Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and therefore, the West and the Orient. Da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India was significant and opened the way for an age of global imperialism and for the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia. Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the disputed Mediterranean and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula; the sum of the distances covered in the outward and return voyages made this expedition the longest ocean voyage made until far longer than a full voyage around the world by way of the Equator. After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, da Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May 1498. Unopposed access to the Indian spice routes boosted the economy of the Portuguese Empire, based along northern and coastal West Africa.
The main spices at first obtained from Southeast Asia were pepper and cinnamon, but soon included other products, all new to Europe. Portugal maintained a commercial monopoly of these commodities for several decades, it was not until a century that other European powers, namely the Dutch Republic and England, followed by France and Denmark, were able to challenge Portugal's monopoly and naval supremacy in the Cape Route. Da Gama led two of the first and the fourth; the latter departed for India four years after his return from the first one. For his contributions, in 1524 da Gama was appointed Governor of India, with the title of Viceroy, was ennobled as Count of Vidigueira in 1519. Vasco da Gama remains a leading figure in the history of exploration. Numerous homages have been made worldwide to celebrate his accomplishments; the Portuguese national epic poem, Os Lusíadas, was written in his honour by Camões. His first trip to India is considered a milestone in world history, as it marked the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.
In March 2016 thousands of artifacts and nautical remains were recovered from the wreck of the ship Esmeralda, one of da Gama's armada, found off the coast of Oman. Vasco da Gama was born in 1460 or 1469 in the town of Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, southwest Portugal in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Vasco da Gama's father was Estêvão da Gama, who had served in the 1460s as a knight of the household of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, he rose in the ranks of the military Order of Santiago. Estêvão da Gama was appointed alcaide-mór of Sines in the 1460s, a post he held until 1478. Estêvão da Gama married Isabel Sodré, a daughter of João Sodré, scion of a well-connected family of English origin, her father and her brothers, Vicente Sodré and Brás Sodré, had links to the household of Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu, were prominent figures in the military Order of Christ. Vasco da Gama was the third of five sons of Estêvão da Gama and Isabel Sodré – in order of age: Paulo da Gama, João Sodré, Vasco da Gama, Pedro da Gama and Aires da Gama.
Vasco had one known sister, Teresa da Gama. Little is known of da Gama's early life; the Portuguese historian Teixeira de Aragão suggests that he studied at the inland town of Évora, where he may have learned mathematics and navigation. It has been claimed that he studied under Abraham Zacuto, an astrologer and astronomer, but da Gama's biographer Subrahmanyam thinks this dubious. Around 1480, da Gama joined the Order of Santiago; the master of Santiago was Prince John, who ascended to the throne in 1481 as King John II of Portugal. John II doted on the Order, the da Gamas' prospects rose accordingly. In 1492, John II dispatched da Gama on a mission to the port of Setúbal and to the Algarve to seize French ships in retaliation for peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping – a task that da Gama and performed. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Portuguese expeditions organized by Prince Henry the Navigator had been reaching down the African coastline, principally in search of west African riches.
They had extended Portuguese maritime knowledge, but had little profit to show for the effort. After Henry's death in 1460, the Portuguese Crown showed little interest in continuing this effort and, in 1469, licensed the neglected African enterprise to a private Lisbon merchant consortium led by Fernão Gomes. Within a few years, Gomes' captains expanded Portuguese knowledge across the Gulf of Guinea, doing business in gold dust, melegueta pepper and sub-Saharan slaves; when Gomes' charter came up for renewal in 1474, Prince John, asked his father Afonso V of Portugal to pass the African charter to him. Upon becoming king in 1481, John II of Portugal set out on many long reforms. To break the monarch's dependence on the feudal nobility, John II needed to build up the royal treasury. Under John II's watch, the gold and slave trade in west Africa was expanded, he was eager to break into the profitable spice trade between Europe and Asia, conducted chiefly by land. At the time, this was monopolized by the Republic
Portuguese India Armadas
The Portuguese India Armadas were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa. These armadas undertook the Carreira da Índia, following the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope first opened up by Vasco da Gama in 1497–1499. For a long time after its discovery by Vasco da Gama, the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope was dominated by the Portuguese India armada – the annual fleet dispatched from Portugal to India. Between 1497 and 1650, there were 1033 departures of ships at Lisbon for the Carreira da Índia; the India armada left Lisbon and each leg of the voyage took six months. The critical determinant of the timing was the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean; the monsoon was a southwesterly wind in the summer and abruptly reversed itself and became a northeasterly in the winter. The ideal timing was to pass the Cape of Good Hope around June–July and get to the East African middle coast by August, just in time to catch the summer monsoon winds to India, arriving around early September.
The return trip from India would begin in January, taking the winter monsoon back to Lisbon along a similar route, arriving by the summer. Overall, the round trip took a little over a year; the critical step was ensuring the armada reached East Africa on time. Ships that failed to reach the equator latitude on the East African coast by late August would be stuck in Africa and have to wait until next Spring to undertake an Indian Ocean crossing, and they would have to wait in India until the Winter to begin their return. So any delay in East Africa during those critical few weeks of August could end up adding an entire extra year to a ship's journey; the circumnavigation of Madagascar opened an alternative route to get to India, which gave more flexibility in timing. The rule that emerged was that if an outbound armada doubled the Cape of Good Hope before mid-July it should follow the old "inner route" – that is, sail into the Mozambique Channel, up the East African coast until the equator latitude take the southwesterly monsoon across the ocean to India.
If, the armada doubled the Cape after mid-July it was obliged to sail the "outer route" – that is, strike out straight east from South Africa, go under the southern tip of Madagascar, turn up from there, taking a northerly path through the Mascarenes islands, across the open ocean to India. While the outer route did not have the support of African staging posts and important watering stops, it sidestepped sailing directly against the post-summer monsoon. Return fleets were a different story; the principal worry of the return fleets was the fast dangerous waters of the inner Mozambican channel, precarious for loaded and less maneuverable ships. In the initial decades, the return fleet set out from Cochin in December, although, pushed forward to January. January 20 was the critical date, after which all return fleets were obliged to follow the outer route, deemed calmer and safer for their precious cargo; that meant they missed the important watering stop on Mozambique island on the return leg and had to put in elsewhere such as Mossel Bay or St. Helena.
Between 1525 and 1579, all return fleets were ordered to follow the outer route. This rule was temporarily suspended between the 1590s. From 1615, a new rule was introduced whereby return fleets from Goa were allowed to use the inner route, but return fleets from Cochin still had to use the outer route. With the entry of Dutch and English competition in the 1590s, the start of the return legs were delayed until February and March, with the predictable upsurge in lost and weather-delayed ships. Arrival times in Portugal varied between mid-June and late August, it was customary for return fleets to send their fastest ship ahead to announce the results in Lisbon, before the rest of the fleet arrived that summer. Because of the timing, an armada had to leave Lisbon. To get news of the latest developments in India, the outgoing armada relied on notes and reports left along the way at various African staging posts by the returning fleet. Portuguese India armadas tended to follow the same outward route.
There were several staging posts along the route of India Run that were used. Setting out from Lisbon, India-bound naus took the easy Canary Current straight southwest to the Canary Islands; the islands were owned by Castile and so this was not a usual watering stop for the Portuguese India naus, except in emergencies. The first real obstacle on the route was the Cape Verde peninsula, around which the Canary Current ends and the equatorial drift begins. Although not difficult to double, it was a concentration point of sudden storms and tropical cyclones, so ships were damaged; the Cape Verde islands, to the west of Cape Verde peninsula was the usual first stop for India ships. Relative scarcity of water and supplies on the islands made this a suboptimal stop. Nonetheless, the islands served as a harbor against storms and was a pre-arranged point for the collection and repair of tempest-tossed ships; the Angra de Bezeguiche was a common watering stop for ships after doubling Cape Verde. The shores were controlled by Wolof and Serer kingdoms, whose relations
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians understand archives to be records that have been and generated as a product of regular legal, administrative, or social activities, they have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism", are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are unpublished and always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist; this means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can be found within library buildings.
A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science; the physical place of storage can be referred to an archives, or a repository. When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used; the computing use of the term'archive' should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term. First attested in English in early 17th century, the word archive is derived from the French archives, in turn from Latin archīum or archīvum, the romanized form of the Greek ἀρχεῖον, "public records, town-hall, residence, or office of chief magistrates", itself from ἀρχή, amongst others "magistracy, government", which comes from the verb ἄρχω, "to begin, govern"; the word developed from the Greek ἀρχεῖον, which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon.
The adjective formed from archive is archival. The practice of keeping official documents is old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Amarna, Hattusas and Pylos; these discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages and politics. Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, ancient Romans. However, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have kept their official status uninterruptedly until now, they are the basic tool for historical research on these ages. England after 1066 developed archival research methods; the Swiss developed archival systems after 1450. Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution; the French National Archives, who possess the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as 625 A.
D. were created in 1790 during the French Revolution from various government and private archives seized by the revolutionaries. Historians, lawyers, demographers and others conduct research at archives; the research process at each archive is unique, depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are many kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types: academic, government, non-profit, other. There are four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans; these areas help to further categorize. Archives in colleges and other educational facilities are housed within a library, duties may be carried out by an archivist. Academic archives exist to serve the academic community. An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records and professional papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies.
Access to the collections in these archives is by prior appointment only. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students and staff, scholarly researchers, the general public. Many academic archives work with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school. Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions require an undergraduate diploma, but archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science. Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions. Archives located in for-profit institutions are those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which owns the
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy, he succeeded his father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres.
He was known as François du Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, the Roi-Chevalier for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars; the succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, his subsequent election as Holy Roman Emperor, meant that France was geographically encircled by the Habsburg monarchy. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; when this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. Francis d'Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the only son of Charles d'Orléans, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France.
His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir; the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, Francis inherited the throne, he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France.
Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading and writing and he became proficient in Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling, he ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by humanism than any previous French king. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern.
During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Leonardo da Vinci. While da Vinci painted little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa, these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the painters Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces, he invited the noted architect Sebastiano Serlio, who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was renowned as a man of letters; when Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtie
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Factory (trading post)
"Factory" was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt –, an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point. At a factory, local inhabitants could interact with foreign merchants known as factors. First established in Europe, factories spread to many other parts of the world; the factories established by European states in Africa and the Americas from the 15th century onward tended to be official political dependencies of those states. These have been seen, as the precursors of colonial expansion. A factory could serve as market, customs and support to navigation exploration, headquarters or de facto government of local communities. In North America, Europeans began to interact with pre-existing native American trade systems during the 16th century. Colonists created factories, known as trading posts, at which furs could be traded, in Native American territory. Although European colonialism traces its roots from the classical era, when Phoenicians and Romans established colonies of settlement around the Mediterranean – "factories" were a unique institution born in medieval Europe.
Factories were organizations of European merchants from a state, meeting in a foreign place. These organizations sought to defend their common interests economic, enabling the maintenance of diplomatic and trade relations within the foreign state where they were set; the factories were established from 1356 onwards in the main trading centers ports or central hubs that have prospered under the influence of the Hanseatic League and its guilds and kontors. The Hanseatic cities furnished their own protection and mutual aid; the Hanseatic League maintained factories, among others, in England and Finland. Cities like Bruges and Antwerp tried to take over the monopoly of trade from the Hansa, inviting foreign merchants to join in; because foreigners were not allowed to buy land in these cities, merchants joined around factories, like the Portuguese in their Bruges factory: the factor and his officers rented the housing and warehouses, arbitrated trade, managed insurance funds, working both as an association and an embassy administering justice within the merchant community.
During the territorial and economic expansion of the Age of Discovery, the factory was adapted by the Portuguese and spread throughout from West Africa to Southeast Asia. The Portuguese feitorias were fortified trading posts settled in coastal areas, built to centralize and thus dominate the local trade of products with the Portuguese kingdom, they served as market, support to the navigation and customs and were governed by a feitor responsible for managing the trade and trading products on behalf of the king and collecting taxes. The first Portuguese feitoria overseas was established by Henry the Navigator in 1445 on the island of Arguin, off the coast of Mauritania, it was built to attract Muslim traders and monopolize the business in the routes traveled in North Africa. It served as a model for a chain of African feitorias. Between the 15th and 16th centuries, a chain of about 50 Portuguese forts either housed or protected feitorias along the coasts of West and East Africa, the Indian Ocean, China and South America.
The main Portuguese factories were in Goa, Ormuz and Macau. They were driven by the trade of gold and slaves on the coast of Guinea, spices in the Indian Ocean, sugar cane in the New World, they were used for local triangular trade between several territories, like Goa-Macau-Nagasaki, trading products such as sugar, coconut, horses, feathers from exotic Indonesian birds, precious stones and porcelain from the East, among many other products. In the Indian Ocean, the trade in Portuguese factories was enforced and increased by a merchant ship licensing system: the cartazes. From the feitorias, the products went to the main outpost in Goa to Portugal where they were traded in the Casa da Índia, which managed exports to India. There they were sold, or re-exported to the Royal Portuguese Factory in Antwerp, where they were distributed to the rest of Europe. Supplied and defended by sea, the factories worked as independent colonial bases, they provided safety, both for the Portuguese, at times for the territories in which they were built, protecting against constant rivalries and piracy.
They allowed Portugal to dominate trade in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, establishing a vast empire with scarce human and territorial resources. Over time, the feitorias were sometimes licensed to private entrepreneurs, giving rise to some conflict between abusive private interests and local populations, such as in the Maldives. Other European powers began to establish factories in the 17th century along the trade routes explored by Portugal and Spain, first the Dutch and the English, they went on to establish in conquered Portuguese feitorias and further enclaves, as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade. Factories were established by chartered companies such as the Dutch East India Company, founded in 1602, the Dutch West India Company, founded in 1621; these factories provided for the exchange of products among European companies, local populations, the colonies that started as