SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cartier (jeweler)

CARTIER International SNC, or Cartier, is a French luxury goods conglomerate which designs, manufactures and sells jewellery and watches. Founded by Louis-François Cartier in Paris in 1847, the company remained under family control until 1964; the company maintains its headquarters in Paris, although it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swiss Richemont Group. Cartier operates more than 200 stores in 125 countries, with three Temples in London, New York, Paris. Cartier is regarded as one of the most prestigious jewellery manufacturers in the world. In 2018, it is ranked by Forbes as the world's 59th most valuable brand. Cartier has a long history of sales to royalty. King Edward VII of Great Britain referred to Cartier as "the jeweller of kings and the king of jewellers." For his coronation in 1902, Edward VII ordered 27 tiaras and issued a royal warrant to Cartier in 1904. Similar warrants soon followed from the courts of Spain, Russia, the House of Orleans, so on. Louis-François Cartier founded Cartier in Paris, France in 1847 when he took over the workshop of his master, Adolphe Picard.

In 1874, Louis-François' son Alfred Cartier took over the company, but it was Alfred's sons Louis and Jacques who established the brand name worldwide. Louis ran the Paris branch, moving to the Rue de la Paix in 1899, he was responsible for some of the company's most celebrated designs, like the mystery clocks, fashionable wristwatches and exotic orientalist Art Deco designs, including the colorful "Tutti Frutti" jewels. In 1904, the Brazilian pioneer aviator, Alberto Santos-Dumont complained to his friend Louis Cartier of the unreliability and impracticality of using pocket watches while flying. Cartier designed a flat wristwatch with a distinctive square bezel; this watch was favored not only by Santos-Dumont himself but by many other customers. The "Santos" watch was Cartier's first men's wristwatch. In 1907, Cartier signed a contract with Edmond Jaeger, who agreed to supply the movements for Cartier watches. Among the Cartier team was Charles Jacqueau, who joined Louis Cartier in 1909 for the rest of his life, Jeanne Toussaint, Director of Fine Jewellery from 1933.

On the other hand, Pierre Cartier established the New York City branch in 1909, moving in 1917 to 653 Fifth Avenue, the Neo-Renaissance mansion of Morton Freeman Plant and designed by architect C. P. H. Gilbert. Cartier bought it from the Plants in exchange for $100 in cash and a double-stranded natural pearl necklace valued at the time at $1 million. By this time, Cartier had branches in London, New York and St. Petersburg and was becoming one of the most successful watch companies in the world. Designed by Louis Cartier, the Tank watch model was introduced in 1919 with a design inspired by the newly introduced tanks on the Western Front in World War I. In the early 1920s, Cartier formed a joint-stock company with Edward Jaeger to produce movements for Cartier. Cartier continued to use movements from other makers: Vacheron Constantin, Audemars Piguet, Movado and LeCoultre, it was during this period that Cartier began adding its own reference numbers to the watches it sold by stamping a four-digit code on the underside of a lug. Jacques took charge of the London operation and moved to the current address at New Bond Street.

After the death of Pierre in 1964, Jean-Jacques Cartier, Claude Cartier, Marionne Claudelle — who headed the Cartier affiliates in London, New York and Paris — sold the businesses. In 1972, Robert Hocq, assisted by a group of investors led by Joseph Kanoui, bought Cartier Paris. In 1974 and 1976 the group repurchased Cartier London and Cartier New York, thus re-connecting Cartier worldwide; the new president of Cartier, Robert Hocq, created the phrase "Les Must de Cartier" with Alain Dominique Perrin, a General Director of the company. As a result, in 1976, "Les Must de Cartier" became a low-priced spin-off line of Cartier, with Alain D. Perrin being its CEO. In 1979, the Cartier interests were combined, with Cartier Monde uniting and controlling Cartier Paris and New York. Joseph Kanoui became vice president of Cartier Monde. In December 1979, following the accidental death of president Robert Hocq, Nathalie Hocq, the daughter of Robert Hocq, became the president. In 1981, Alain Dominique Perrin was appointed Chairman of Cartier International.

The next year, Micheline Kanoui, the wife of Joseph Kanoui, became head of jewellery design and launched her first collection "Nouvelle Joaillerie". In 1984, Perrin founded the Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain to bring Cartier into the twenty-first century, by forming an association with living artists. In 1986, the French Ministry for Culture appointed Perrin head of the "Mission sur le mécénat d'entreprise". Two years Cartier gained a majority holding in Piaget and Baume & Mercier. In 1989/1990 the Musée du Petit Palais staged an exhibition of the Cartier collection, "l'Art de Cartier". Perrin founded an international committee in 1991, Comité International de la Haute Horlogerie, to organize its first salon, held on 15 April 1991; this has become an annual meeting place in Geneva for professionals. The next year, the second exhibition of "l'Art de Cartier" was held at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. In 1993, the "Vendôme Luxury Group" was formed as an umbrella company to combine Carti

Johann Christoph Gottsched

Johann Christoph Gottsched was a German philosopher and critic. For about thirty years, he exercised an undisputed literary dictatorship in Germany, but by his years, his name had become a by-word for foolish pedantry. He was born at Juditten near Königsberg, Brandenburg-Prussia, the son of a Lutheran clergyman, was baptised in St. Mary's Church, he studied philosophy and history at the University of Königsberg, but on taking the degree of Magister in 1723, he fled to Leipzig in order to avoid being drafted into the Prussian army. In Leipzig, he enjoyed the protection of J. B. Mencke, under the name of "Philander von der Linde," was a well-known poet and president of the Deutschübende poetische Gesellschaft in Leipzig. Of this society, Gottsched was elected "Senior" in 1726, in the next year reorganized it under the title of the Deutsche Gesellschaft; as editor of the weeklies Die vernünftigen Tadlerinnen and Der Biedermann, Gottsched started on his career of untiring critical activity, continued in other literary journals.

Directing his criticism at first chiefly against the bombast and absurd affectations of the Second Silesian School, he proceeded to lay down strict laws for the composition of poetry. He insisted on German literature being subordinated to the laws of French classicism, he enunciated rules by which the playwright must be bound, abolished bombast and buffoonery from the serious stage. He insisted on the observance of the dramatic unities. In his efforts toward the reformation of the German drama, Gottsched was aided by his wife, Luise, a prolific writer and translator, had the cooperation of the theatrical manager Johann Neuber and his wife, Caroline, they succeeded indeed in bringing about a considerable change in the condition of the German stage by substituting for the prevailing operatic performances translations of French dramas and original plays, by banishing from it forever the coarse buffooneries of Hanswurst. In 1730, Gottsched was appointed an extraordinary professor of poetry, and, in 1734, ordinary professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of Leipzig.

He was a corresponding member of the first learned society of the Habsburg monarchy, the Societas eruditorum incognitorum in Olmütz, was published in the Society's journal, the first scientific journal in the Habsburg monarchy. Gottsched went too far in his criticism, he refused to recognize the work of Lessing. In 1740, he came into conflict with the Swiss writers Johann Jakob Bodmer and Johann Jakob Breitinger. Under the influence of Addison and contemporary Italian critics, they demanded that the poetic imagination should not be hampered by artificial rules; as examples, they pointed to English poets Milton. Gottsched, although not blind to the beauties of the English writers, clung the more tenaciously to his principle that poetry must be the product of rules, and, in the fierce controversy which for a time raged between Leipzig and Zürich, he was defeated. In 1741, he fell out with Caroline Neuber regarding practical stage matters, placed himself in opposition to his wife, his influence speedily declined, before his death his name became proverbial for pedantic folly.

He died in Leipzig at the age of 66. Gottsched's chief work was his Versuch einer kritischen Dichtkunst für die Deutschen, the first systematic treatise in German on the art of poetry from the standpoint of Boileau, his Ausführliche Redekunst and his Grundlegung einer deutschen Sprachkunst were of importance for the development of German style and the purification of the language. He wrote several plays, of which Der sterbende Cato, an adaptation of Joseph Addison's tragedy and a French play on the same theme, was long popular on the stage, his Deutsche Schaubühne contained translations from the French, but some works written by himself, his wife, others. With this, he provided the German stage with a classical repertory, his bibliography of the German drama, Nötiger Vorrat zur Geschichte der deutschen dramatischen Dichtkunst, intended to contain an account of all previous German plays, though not complete is still valuable. He was the editor of several journals devoted to literary criticism.

Gottsched wrote the texts of two secular cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach: Laß, Fürstin, laß noch einen Strahl and Willkommen! Ihr herrschenden Götter der Erden, his first wife, Luise Kulmus, was a prominent author. She died in 1762. After a three-year mourning period, in 1765 in Camburg, Gottsched married his 19-year-old second wife, Ernestine Susanne Katharina Neunes; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gottsched, Johann Christoph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Johann Christoph Gottsched at Internet Archive Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Biedermann. 1. Berlin: Gottsched-Verlag. Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Biedermann. 2. Berlin: Gottsched-Verlag. Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Gedichte. Berlin: Gottsched-Verlag. Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Gesammelte Reden. Berlin: Gottsched-Verlag

Medina High School (Texas)

Medina High School or Medina Secondary School is a public high school located in Medina and classified as a 1A school by the UIL. It is part of the Medina Independent School District. In 2013, the school was rated "Met Standard" by the Texas Education Agency. In 2012, Medina High School was ranked 9th in Children at Risk's Top 10 High Schools in Greater San Antonio; the Medina Bobcats compete in the following sports Baseball Basketball Cross Country Golf Football Softball Tennis Track and Field Volleyball Boys Cross Country 1997 Medina ISD