Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains
Sambucus cerulea or Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea, with the common names blue elderberry and blue elder, is a coarse textured shrub species of elder in the family Adoxaceae. The taxonomy of species is not finalized, and it is classified by several different botanical names besides Sambucus cerulea. Both the current USDA database and The Jepson Manual of California flora classify the plant as Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea, the Sunset Western Garden Book identifies the plant as Sambucus mexicana, and note use of Sambucus caerulea also. The botanist Victor King Chesnut had classified it as Sambucus glauca in 1902, Sambucus cerulea is native to the Western United States, northwestern Mexico, and British Columbia. It is found from the Pacific coasts, through California and the Great Basin, to Montana, Sambucus cerulea is a large, deciduous shrub, which can grow to be 9 metres in height and 6 metres in width. It is distinguishable from other elderberries by the powder coating on its bluish-black berries.
It normally grows rather wildly from several stems, which can be pruned during winter dormancy. The leaves are hairless, strongly pointed and sharp-toothed and they are elliptical to lanceolate, and the blade extends unequally on the stalk at the base. The leaves are commonly 3–15 cm long and 2–6 cm wide, the white or creamy coloured flowers, occurring May to June, are numerous and form a flat-topped cluster usually about 5–20 cm wide. They are umbel-shaped, normally with 4 to 5 rays extending from the base, the flowers have a strong, unpleasant odor. Individual flowers are 4–7 mm wide, the fruits given are berry-like drupes. They are juicy and approximately 4–6 mm in diameter and they are bluish-black appearing as a pale powdery blue colour. Each fruit contains 3 to 5 small seed-like stones, each enclosing a single seed, the fresh and cooked berries were used for food. Some tribes used the wood to make musical instruments, such as flutes and small whistles, soft wood was used as a spindle twirling stick to make fire by friction.
Stems and berries were used as a dye for basket weaving materials, the Concow tribe of the Mendocino region called the plant nō-kōm-hē-i′-nē in the Konkow language. Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea is cultivated as a plant by plant nurseries, for planting in traditional, native plant. It is used for landscaping and habitat restoration projects. It can become a tree when trained from youth with only several dominant trunks
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
Devils Tower is a laccolithic butte composed of igneous rock in the Bear Lodge Mountains near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. It rises dramatically 1,267 feet above the Belle Fourche River, the summit is 5,112 feet above sea level. Devils Tower was the first declared United States National Monument, established on September 24,1906, the Monuments boundary encloses an area of 1,347 acres. In recent years, about 1% of the Monuments 400,000 annual visitors climbed Devils Tower, the name Devils Tower originated in 1875 during an expedition led by Colonel Richard Irving Dodge, when his interpreter reportedly misinterpreted a native name to mean Bad Gods Tower. All information signs in that use the name Devils Tower. Native American names for the monolith include, Bears House or Bears Lodge, Aloft on a Rock, Tree Rock, Great Gray Horn, and Brown Buffalo Horn. In November 2014, one Arvol Looking Horse again proposed renaming the geographical feature Bear Lodge, a second proposal was submitted to request that the US acknowledge the offensive mistake and to rename the monument and sacred site Bear Lodge National Historic Landmark.
The formal public comment period ended in fall 2015, local state senator Ogden Driskill opposed the change. The landscape surrounding Devils Tower is composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks visible in Devils Tower National Monument were laid down in a shallow sea during the Triassic period,225 to 195 million years ago. This dark red sandstone and maroon siltstone, interbedded with shale, oxidation of iron minerals causes the redness of the rocks. This rock layer is known as the Spearfish Formation, above the Spearfish formation is a thin band of white gypsum, called the Gypsum Springs Formation. This layer of gypsum was deposited during the Jurassic period,195 to 136 million years ago, created as sea levels and climates repeatedly changed, gray-green shales were interbedded with fine-grained sandstones and sometimes thin beds of red mudstone. This composition, called the Stockade Beaver member, is part of the Sundance Formation, the Hulett Sandstone member, part of the Sundance formation, is composed of yellow fine-grained sandstone.
Resistant to weathering, it forms the vertical cliffs which encircle the Tower itself. During the Paleocene Epoch,56 to 66 million years ago, the Rocky Mountains, magma rose through the crust, intruding into the existing sedimentary rock layers. Geologists Carpenter and Russell studied Devils Tower in the late 19th century, modern geologists agree that it was formed by the intrusion of igneous material, but not on exactly how that process took place. Several believe the molten rock comprising the Tower might not have surfaced, in 1907, scientists Darton and OHarra decided that Devils Tower must be an eroded remnant of a laccolith. A laccolith is a mass of igneous rock which is intruded through sedimentary rock beds without reaching the surface
Fire lookout tower
A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a fire lookout whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness. The fire lookout tower is a building, usually located on the summit of a mountain or other high vantage point, in order to maximize the viewing distance and range. From this vantage point the fire lookout can see smoke that may develop, determine the location by using a known as an Osborne Fire Finder. Lookouts report weather changes and plot the location of lightning strikes during storms, the location of the strike is monitored for a period of days after in case of ignition. The typical fire lookout tower consists of a room, known as a cab located atop a large steel. Historically, the tops of trees have been used to mount permanent platforms. Sometimes natural rock may be used to create a lower platform, in some cases, the terrain makes it possible so there is no need for an additional tower and these are known as ground cabs.
Ground cabs are called towers, even if they dont sit on a tower, towers gained popularity in the early 1900s, and fires were reported using telephones, carrier pigeons, and heliographs. The history of fire lookout towers predates the United States Forest Service, many townships, private lumber companies, and State Forestry organizations operated fire lookout towers on their own accord. The Great Fire of 1910, known as the Big Blowup, burned 3,000,000 acres through the states of Washington, Idaho and it is still arguably the largest forest fire ever in recorded history. The smoke from this fire drifted across the country to Washington D. C. One of the rules as a result of the 1910 fire stated all fires must be extinguished by 10 a. m. the following morning, to prevent and suppress fires, the U. S. As a result of the rules, early fire detection and suppression became a priority. Towers began to be built across the country, while earlier lookouts used tall trees and high peaks with tents for shelters, by 1911 permanent cabins and cupolas were being constructed on mountaintops.
Beginning in 1910, the New Hampshire Timberlands Owners Association, a protection group, was formed and soon after, similar organizations were set up in Maine. A leader of efforts, W. R. In 1933, during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt formed the Civilian Conservation Corps, consisting of young men and it was during this time that the CCC set about building fire lookout towers, and access roads to those towers. The U. S. Forest Service took great advantage of the CCC workforce and initiated a program of construction projects
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Medford is a city in Jackson County, United States. As of July 1,2014, the city had a population of 78,557. Medford is the county seat of Jackson County, in 1883, a group of railroad surveyors headed by S. L. Dolson and David Loring arrived in Rock Point, near present-day Gold Hill. They were charged with finding the best route through the Rogue Valley for the Oregon, citizens of neighboring Jacksonville hoped that it would pass between their town and Hanley Butte, near the present day Claire Hanley Arboretum. Such a move would have all but guaranteed prosperous growth for Jacksonville, the response from Jacksonville was mixed, but the decision was final. By November 1883, a site had been chosen and a surveying team led by Charles J. Howard was hard at work platting the new town. They completed their work in early December 1883, laying out 82 blocks for development, others point out the farms of town founders Iradell Judson Phipps and Charles Wesley Broback, which were present before the town was platted.
Regardless, on February 6,1884, J. S. Howards store became Medfords first post office, with Howard serving as postmaster. The establishment of the post office led to the incorporation of Medford as a town by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on February 24,1885, Howard held the position of postmaster for Medfords first ten years, and again held the post upon his death on November 13,1919. The beginning of the 20th century was a transitional period, Medford built a new steel bridge over Bear Creek to replace an earlier one which washed away three years before. Without a bridge, those wanting to cross had to ford the stream, typically using a horse-drawn wagon, the first automobile did not arrive in Medford until 1903. Pharmacist George H. Haskins had opened a drugstore just after the town was platted, five years the library moved to Medfords new city hall, in another four years, Andrew Carnegies donation allowed a dedicated library to be built. Construction on the Medford Carnegie Library was completed in 1912, in 1927, Medford took the title of county seat of Jackson County away from nearby Jacksonville.
In 1967, Interstate 5 was completed adjacent to downtown Medford to replace the Oregon Pacific Highway. It has been blamed for the decline of businesses in downtown Medford since its completion. In fact, a study completed in 1999 found that 45% of vehicles entering I-5 from north Medford heading south exited in south Medford, the high volume of traffic on Interstate 5 led to the completion of a new north Medford interchange in 2006. The project, which cost about $36 million, improved traffic flow between I-5 and Crater Lake Highway, further traffic problems identified in south Medford prompted the construction of another new interchange, costing $72 million. The project began in 2006 and was completed in 2010, since the 1990s, Medford has dedicated an appreciable amount of resources to urban renewal in an attempt to revitalize the downtown area
Eugene is a city of the Pacific Northwest located in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is located at the end of the Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers. As of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185, it is the second most populous city in the state, the citys population for 2014 was estimated to be 160,561 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon and Lane Community College, the city is noted for its natural beauty, recreational opportunities, and focus on the arts. Eugenes official slogan is A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors and it is referred to as the Emerald City and as Track Town, USA. The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene, in 2021, the city will host the 18th Track and Field World Championships. The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans and they made seasonal rounds, moving around the countryside as appropriate to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, and berries.
They stored these foods in their permanent winter village, when crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading. They were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived Chifin, other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, and they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest that the Brownsville Kalapuyans were related to the Pee-you and it is likely that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years, French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century. Having already developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, by 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals.
In this process the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, in July,1830, intermittent fever struck the lower Columbia region and a year later, the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease, new to the Northwest, to the U. S. ship, intermittent fever is thought by researchers now to be malaria. In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports that there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841 and this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. As the demographic pressure from the colonists grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to reservations, though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856. Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society
The Modoc are a Native American people who originally lived in the area which is now northeastern California and central Southern Oregon. They are currently divided between Oregon and Oklahoma and are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Klamath Tribes in Oregon and the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, about 600 members of the tribe currently live in Klamath County, Oregon, in and around their ancestral homelands. Since that time, many have followed the path of the Klamath, the shared tribal government of the Klamath and Yahooskin in Oregon is known as the Klamath Tribes. Two hundred Modoc live in Oklahoma on a reservation in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Originally they were placed on the Quapaw Indian Reservation at the far northeast corner of Oklahoma and they are descendants of the band led by Captain Jack during the Modoc War. The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma was officially recognized by the United States government in 1978, estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially.
James Mooney put the population of the Modoc at 400. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the Modoc population within California as 500 at the year 1770, university of Oregon anthropologist Theodore Stern suggested that there had been a total of about 500 Modoc. In 1846, the population may have included perhaps 600 warriors, prior to the 19th century, when European explorers first encountered the Modoc, like all Plateau Indians, they caught salmon during salmon runs and migrated seasonally to hunt and gather other food. The Modoc, Northern Paiute, and Achomawi shared Goose Lake Valley, the Modoc have been known as the Modok. In the 1820s, Peter Skene Ogden, an explorer for the Hudsons Bay Company, brothers Jesse and Lindsay Applegate, accompanied by 13 other white settlers, established the Applegate Trail, or South Emigrant Trail, in 1846. It connected a point on the Oregon Trail near Fort Hall, the new route was created to encourage European-Americans to come to western Oregon, and to eliminate the hazards encountered on the Columbia Route.
Since the British Hudsons Bay Company controlled the Columbia Route, development of an alternate route enabled migration even if there were trouble between the United States and the United Kingdom, the Applegate brothers became the first known white people in present-day Lava Beds National Monument. The opening of the Applegate Trail appeared to bring the first regular contact between the Modoc and the European-American settlers, who had ignored their territory before. Many of the events of the Modoc War took place along the trail, from 1846 to 1873, thousands of emigrants entered the Modoc territory. Beginning in 1847, the Modoc raided the invading emigrants on the Applegate Trail under the leadership of Old Chief Schonchin. In September 1852, the Modoc destroyed an emigrant train at Bloody Point on the east shore of Tule Lake, killing all, the Modoc took two young girls as captives. One or both of them may have killed several years by jealous Modoc women
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009.
Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed more landmark legislation than any Democratic president since LBJs Great Society. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.
He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Scottish and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a year
The Siskiyou Mountains are a coastal mountain range in the northern Klamath Mountains in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the United States. They extend in an arc for approximately 100 miles from east of Crescent City, northeast along the side of the Klamath River into Josephine. The mountain range forms a barrier between the watersheds of the Klamath River to the south and the Rogue River to the north. These mountains are not the highest of the Klamath Mountains, but due to the relief so close to the Pacific Ocean and this leads to forests that grow with heavy vegetation. Diversity abounds because western canyons can receive over 100 inches of rain in winters while eastern areas are slightly more arid. Since the Siskiyous trend both north to south and east to west, they hold species that range from coastal, like Coast Redwood, to Cascadian, like Alaska Yellow-Cedar, much of the range is within the Rogue River – Siskiyou and Klamath national forests. The Pacific Crest Trail follows a portion of the ridge of the range, the Klamath-Siskiyou forests are noted for their high biodiversity.
The origin of the word siskiyou is not known, one version is that it is the Chinook Jargon word for bob-tailed horse. According to historian Richard Mackie, siskiyou was a Cree word for a bob-tailed horse, the Cree were in the area as part of McLeods Hudsons Bay Company expedition, and had been recruited far away in their homeland in eastern Canada. Still others attribute the name to a tribe of Native Americans. Natives speaking the Athapaskan Language lived along the Rogue River prior to 1850 and these settlements were primarily winter residences, and the people likely spent much of the summer in the mountains. Most early exploration of the came from the coast, beginning in 1775. He would be followed in 1791 and 1792 by other explorers like captain George Vancouver, James Baker, the Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley through the Siskiyous to Oregons Willamette Valley. As settlement increased with a variety of new incentives, tensions over relations with the natives increased, in the 1850s, following the Donation Land Claim Act, settlers came to the area to prospect for gold.
The new settlements grew enough for Jackson County to be founded, with its seat in Jacksonville, mines opened up as various claims were made. This led to the 1855 Rogue River Wars, which ended in 1856, the new population needed to be supported by an improved infrastructure. By 1859, the trail had been replaced by a toll road, a telegraph line was built over the summit in 1864. By the end of the 1870s, the first private lumber mills were established in the mountains had been established in some of the lower creeks, commercial orchards began to be planted in 1885