A mace is a blunt weapon, a type of club or virge that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows. A mace consists of a strong, wooden or metal shaft reinforced with metal, featuring a head made of stone, copper, iron, or steel; the head of a military mace can be shaped with flanges or knobs to allow greater penetration of plate armour. The length of maces can vary considerably; the maces of foot soldiers were quite short. The maces of cavalrymen were thus better suited for blows delivered from horseback. Two-handed maces could be larger. Maces are used today for actual combat, but a large number of government bodies and other institutions have ceremonial maces and continue to display them as symbols of authority, they are paraded in academic, parliamentary or civic rituals and processions. The mace was developed during the Upper Paleolithic from the simple club, by adding sharp spikes of flint or obsidian. In Europe, an elaborately carved ceremonial flint mace head was one of the artifacts discovered in excavations of the Neolithic mound of Knowth in Ireland, Bronze Age archaeology cites numerous finds of perforated mace heads.
In ancient Ukraine, stone mace heads were first used nearly eight millennia ago. The others known were disc maces with oddly formed stones mounted perpendicularly to their handle; the Narmer Palette shows a king swinging a mace. See the articles on the Narmer Macehead and the Scorpion Macehead for examples of decorated maces inscribed with the names of kings; the problem with early maces was that their stone heads shattered and it was difficult to fix the head to the wooden handle reliably. The Egyptians attempted to give them a disk shape in the predynastic period in order to increase their impact and provide some cutting capabilities, but this seems to have been a short-lived improvement. A rounded pear form of mace head known as a "piriform" replaced the disc mace in the Naqada II period of pre-dynastic Upper Egypt and was used throughout the Naqada III period. Similar mace heads were used in Mesopotamia around 2450–1900 B. C. On a Sumerian Clay tablet written by the scribe Gar. Ama, the title Lord of the Mace is listed in the year 3100 B.
C. The Assyrians used maces about nineteenth century B. C. and in their campaigns. An important development in mace heads was the use of metal for their composition. With the advent of copper mace heads, they no longer shattered and a better fit could be made to the wooden club by giving the eye of the mace head the shape of a cone and using a tapered handle; the Shardanas or warriors from Sardinia who fought for Ramses II against the Hittities were armed with maces consisting of wooden sticks with bronze heads. Many bronze statuettes of the times show Sardinian warriors carrying swords and original maces. Persians used a variety of maces and fielded large numbers of armoured and armed cavalry. For a armed Persian knight, a mace was as effective as a sword or battle axe. In fact, Shahnameh has many references to armoured knights facing each other using maces and swords; the enchanted talking mace Sharur made its first appearance in Sumerian/Akkadian mythology during the epic of Ninurta. The Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata describe the extensive use of the Gada in ancient Indian warfare as gada-yuddha or'mace combat'.
The ancient Romans did not make wide use of maces because of the influence of armour, due to the nature of the Roman infantry's fighting style which involved the pilum and the gladius. The use of a heavy swinging-arc weapon in the well-disciplined tight formations of the Roman infantry would not have been practical, though auxiliaries from Syria Palestina were armed with clubs and maces at the battles of Immae and Emesa in 272 AD, they proved effective against the armoured horsemen of Palmyra. During the Middle Ages metal armour such as mail protected against the blows of edged weapons. Solid metal maces and war hammers proved able to inflict damage on well armoured knights, as the force of a blow from a mace is great enough to cause damage without penetrating the armour. Though iron became common and bronze were used in iron-deficient areas. One example of a mace capable of penetrating armour is the flanged mace; the flanges allow it to penetrate thick armour. Flange maces did not become popular until after knobbed maces.
Although there are some references to flanged maces as early as the Byzantine Empire c. 900 it is accepted that the flanged mace did not become popular in Europe until the 12th century, when it was concurrently developed in Russia and Mid-west Asia. Maces, being simple to make and straightforward in application, were quite common weapons. Examples found in museums are highly decorated, it is popularly believed. The evidence for this is sparse and appears to derive entirely from the depiction of Bishop Odo of Bayeux wielding a club-like mace at the Battle of Hastings in the Bayeux Tapestry, the idea being that he did so to avoid either shedding blood or bearing the arms of war. Maces were common in eastern Europe medieval Poland and Russia. Eastern European maces
Gabbro is a phaneritic, mafic intrusive igneous rock formed from the slow cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich magma into a holocrystalline mass deep beneath the Earth's surface. Slow-cooling, coarse-grained gabbro is chemically equivalent to fine-grained basalt. Much of the Earth's oceanic crust is made of gabbro, formed at mid-ocean ridges. Gabbro is found as plutons associated with continental volcanism. Due to its variant nature, the term "gabbro" may be applied loosely to a wide range of intrusive rocks, many of which are "gabbroic"; the term "gabbro" was used in the 1760s to name a set of rock types that were found in the ophiolites of the Apennine Mountains in Italy. It was named after a hamlet near Rosignano Marittimo in Tuscany. In 1809, the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch used the term more restrictively in his description of these Italian ophiolitic rocks, he assigned the name "gabbro" to rocks that geologists nowadays would more call "metagabbro". Gabbro is dense, greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene and minor amounts of amphibole and olivine.
The pyroxene content is clinopyroxene augite, but small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. If the amount of orthopyroxene is more than 95% of the total pyroxene content the rock is termed norite. On the other hand, gabbro has more than 95% of its pyroxenes in the form of the monoclinic clinopyroxene/s. Intermediate rocks are termed gabbro-norite; the calcium rich plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene content vary between 10–90% in gabbro. If more than 90% plagioclase is present the rock is an anorthosite. If on the other hand, the rock contains more than 90% pyroxenes, it is termed pyroxenite. Gabbro may contain small amounts of olivine and biotite; the quartz content in gabbro is less than 5% of total volume.'Quartz gabbros' or monzogabbros are known to occur, for example the cizlakite at Pohorje in northeastern Slovenia, are derived from magma, over-saturated with silica. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica, resulting in the formation of the feldspathoid minerals nepheline and sodalite as accessory minerals rather than quartz..
Gabbros contain minor amounts a few percent, of iron-titanium oxides such as magnetite and ulvospinel. Gabbro is coarse grained, with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase, although the term microgabbro is used when extra descriptiveness is desired. Gabbro may be coarse grained to pegmatitic, some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are coarse grained gabbro, some may exhibit acicular crystal habits. Gabbro is equigranular in texture, although it may be porphyritic at times when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Gabbro can be formed as a massive, uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase, or as part of a layered intrusion as a cumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase adcumulate. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust, can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV.
Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins, intruding into the rift flanks. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. Nearly all gabbros are found in plutonic bodies, but to restrict the term just to plutonic rocks is inappropriate, because gabbro may be found as a coarse- grained interior facies of certain thick lavas, it is better to base a rock definition on descriptive characteristics of the rock rather than how or where it was formed. Gabbro contains valuable amounts of chromium, cobalt, silver and copper sulfides. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones, paving stones and it is known by the trade name of'black granite', a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites, it is used in kitchens and their countertops under the misnomer of'black granite'. Peridotite – A coarse-grained ultramafic igneous rock Igneous differentiation – Processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, emplacement, or eruption Fractional crystallisation – One of the main processes of magmatic differentiation Ocean drilling program gabbro petrology Scientists find the elusive gabbro
Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The island's peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillin, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins; the island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period, its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye's population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.
About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture and forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area; the island's largest settlement is Portree, its capital, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge; the climate is mild and windy. The abundant wildlife includes red deer and Atlantic salmon; the local flora are dominated by heather moor, there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song; the first written references to the island are Roman sources such as the Ravenna Cosmography, which refers to Scitis and Scetis, which can be found on a map by Ptolemy. One possible derivation comes from skitis, an early Celtic word for winged, which may describe how the island's peninsulas radiate out from a mountainous centre.
Subsequent Gaelic-, Norse- and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye. Various etymologies have been proposed, such as the "winged isle" or "the notched isle" but no definitive solution has been found to date. In the Norse sagas Skye is called Skíð, for example in the Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar and a skaldic poem in the Heimskringla from c. 1230 contains a line that translates as "the hunger battle-birds were filled in Skye with blood of foemen killed". The island was referred to by the Norse as Skuy, Skýey or Skuyö; the traditional Gaelic name is An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, An t-Eilean Sgiathanach being a more recent and less common spelling. In 1549 Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, wrote of "Sky": "This Ile is callit Ellan Skiannach in Irish, to say in Inglish the wyngit Ile, be reason it has mony wyngis and pointis lyand furth fra it, throw the dividing of thir foirsaid Lochis." But the meaning of this Gaelic name is unclear. Eilean a' Cheò, which means island of the mist, is a poetic Gaelic name for the island.
At 1,656 square kilometres, Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills. Malcolm Slesser suggested that its shape "sticks out of the west coast of northern Scotland like a lobster's claw ready to snap at the fish bone of Harris and Lewis" and W. H. Murray, commenting on its irregular coastline, stated that "Skye is sixty miles long, but what might be its breadth is beyond the ingenuity of man to state". Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication, his geological observations included a note that: There are marcasites black and white, resembling silver ore, near the village Sartle: there are in the same place several stones, which in bigness, shape, &c. resemble nutmegs, many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours. The Applesglen near Loch-Fallart has agate growing in it of different colours. Stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains.
The Black Cuillin, which are composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramatic and challenging mountain terrain in Scotland. The ascent of Sgùrr a' Ghreadaidh is one of the longest rock climbs in Britain and the Inaccessible Pinnacle is the only peak in Scotland that requires technical climbing skills to reach the summit; these hills make demands of the hill walker that exceed any others found in Scotland and a full traverse of the Cuillin ridge may take 15–20 hours. The Red Hills to the south are known as the Red Cuillin, they are composed of granite that has weathered into more rounded hills with many long scree slopes on their flanks. The highest point of these hills is one of only two Corbetts on Skye; the northern peninsula of Trotternish is underlain by basalt, which provides rich soils and a variety of unusual rock features. The Kilt Rock is named after the tartan-like patterns in the 105 metres cliffs; the Quiraing is a spectacular series of rock pinnacles on the eastern side of th
Newburgh is a royal burgh and parish of Fife, having a population of 2,171. Newburgh's population has grown about 10% since 1901 when the population was counted at 1904 persons. In 1266 Newburgh was granted burgh status by King Alexander III of Scotland, as a burgh belonging to the Abbot of Lindores. In 1600, Newburgh was given to Patrick Leslie, son of the Earl of Rothes – a powerful Scottish family - and in 1631, Newburgh was made a Royal Burgh by King Charles I. Newburgh is situated on the Firth of Tay, 7 m. N. W. of Ladybank Junction alongside the Edinburgh to Inverness railway line. Newburgh railway station closed in 1955. An active campaign to reopen the station is ongoing and locals are hopeful of success. Fife Scottish used to have a bus depot at East Shore Road but the depot closed in 1991. No buses are now based in Newburgh although the Perth to Glenrothes and Newburgh to St Andrews via Ladybank station still serve the town. Since WW2 many new houses have been built in Newburgh but the population has only increased by about 10%.
Because average house occupancy rates are much lower since the baby boomer years. For some time, Newburgh's industries chiefly consisted of the making of linen, linoleum floorcloth, oilskin fabric and quarrying. There was for many years a net and coble fishery on the Firth Of Tay for salmon and sea trout; the harbour area was used for boatbuilding and the transshipment of cargoes to Perth for vessels of over 200 tons. Raw materials for making linoleum such as cork and linseed oil were imported at the "Factory Pier". Aggregates from the Whin Stone quarry were shipped from Bell's Pier; the main employer from the early 1920's was the linoleum factory known locally as the "Tayside" from The Tayside Floorcloth Company. For many years Newburgh was a prosperous industrial town pulling in workers for the factories from surrounding towns and villages; as linoleum fell out of fashion in the late 60s and 70s attempts were made to produce Vinyl flooring and tiles but the factory was no longer profitable and after changing hands a couple of times it closed in 1980 after a large fire destroyed much of the building.
Situated to the East of the linoleum factory was another factory known locally as "The Oilskin", many women worked there from before The Great War producing oilskin fabric for waterproof clothing such as fishermen's suits and Sou'westers. The factory was taken over by textiles giant Courtaulds in the 1960s but sadly closed some years as demand for the product declined. All of these old industries in Newburgh have gone except quarrying, now the town's biggest single employer. Newburgh is now a dormitory town with many of those of working age travelling outwith the town for work. Perth and Glenrothes are in easy reach by car. Local trades and services including a Health Centre and a Nursing Home and a few shops including a brand new Co-op on the site of the former Ship Inn still provide some local employment. In 2017 a new Whisky distillery opened on the site of Lindores Abbey at the east end of Newburgh; this will produce Lindores Abbey whisky on the site where the earliest reference to "Aqua Vita" a form of Whisky was produced by the monks.
The distillery incorporates a high quality event venue and offers catering and tours of the distillery and Abbey ruins. After many years of lying derelict, the linoleum factory was demolished and cleared and its site is now a recreational waterfront linked to the Mugdrum Park and the Fife Coastal Path. Newburgh was the birthplace in 1823 of Robert Hunter encyclopaedist; the civil parish has a population of 2,171. The plain Georgian town house, with central tower and spire, was built on the south side of the High Street in 1808, it forms a continuous block with the other houses. The Laing Museum and Library was added to the north side of the street in 1894-96. Museum open in summer only. On high ground, about a mile southwest at 56°20′20″N 3°14′44″W, stand the remains of Macduff's Cross, which marks the spot where the clan Macduff in return for its chief's services against Macbeth was granted rights of sanctuary and composition for murder done in hot blood. Denmylne Castle, about a mile south-east of Newburgh at 56°20′39″N 3°12′55″W on the Cupar road, was the home for more than 250 years of the Balfour of Denmylne family, of which the two brothers, the annalist and Lord Lyon, Andrew, founder of the Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, were the most distinguished members.
The castle was abandoned in 1772 when the estate was sold and now stands within a 19th-century steading whose construction will have necessitated the removal of the castle's subsidiary buildings. It has been unroofed for at least 200 years and is in an dangerous state of disrepair. A lintel dated 1620 has been re-used in one of the steading's building, it is a scheduled ancient monument. Lindores Abbey is situated on the East side of the town. Of the Tironensian abbey, founded about 1190 by David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion, there are only fragmentary remains, although the ground plan of the whole structure can still be traced. Best preserved are the south-west gateway through the precinct wall, various discontinuous fragments of the wall itself, part of the east cloister range, including the still vaulted slype, all built of local red sandstone; the monastic church itself had a single aisle on the north side, with aisled north and south transepts, a central tower and a detached western tower or campanile, as at Cam
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Wigtownshire or the County of Wigtown is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in south-west Scotland. Until 1975, Wigtownshire was one of the administrative counties used for local government purposes, is now administered as part of the council area of Dumfries and Galloway; as a lieutenancy area, Wigtownshire has its own Lord Lieutenant John Alexander Ross. In the 19th century, it was called West Galloway. Wigtownshire borders the Irish Sea to the west, the Solway Firth to the south, Ayrshire to the north, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright to the east. Together the Stewartry and Wigtownshire are referred to as Galloway; the western area of Wigtownshire is known as Rhinns of Galloway, the eastern area is known as Machars. Wigtownshire includes the southernmost point in Scotland, the Mull of Galloway, the Machars and the Rhins of Galloway peninsula; the county town was Wigtown, with the administrative centre moving to Stranraer, the largest town, on the creation of a county council in 1890.
Major road links to the area comprise the A77 to the north, A75 to the east. The European route E18 starts in Northern Ireland and runs from Stranraer, Wigtownshire – Gretna – Carlisle to Newcastle, it re-joins at Norway, goes through Sweden and ends at Saint Petersburg, Russia. Like all European routes, it is not signposted as such in the United Kingdom; the European Union is financing "The Stranraer and Loch Ryan Waterfront Project", at Inch. Stranraer station connects the Glasgow South Western Line to Ayr, Paisley Gilmour Street and Glasgow Central as well as Kilmarnock, Carlisle for the West Coast Main Line to Preston and London Euston; the Beeching cuts cut off the Castle Douglas and Dumfries Railway and Portpatrick Railway in 1965 resulting in an adverse mileage increase via the Glasgow South Western Line to reach Stranraer from Carlisle and the West Coast Main Line. The 11th-century ex-King of Dublin and Mann, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, had the title Rex Innarenn, "King of the Rhinns", attributed to him on his death in 1065 AD.
The western sections of Galloway had been aligned with the Isle of Man, Norse and Gaelic-Norse settlement names from the 10th and 11th centuries are spread all along the coastal lands of south-western Scotland. In 2012 the University of Glasgow led a community archaeology project in Inch, between Stranraer and Cairnryan, including a geophysical survey of the area to the north of the motte at Innermessan, it is a site with a long history – from the early mesolithic, about 10,000 years ago, to a medieval town, now disappeared, which in its time was more important than Stranraer. An unnamed detectorist found a gold lunula in a cultivated field near Garlieston, Sorbie in March 2011, the first Scottish gold lunula found in over 100 years; the lunula is a flat, crescent-shaped neck ornament thought to date from around 2300 – 2200 BC, described by some archaeologists as a symbol of power. The gold sheet hammered out from a bar, is thin and decorated around its edges with incised and punched zigzags and dots.
It had been cut up and folded, the two pieces do not join. Initial surface analysis has shown that the metal contains 0.5 % copper. Further analysis may indicate whether the lunula had been made of Scottish gold. Staff of Stranraer Museum and the Wigtownshire branch of the University of the Third Age walked the field looking for artefacts. Test pits were dug and Historic Scotland commissioned a geophysical survey. No more metalwork was any evidence for why the lunula might have been buried there. From Glenluce Sands there have been recovered "more objects of antiquity than from any area of similar extent in Scotland"; the relics range from neolithic to mediaeval times. The fields between the mound and Dunragit village and Droughduil Mote, Old Luce, contain "one of the most important Stone Age sites in Scotland". Aerial photography and archaeological excavation of the henge has revealed the remains of three massive concentric timber circles. Built c.2500 BC, this huge monument was a ceremonial centre and a meeting place for south-west Scotland's early farming communities.
Funding for the dig was provided by the University of Southampton. The staff at Stranraer Museum assisted with computing and communications facilities and access to collections. Wigtownshire is divided into 16 civil parishes. Glasserton Inch, Wigtownshire Kirkcolm Kirkcowan Kirkinner Kirkmaiden Leswalt Mochrum New Luce Old Luce Penninghame Portpatrick Sorbie Stoneykirk Whithorn Wigtown Ardwell Cairnryan Clachanmore Drummore Dunragit Elrig Garlieston Glenluce Kirkcolm Kirkcowan Kirkinner Kirkmaiden Leswalt Lochans Newton Stewart, a burgh from 1677 Port Logan Portpatrick Port William Sandhead Sorbie Stranraer, a royal burgh from 1617 Whithorn, a royal burgh from 1511 Wigtown, a royal burgh from 1469 Castle of St. John, now a Visitor Centre and museum. Galloway House Monreith House Mull of Galloway Lighthouse at the southernmost point of Scotland, which includes a visitor centre and RSPB nature reserve. Sorbie Tower Wigtown Castle Historic Scotland properties: Castle of Park Glenluce Abbey St Ninian's Chapel at the Isle of Whithorn, St Ninian's Cave, two miles north-west Kirkmadrine Monogram Stones Rispain Camp Torhousekie Stone Circle, dating from the 2nd millennium BC, this is one of the best preserved sites in Britain.
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to