George Lichty was an American cartoonist, creator of the daily and Sunday cartoon series Grin and Bear It. His work was signed Lichty and ran without mention of his first name. Born George Maurice Lichtenstein to Julius and Ella Hirsh Lichtenstein in Chicago, Lichty was 16 years old when he launched his art career by selling his first cartoon to Judge, he attended the Chicago Art Institute and was the editor of the University of Michigan's humor magazine, The Gargoyle. Graduating from the University of Michigan in 1929, he began his newspaper career doing spot cartoons and sports drawings for the Chicago Daily Times. Lichty and Eleanor Louise Fretter married on January 5, 1931. After he created his Grin and Bear It series in 1932, it was syndicated at first by United Feature Syndicate and by the Field Newspaper Syndicate in Chicago. Lichty contributed to Collier's during the 1930s, his artwork had a hastily drawn, loose appearance. Frequent subjects included family life, excessive capitalism and Soviet bureaucracy.
Scenes in his cartoons were set in the offices of commissars or the showrooms of "Belchfire" dealers with enormous cars in the background. His series Is Party Line, Comrade! skewered various Soviet bureaucrats, who were drawn wearing a five-pointed star medal labeled "Hero". The "gags" for Grin and Bear It were written by Arthur Erenberg. A member of the San Francisco Press Club, Lichty performed as a percussionist with the Guckenheimer Sour Kraut Band. Lichty lived with his wife and their two daughters in Santa Rosa, on Apple Ranch in Sebastopol, California. At age 78, he died July 18, 1983 of a heart attack in the Santa Rosa Hospital in Santa Rosa, California. Lichty was a four-time winner of the National Cartoonists Society's Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award. Grin and Bear It received this award in 1956, 1960, 1962 and 1964. Lichty's cartoon style had an influence on cartoon animation in what was known as the "animation smear technique," dubbed the "Lichty style" by Warner Bros. animator Rod Scribner.
Lichty influenced cartoons drawn by Joe Teller, as evidenced in the book, "When I'm Dead All This Will Be Yours!": Joe Teller—A Portrait by His Kid by Teller. The artist Ed Ruscha, who planned to be a cartoonist, incorporated a Lichty cartoon into one of his artworks. Large Feature Comic #28: Grin and Bear It Grin and Bear It Grin and Bear It Is Party Line, Comrade. NCS Newspaper Panel Awards Sample cartoon
An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3D modeling and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for entertainment, commercial and personal purposes. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions attempting to convey the perception of motion. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree; the phenakistoscope and praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film. The first person to make animated movies was a French science teacher named, Charles-Emile Reynaud.
The first animated projection was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud, a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888. On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris; this film is notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not drawn directly onto the transparent strip. In 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings; the first animated projection was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by newspaper cartoonist J. Stuart Blackton, one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company arrived. In the film, a cartoonist's line drawings of two faces were'animated' on a blackboard; the two faces smiled and winked, the cigar-smoking man blew smoke in the lady's face. The first animated projection in the traditional sense was Fantasmagorie by the French director Émile Cohl in 1908; this was followed by two more films, Le Cauchemar du fantoche and Un Drame chez les fantoches, all completed in 1908.
One of the first successful animated cartoons was Gertie the Dinosaur by Winsor McCay. It is considered the first example of true character animation. At first, animated cartoons were silent. Felix the Cat and Oswald the Lucky Rabbit are notable examples. From the 1920s to 1960s, theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers, shown before a feature film in a movie theater. Disney, Warner Bros. MGM, UPA were the largest studios producing these 5- to 10-minute "shorts." Other studios included Walter Lantz, DePatie-Freleng, Van Beuren Studios, ComiColor Cartoons, Charles Mintz Studios, Famous Studios, Terrytoons. The first cartoon to use a soundtrack was in 1926 with Max Fleischer's My Old Kentucky Home; however the Fleischers used a De Forest sound system and the sound was not synchronized with the film. Walt Disney's 1928 cartoon Steamboat Willie starring Mickey Mouse was the first to use a click track during the recording session, which produced better synchronism. "Mickey Mousing" became a term for any movie action, synchronized with music.
The music used is original most of the time, but musical quotation is employed. Animated characters performed the action in "loops," i.e. drawings were repeated over and over. Although other producers had made films earlier using 2-strip color, Disney produced the first cartoon in 3-strip Technicolor and Trees, in 1932. Technicians at the Fleischer studio invented rotoscoping, in which animators trace live action in order to make animation look more realistic. However, rotoscoping made the animation look stiff and the technique was used more for studying human and animal movement, rather than directly tracing and copying filmed movements. Other movie technologies were adapted for use in animation, such as multiplane cameras with The Old Mill, stereophonic sound in Fantasia, widescreen processes with the feature-length Lady and the Tramp, 3D with Lumber Jack-Rabbit. Today, traditional animation is aided by computers in certain areas; this gives the animator new tools not available. In 1917, Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani created the first animated feature made, El Apóstol, utilizing cutout animation.
In 1937, Disney created the first sound and color animated feature film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The name "animated cartoon" is not used when referring to full-length animated productions, since the term more or less implies a "short." Huge numbers of animated feature films were, are still, produced. Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s, the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Tod
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are discontinuous, it is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colours worked over portions of the warp to form the design. Most weavers use a natural warp thread, such as linen or cotton; the weft threads are wool or cotton, but may include silk, silver, or other alternatives. First attested in English in 1467, the word tapestry derives from Old French tapisserie, from tapisser, meaning "to cover with heavy fabric, to carpet", in turn from tapis, "heavy fabric", via Latin tapes, the Latinisation of the Greek τάπης, "carpet, rug"; the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, ta-pe-ja, written in the Linear B syllabary. The success of decorative tapestry can be explained by its portability.
Kings and noblemen could transport tapestries from one residence to another. In churches, they were displayed on special occasions. Tapestries were draped on the walls of castles for insulation during winter, as well as for decorative display. In the Middle Ages and renaissance, a rich tapestry panel woven with symbolic emblems, mottoes, or coats of arms called a baldachin, canopy of state or cloth of state was hung behind and over a throne as a symbol of authority; the seat under such a canopy of state would be raised on a dais. The iconography of most Western tapestries goes back to written sources, the Bible and Ovid's Metamorphoses being two popular choices. Apart from the religious and mythological images, hunting scenes are the subject of many tapestries produced for indoor decoration. Tapestries have been used since at least Hellenistic times. Samples of Greek tapestry have been found preserved in the desert of Tarim Basin dating from the 3rd century BC; the form reached a new stage in Europe in the early 14th century AD.
The first wave of production occurred in Switzerland. Over time, the craft expanded to France and the Netherlands; the basic tools have remained much the same. In the 14th and 15th centuries, France was a thriving textile town; the industry specialised in fine wool tapestries which were sold to decorate palaces and castles all over Europe. Few of these tapestries survived the French Revolution as hundreds were burnt to recover the gold thread, woven into them. Arras is still used to refer to a rich tapestry no matter. Indeed, as literary scholar Rebecca Olson argues, arras were the most valuable objects in England during the early modern period and inspired writers such as William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser to weave these tapestries into their most important works such as Hamlet and The Faerie Queen. By the 16th century, the towns of Oudenaarde, Brussels and Enghien had become the centres of European tapestry production. In the 17th century, Flemish tapestries were arguably the most important productions, with many specimens of this era still extant, demonstrating the intricate detail of pattern and colour embodied in painterly compositions of monumental scale.
In the 19th century, William Morris resurrected the art of tapestry-making in the medieval style at Merton Abbey. Morris & Co. made successful series of tapestries for home and ecclesiastical uses, with figures based on cartoons by Edward Burne-Jones. Kilims and Navajo rugs are types of tapestry work. In the mid-twentieth century, new tapestry art forms were developed by children at the Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Centre in Harrania, by modern French artists under Jean Lurçat in Aubusson, France. Traditional tapestries are still made at the factory of Gobelins and a few other old European workshops, which repair and restore old tapestries. While tapestries have been created for many centuries and in every continent in the world, what distinguishes the contemporary field from its pre-World War ll history is the predominance of the artist as weaver in the contemporary medium; this trend has its roots in France during the 1950s where one of the "cartoonists" for the Aubusson Tapestry studios, Jean Lurçat spearheaded a revival of the medium by streamlining color selection, thereby simplifying production, by organizing a series of Biennial exhibits held in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Polish work submitted to the first Biennale, which opened in 1962, was quite novel. Traditional workshops in Poland had collapsed as a result of the war. Art supplies in general were hard to acquire. Many Polish artists had learned to weave as part of their art school training and began creating individualistic work by using atypical materials like jute and sisal. With each Biennale the popularity of works focusing on exploring innovative constructions from a wide variety of fiber resounded around the world. There were many weavers in pre-war United States, but there had never been a prolonged system of workshops for producing tapestries. Therefore, weavers in America were self-taught and chose to design as well as weave their art. Through these Lausanne exhibitions, US artists/weavers, others in countries all over the world, were excited about the Polish trend towards experimental forms. Throughout the 1970s all weavers had explored some manner of techniques and materials in vogue at the time.
What this movement contributed to the newly realized field of art weaving, termed "contemporary tapestry", was the option for working
Humour spelt as humor, is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours, controlled human health and emotion. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour; the hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, or irrational. Though decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person finds something humorous depends on a host of variables, including geographical location, maturity, level of education and context. For example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of humour such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context, thus tend to appeal to a more mature audience.
Many theories exist what social function it serves. The prevailing types of theories attempting to account for the existence of humour include psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider humour-induced behaviour to be healthy; the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. The theory says'humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, but seems okay, acceptable or safe'. Humour can be used as a method to engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'; some claim. Author E. B. White once said, "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." Counter to this argument, protests against "offensive" cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and communities.
This process of dissecting humour does not banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy. However, both humour and comic are used when theorising about the subject; the connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus. Additionally, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual; the French were slow to adopt the term humour. Non-satirical humour can be termed droll humour or recreational drollery; as with any art form, the acceptance of a particular style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors and varies from person to person. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the Western kings or the villages of the Far East. Both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm.
Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that "the more you know humour, the more you become demanding in fineness." Western humour theory begins with Plato, who attributed to Socrates in the Philebus the view that the essence of the ridiculous is an ignorance in the weak, who are thus unable to retaliate when ridiculed. In Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. In ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas, which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform; each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. The terms comedy and satire became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Persian Avicenna, Averroes.
Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension" and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature. Mento star Lord Flea, stated in a 1957 interview that he thought that: "West Indians have the best sense of humour in the world. In the most solemn song, like Las Kean Fine, which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humour shine though." Confucianist Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, with its emphasis on ritual and propriety, has traditionally looked down upon hu
Cul de Sac (comic strip)
Cul de Sac is an American comic strip created by Richard Thompson. It was distributed by Universal Press Syndicate/Universal Uclick to 150 worldwide newspapers from 2004 to 2012; the central character is four-year-old Alice Otterloop, the strip depicts her daily life at pre-school and at home. Thompson known for his weekly Richard's Poor Almanac strip in the Washington Post, began Cul de Sac as a limited strip in the Washington Post in February 2004. In September 2007, Cul de Sac entered daily syndication with the Universal Press Syndicate. Digital distribution is by Uclick GoComics. On July 16, 2009, Thompson announced that he had been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, a problem he described as "a pain in the fundament", which slowed him down but did not affect his drawing hand, he took a hiatus from the strip. During the hiatus several other cartoonists stepped in to draw the Cul de Sac characters; the guest artists were Michael Jantze, Corey Pandolph, Lincoln Peirce, Stephan Pastis, Ruben Bolling and children's author Mo Willems.
Upon Thomson's return to Cul de Sac on March 26, 2012, it was announced that children's book illustrator Stacy Curtis would become the inker of Cul de Sac. On August 17, 2012, Thompson announced that due to health issues he would be ending his work as a comic-strip creator, with his final Cul de Sac being published on September 23, 2012.. While Thompson had planned to draw a final strip for the comic himself, one day before its announced publishing date he posted a message online, stating, "Spoiler alert – i couldn’t draw a new Sunday so tomorrow’s is a repeat too. Sorry! I’ll do better next time." That strip was a rerun published on February 18, 2007, which had appeared on the back cover of the first book collection, Cul De Sac: This Exit in 2008. In it, Petey explains to Alice how comic strips are "a mighty, yet dying art form." Thompson died at 58 on July 27, 2016. Universal Press Syndicate describes Cul de Sac as "a light-hearted comic strip centered around a four-year-old girl and her suburban life experiences on a cul-de-sac with her friends Beni and Dill, older brother Petey and her classmates at Blisshaven Academy pre-school.
Alice describes her father's car as a Honda-Tonka Cuisinart and talks to the class guinea pig, Mr. Danders, she has the typical older brother who plays jokes on her, she contemplates ways to keep the scary clown from jumping out of the jack-in-the-box with friends." Alice Otterloop The strip's main character. A willful four-year old girl living in suburbia; the strip focuses on her exposure to new things and her commentary on these experiences. She enjoys dancing on manhole covers. Petey Otterloop Alice's older brother Petey is quiet, more experienced and is Alice's primary source of information on new phenomena; the eight-year-old has been called "King of the Picky Eaters" by his mother. Petey describes mundane school and suburban experiences in a mythic style as though the information was being passed down from generation to generation of school children. A comic devotee, he is an aspiring comic artist, forever working on and revising his own graphic novel, Toad Zombies. Petey only considers himself to have three and a half friends Thompson has said that Petey and Loris together are like an atom, with Andre as the proton, Petey as the neutron, Loris as the electron.
It has been speculated that Petey has a form of autism, something that Thompson has neither confirmed or denied. Madeline Otterloop Alice and Petey's mother is a stay-at-home mom taking care of the day-to-day running of the household, she is seen driving the children around in a van of a color "so neutral that it does not occur in nature". Mrs. Otterloop's maiden name is Urquhart. Peter Otterloop Alice and Petey's father is seen less and works a daily office job at an unnamed location. Peter Sr. is bald, slight in build, nerdy like his son. Before the strip was rebooted for syndication, his employer was described as the Federal "Department of Consumption". However, a number of Washington, D. C.-specific features have disappeared since the reboot, his employer has not been mentioned since. According to the official website, he works as the "Assistant Director of Pamphlets at the U. S. Department of Consumption, Office of Consumer Complaints", he commutes to work in a car that Alice describes as a "Honda-Tonka Cuisinart".
Dill Wedekind Dill, the Caucasian friend with the few bristles of hair, is the most eccentric character in the strip making strange or unrelated statements. He is in the same neighborhood as Alice, as well as one of her best friends. A running joke is his reference to his unseen disreputable older brothers, he sometimes rides a yellow tricycle with blue wheels. Beni Along with Beni is Alice's other best friend, the dark-haired and dark-skinned one, he is skilled with tools. Implying he might be Hispanic, he is good at soccer. Ernesto Lacuna Ernesto is a crossing guard that Petey met and thought existed only in his imagination, he is always well-groomed in a tie and vest. When he was fired from his crossing guard position, he blamed Petey, he claimed a super-power. He speaks and acts like an adult and chides Petey for his'childish' pursuits or interests. Petey just wishes he would g
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting and braiding or plaiting; the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back strap loom, or other techniques without looms; the way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be woven in decorative or artistic design. In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other in a loom. There are many types of looms. Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions called the primary motion of the loom. Shedding: where the warp threads are separated by raising or lowering heald frames to form a clear space where the pick can pass Picking: where the weft or pick is propelled across the loom by hand, an air-jet, a rapier or a shuttle. Beating-up or battening: where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed; the warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. The upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, the lower group is raised, allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large.
The secondary motion of the loom are the: Let off Motion: where the warp is let off the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling and of the required design Take up Motion: Takes up the woven fabric in a regulated manner so that the density of filling is maintainedThe tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the warp stop motion weft stop motionThe principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam or weavers beam, the cloth-roll, the heddles, their mounting, the reed; the warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom. The threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll; each thread or group of threads of the warp passes through an opening in a heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles.
In the case of small patterns the movement of the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means of a frame called a harness. Where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine; every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted. Traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the weft thread is carried on a pirn, in a shuttle that passes through the shed. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick; the "picking" on a power loom is done by hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80–250 times a minute. When a pirn is depleted, it is ejected from the shuttle and replaced with the next pirn held in a battery attached to the loom. Multiple shuttle boxes allow more than one shuttle to be used; each can carry a different colour.
The rapier-type weaving machines do not have shuttles, they propel the weft by means of small grippers or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way. Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 metres per minute. Manufacturers such as Picanol have reduced the mechanical adjustments to a minimum, control all the functions through a computer with a graphical user interface. Other types use compressed air to insert the pick, they are all fast and quiet. The warp is sized in a starch mixture for smoother running; the loom warped by passing the sized warp threads through two or more heddles attached to harnesses. The power weavers. Most looms used for industrial purposes have a machine that ties new warps threads to the waste of used warps threads, while still on the loom an operator rolls the old and new threads back on the warp beam; the harnesses are controlled by dobbies or a Jacquard head.
The raising and lowering
Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American children's author, political cartoonist, animator. He is known for his work writing and illustrating more than 60 books under the pen name Doctor Seuss, his work includes many of the most popular children's books of all time, selling over 600 million copies and being translated into more than 20 languages by the time of his death. Geisel adopted the name "Dr. Seuss" as an undergraduate at Dartmouth College and as a graduate student at Lincoln College, Oxford, he left Oxford in 1927 to begin his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair and various other publications. He worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for FLIT and Standard Oil, as a political cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM, he published his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street in 1937. During World War II, he took a brief hiatus from children's literature to illustrate political cartoons, he worked in the animation and film department of the United States Army where he wrote, produced or animated many productions – both live-action and animated – including Design for Death, which won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
After the war, Geisel returned to writing children's books, writing classics like If I Ran the Zoo, Horton Hears a Who!, If I Ran the Circus, The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham. He published over 60 books during his career, which have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, five feature films, a Broadway musical, four television series. Geisel won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Geisel's birthday, March 2, has been adopted as the annual date for National Read Across America Day, an initiative on reading created by the National Education Association. Geisel was born and raised in Springfield, the son of Henrietta and Theodor Robert Geisel, his father managed the family brewery and was appointed to supervise Springfield's public park system by Mayor John A. Denison after the brewery closed because of Prohibition. Mulberry Street in Springfield, made famous in his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, is near his boyhood home on Fairfield Street.
The family was of German descent, Geisel and his sister Marnie experienced anti-German prejudice from other children following the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Geisel attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1925. At Dartmouth, he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern rising to the rank of editor-in-chief. While at Dartmouth, he was caught drinking gin with nine friends in his room. At the time, the possession and consumption of alcohol was illegal under Prohibition laws, which remained in place between 1920 and 1933; as a result of this infraction, Dean Craven Laycock insisted that Geisel resign from all extracurricular activities, including the Jack-O-Lantern. To continue working on the magazine without the administration's knowledge, Geisel began signing his work with the pen name "Seuss", he was encouraged in his writing by professor of rhetoric W. Benfield Pressey, whom he described as his "big inspiration for writing" at Dartmouth. Upon graduating from Dartmouth, he entered Lincoln College, intending to earn a D.
Phil. in English literature. At Oxford, he met Helen Palmer, who encouraged him to give up becoming an English teacher in favor of pursuing drawing as a career, she recalled that "Ted's notebooks were always filled with these fabulous animals. So I set to work diverting him. Geisel left Oxford without earning a degree and returned to the United States in February 1927, where he began submitting writings and drawings to magazines, book publishers, advertising agencies. Making use of his time in Europe, he pitched a series of cartoons called Eminent Europeans to Life magazine, but the magazine passed on it, his first nationally published cartoon appeared in the July 16, 1927, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. This single $25 sale encouraged Geisel to move from Springfield to New York City; that year, Geisel accepted a job as writer and illustrator at the humor magazine Judge, he felt financially stable enough to marry Helen. His first cartoon for Judge appeared on October 22, 1927, the Geisels were married on November 29.
Geisel's first work signed "Dr. Seuss" was published in Judge about six months after he started working there. In early 1928, one of Geisel's cartoons for Judge mentioned Flit, a common bug spray at the time manufactured by Standard Oil of New Jersey. According to Geisel, the wife of an advertising executive in charge of advertising Flit saw Geisel's cartoon at a hairdresser's and urged her husband to sign him. Geisel's first Flit ad appeared on May 31, 1928, the campaign continued sporadically until 1941; the campaign's catchphrase "Quick, the Flit!" became a part of popular culture. It was used as a punch line for comedians such as Fred Allen and Jack Benny; as Geisel gained notoriety for the Flit campaign, his work was in demand and began to appear in magazines such as Life and Vanity Fair. The money Geisel earned from his advertising work and magazine submissions made him wealthier than his most successful Dartmouth classmates; the increased income allowed the Geisels to move to better quarters and to socialize in higher social circles.
They became friends with the wealthy