March 22, 2009. This brought to an end 52 years of skating at the rink; the rink was torn down, with a marker was placed in the spot of the former rinks center ice. One of the rinks will carry on the name of Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. while the other was posthumously named after Patrick Butler, a local resident, involved in the project.

Cape Cod Coliseum Back when the Kennedy Rink was brand-new The Hyannis Youth & Community Center