Casablanca is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the largest city in the Maghreb region and the eighth-largest in the Arab world. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers in Africa. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca holds its recorded position as the primary industrial zone of the nation; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier. Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy.
The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although "Casablanca" is written in Arabic. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC. It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD.
He believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515. The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration.
As Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called the Arabic translation of the Portuguese Casa Branca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s. Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns; the Treaty of Algeciras of 1906 formalized French preeminence in Morocco and included three measures that directly impacted Casablanca: that French officers would control operations at the customs office and seize revenue as collateral for loans given by France, that the French holding company La Compagnie Marocaine would develop the port of Casablanca, that a French-and-Spanish-trained police force would be assembled to patrol the port.
To build the port's breakwater, narrow-gauge track was laid in June 1907 for a small Decauville locomotive to connect the port to a quarry in Roches Noires, passing through the sacred Sidi Belyout graveyard. In resistance to this and the measures of the 1906 Treaty of Algeciras, tribesmen of the Chaouia attacked the locomotive, killing 9 Compagnie Marocaine laborers—3 French, 3 Italians, 3 Spanish. In response, the French bombarded the city with multiple gunboats and landed troops inside the town, causing severe damage and 15,000
The Sukkur IBA University is a higher education institute in Sukkur, Pakistan. The university is a public sector degree-awarding institute chartered by the Government of Sindh and recognized by the Higher Education Commission; the university has been awarded "W" Category by National Business Education Accreditation Council & National Computing Education Accreditation Council, "X" Category by National Accreditation Council for Teaching Education, is recognized by Pakistan Engineering Council. In 1994, Sukkur IBA University was established as Sukkur Institute of Business Administration, it was located in hired rooms of the Public School Sukkur building in Sukkur. At first, Sukkur IBA was affiliated to Institute of Karachi; the institute received its degree-awarding charter from the Government of Sindh in 2006. The institute was ranked 3rd among business schools of Pakistan in the Higher Education Commission Pakistan Business School Ranking-2013. On 16 May 2017, Sindh Assembly approved the promotion of Sukkur IBA to Sukkur IBA University.
The university received "Green Campus" award from World Wildlife Fund in 2017 for its environment-friendly initiatives. The university has six main departments: Faculty of Business Administration Faculty of Computer ScienceFaculty of Software Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Mathematics Faculty of Physical EducationThese departments offer degrees on bachelor and post-graduation levels. Sukkur IBA University offers its students the experience of being involved with the management of the university through Sukkur IBA Student Council; the Council offers students a total of eighteen clubs that they can join. These range from SIBA Entrepreneurship Society to SIBA Music, Arts & Drama Society in order to help students enjoy their educational career to the brim. Creating an opportunity for the Sindhi youth, Sukkur IBA University launched its flagship program, Sindh Talent Hunt Program, in the year 2007. Under this program, deserving students with humble backgrounds would be awarded funded scholarship.
The scholarship would include free tuition, free hostel, free transportation, free books along with monthly stipend. 300 deserving students from Sindh are enrolled in "Foundation Semester" of Sukkur IBA University. The foundation semester entails a six-months-long, rigorous training in basic subjects i.e. Mathematics and Information & Communications Technology; every student that maintains 3.0 CGPA is awarded the funded scholarship for the whole four-year program. The funded scholarship enabled talented students from humble backgrounds to study at Sukkur IBA University free of cost. After the success of Sindh Talent Hunt Program, the institute partnered with Oil and Gas Development Company Ltd. and launched the Talent Hunt Program nationwide. The program got titled "OGDCL National Talent Hunt Program", wherein, 300 students not only from Sindh but from whole Pakistan get selected and enrolled in foundation semester with the same perks as the Sindh Talent Hunt Program. Sukkur IBA University has a functional incubation center on its campus.
The Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership & Incubation was established in the year 2012 and has since incubated 38 companies. The Center is actively involved with national and international firms in order to provide mentor-ship to its incubatees. CEL&Inc has successfully trained 1700 individuals in Technical & Vocational Education and Training in skills required by the job market. Sukkur IBA University is the pioneer of the "Community College" idea in Pakistan; the institute has established community colleges in far flung areas in efforts to provide access to quality education to underprivileged students of interior Sindh, who cannot afford private education. The University has established a total of 13 community colleges & public schools in Khairpur Mirs, Naushero Feroze, Ubauro, Shikarpur, Sukkur and Jacobabad; these Community Colleges & Public Schools provide basic education and offer vocational and technical training courses with market-oriented curriculum and qualified faculty
The Yonaguni or Yonaguni uma is a critically-endangered Japanese breed of small horse. It is native to Yonaguni Island, in the Yaeyama Islands in south-western Japan, close to Taiwan, it is one of eight horse breeds native to Japan. In 1968 there were 210 Yonaguni horses. By the early 1980s, the number had fallen to little more than fifty. Numbers subsequently recovered slightly; the conservation status of the breed was listed as "critical" by the FAO in 2007.:71In 2003, genetic analysis using microsatellite data found the Yonaguni to be most related to the Miyako and Tokara small-island breeds, less related to various Mongolian horse breeds than were the Dosanko and Kiso breeds of the main islands of Japan.:378 Like the other Japanese island breeds, the Yonaguni is small. Average height at the withers is 116–120 cm