In the southwestern United States, a ramada is a temporary or permanent shelter equipped with a roof but no walls, or only partially enclosed. Ramadas have traditionally constructed with branches or bushes by aboriginal Americans living in the region. However, the term today is applied to permanent concrete, for example, public parks in desert areas of the United States may contain ramadas with picnic tables, water sources, etc. Since sunlight is more of a hazard than wind or snow or rain in this part of the world. And because there are no walls in the structure, airflow is unrestricted, an example of a large modern-day ramada can be seen at the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument in Arizona, where it is used to protect ancient ruins. Hohokam Indians of the Tucson Basin
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex, the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its influence on other contemporary. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, the Adena culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthingtons early 19th-century estate called Adena, in Chillicothe, Ohio. Lasting traces of Adena culture are seen in their substantial earthworks. At one point, Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, and these mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These mounds were built using hundreds of thousands of full of specially selected and graded earth.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena mounds were built as part of burial ritual. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their burial was performed. Before the construction of the mounds, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, the mound would be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new mound. After a series of repetitions, mound/mortuary/mound/mortuary, a quite prominent earthwork would remain, in the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial mounds. Adena mounds stood in isolation from domestic living areas, although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena, motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures.
Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, and many objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, all told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs. The Adena carved stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick
Pueblo Grande Ruin and Irrigation Sites
Pueblo Grande Ruin and Irrigation Sites are pre-Columbian archaeological sites and ruins, located in Phoenix, Arizona. It includes a platform mound and irrigation canals. The city manages the sites as the Pueblo Grande Museum Archaeological Park, the prehistoric Hohokam culture created the archaeological structures and items of Pueblo Grande. It is believed that this area was settled around 450 BC, due to major population movements, among other factors, the site was abandoned by 1450 AD. Pueblo Grande features a platform mound with retaining walls, that was formerly surmounted by walled structures. This massive structure contains over 20,000 cubic meters of fill, there were many dwellings, and at least three ball courts. Construction of the courts was begun by 750 BC. The Hohokam were the first people to practice irrigated agriculture in the region, the remnants of their irrigation canals are part of the historic site. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and it consists of two parts, that were on adjacent properties, and both associated with the same history
Great horned owl
The great horned owl, known as the tiger owl or the hoot owl, is a large owl native to the Americas. It is an extremely adaptable bird with a vast range and is the most widely distributed owl in the Americas. The great horned owl is one of the earliest nesting birds in North America, the great horned owl is generally colored for camouflage. The underparts of the species are light with some brown horizontal barring. All subspecies are darkly barred to some extent along the sides as well, there is a variable sized white patch on the throat. South American horned owls typically have a white throat patch, often unseen unless actively displaying. The skin of the feet and legs, though almost entirely obscured by feathers, is black, even tropical great horned owls have feathered legs and feet. The feathers on the feet of the horned owl are the second longest known in any owl. The bill is dark gunmetal-gray, as are the talons, all great horned owls have a facial disc. This can be reddish, brown or gray in color and is demarked by a dark rim culminating in bold and this species horns are tufts of feathers, called plumicorns.
The purpose of plumicorns is not fully understood, but the theory that they serve as a cue in territorial and socio-sexual interactions with other owls is generally accepted. The great horned owl is the heaviest extant owl in Central and South America and is the second heaviest owl in North America, after the closely related and it is heavily built, with a barrel-shaped body, a large head and broad wings. Adult great horned owls range in length from 43 to 64 cm, with an average of 55 cm, females are somewhat larger than males. Mean body weight is 1,608 g for females and 1,224 g for males, depending on subspecies, maximum weight can reach 2,503 g. The wing chord length is 297–400 mm, the tail, being relatively short as is typical of most owls, is 175 to 252 mm long. The legs and talons are large and powerful. The average foot span of a fully spread foot, from talon to talon, is around 20 cm, Great horned owls can apply at least 300 pounds per square inch of crushing power in their talons, a PSI considerably greater than the human hand is capable of exerting.
In some big females, the power of the great horned owl may be comparable to much larger raptor species such as the golden eagle
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
Natural disaster and depopulation are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. Many ruins have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites in recent years, to identify, ancient cities were often highly militarized and fortified defensive settlements. In times of war they were the focus of armed conflict. Entire cities have been ruined, and some occasionally lost completely, the ancient city of Pompeii was completely lost during a volcanic eruption in the 1st century AD, its uncovered ruins now preserved as a World Heritage Site. The city of Lisbon was totally destroyed in 1755 by an earthquake and tsunami. Apart from acts of war, some important historic buildings have fallen victim to deliberate acts of destruction as a consequence of social, marble was still being burned for agricultural lime in the Roman Camapgna into the nineteenth century. In Europe, many buildings suffered as a result of the politics of the day.
In the 16th century, the English monarch Henry VIII set about confiscating the property of monastic institutions in a campaign which known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Many abbeys and monsateries fell into ruin when their assets, including lead roofs, were stripped, following World War II, a number of European historic buildings fell into ruin as a result of taxation policies, which required all structures with roofs to pay substantial property tax. The owners of buildings, like Fetteresso Castle and Slains Castle in Scotland, deliberately destroyed their roofs in protest at, and defiance of. Post-colonial Ireland has encouraged the ruin of grand Georgian houses, symbols of British imperialism, sometimes tower basements remain, because their removal can sometimes be expensive. One example of such a basement is the basement of the radio mast of Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster. The basements of large wooden towers such as Transmitter Ismaning may be left behind, the contemplation of rust belt post-industrial ruins is in its infancy.
The new sense of historicism that accompanied neoclassicism led some artists, in the period of Romanticism ruins were frequent object for painters, place of meetings of romantic poets, nationalist students etc. Joseph Michael Gandy completed for Sir John Soane in 1832 an atmospheric watercolor of the architects vast Bank of England rotunda as an overgrown ruin. Ruinenwert was popularized in the 20th century by Albert Speer while planning for the 1936 Summer Olympics, for example, the ruins of Dunstanburgh Castle in England inspired Turner to create several paintings, in 1989 the ruined Dunnottar Castle in Scotland was used for filming of Hamlet
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western United States and the Mountain West states and it is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix, Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Nevada and Mexico, Arizonas border with Mexico is 389 miles long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the states to be admitted to the Union. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, after being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase, Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, in addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona, the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the Oodham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area, There is a misconception that the states name originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona. See lists of counties, rivers, state parks, national parks, Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico, of the states 113,998 square miles, approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land, Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the states southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This regions topography was shaped by volcanism, followed by the cooling-off. Its climate has hot summers and mild winters. The state is well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau.
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains, despite the states aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany. The worlds largest stand of pine trees is in Arizona
A natural monument is a natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value and this is a lower level of protection than level II and level I. The European Environment Agencys guidelines for selection of a natural monument are, the area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its immediately related surroundings
Hohokam Pima National Monument
The Hohokam Pima National Monument is an ancient Hohokam village within the Gila River Indian Community, near present-day Sacaton, Arizona. The monument features the archaeological Snaketown, designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, the area was further protected by declaring it a National Monument in 1972, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The site is owned by the Gila River Indian Community, which has decided not to open the area to the public, the museum at the nearby Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, in Coolidge, contains artifacts from Snaketown. There is no access to the Hohokam Pima National Monument. Snaketown was first excavated in 1934 by the Gila Pueblo Foundation, between 1964-1965, a second excavation was led by Emil Haury, assistant director of Gila Pueblo, with assistance from E. B. Sayles, Erik K. Reed, and Irwin and Julian Hayden, the two expeditions discovered that the site contained more than sixty midden mounds. A central plaza and two ovel shaped fields were surrounded by pit houses, and an irrigation system fed the nearby fields in which beans, maize.
The Hohokam practiced cremation, and the expedition excavated up to eight areas which could have used as crematoria. Industries producing pottery and shell jewellery existed and the settlement had trade links with Mesoamerican societies, evidenced by copper bells, most archaeological excavations have been backfilled to protect the site for future research. However, a model of the original Snaketown community is held at the Heard Museum in Phoenix. This site is a significant example of the Hohokam culture, which lived in the area from about 1 CE until approximately 1500 CE. Snaketown, contained in a mile by three-quarters mile piece of property, was occupied by Hohokam people during the Pioneer. Early in the Classic Period the community of Snaketown, once central to the broader Hohokam culture, was suddenly abandoned. Parts of its structure were burned, and the site was not reoccupied, the Hohokam were farmers, even though they lived in an area with dry sandy soil, rugged volcanic mountains and slow running rivers.
They grew beans, tobacco and corn, the Hohokam made the sandy soil fertile by channeling water from the local river through a series of man-made canals. Woven mat dams were used to channel water into the canals. The canals were generally shallow and wide, reaching up to ten miles in length, most of the population lived in pit houses, carefully dug rectangular depressions in the earth with branch and mud adobe walls supported by log sized corner posts. These pit houses were similar to those constructed by the neighboring Mogollon pueblo people, the oval shaped fields at Snaketown were identified as ballcourts at the time of excavation
Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, and politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876, the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from March 4,1881, to March 4,1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, hallmarks of Harrisons administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, and the Sherman Antitrust Act. Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891, during his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term, the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections.
Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the unpopularity of the high tariff. Harrison returned to life and his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1900 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in a case against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to Europe as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis and he died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. S. Historians, have not questioned Harrisons commitment to personal and official integrity, Harrisons paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison, arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1630. Benjamin, the president, was born on August 20,1833, in North Bend, Ohio. Benjamin was a grandson of U. S. Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, although Harrisons family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, despite the familys modest resources, Harrisons boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting.
Benjamin Harrisons early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmers College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio and he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, which he used as a network for much of his life. He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership, classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, and Whitelaw Reid Harrisons vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was strongly influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. Carolines father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony, the Harrisons had two children, Russell Benjamin Harrison, and Mary Mamie Scott Harrison
Graffiti are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view. Graffiti range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, in modern times and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owners permission is considered defacement and vandalism, Graffiti may express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti have evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, both graffiti and its occasional singular form graffito are from the Italian word graffiato.
Graffiti is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface, a related term is sgraffito, which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, the word originates from Greek γράφειν — graphein — meaning to write. The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD, the first known example of modern style graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus. Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution, located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number.
This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment, the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the world had different connotations than they carry in todays society concerning content. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, mansueta tene. Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose, the majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and even some metalworkers, the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there, one reads, Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems