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Cascade Tunnel

The Cascade Tunnel refers to two railroad tunnels in the northwest United States, east of the Seattle metropolitan area in the Cascade Range of Washington, at Stevens Pass. It is 65 miles east of Everett, with both portals adjacent to U. S. Route 2. Both single-track tunnels were constructed by the Great Northern Railway; the first was 2.63 miles in length and opened in 1900 to avoid problems caused by heavy winter snowfalls on the original line that had eight zig zags. The current tunnel is 7.8 miles in length and entered service in early 1929 1.5 miles south of and 500 feet lower in elevation than the original. The present east portal is nearly four miles east of the original's and is at 2,881 feet above sea level, 1,180 feet below the pass; the tunnel connects Berne in Chelan County on its east with Scenic Hot Springs in King County on its west and is the longest railroad tunnel in the United States. The first tunnel began construction on August 20, 1897, was completed on December 20, 1900.

The tunnel was 2.6 miles long. John Frank Stevens was the principal engineer on the interim switchback route and the first Cascade Tunnel. Stevens Pass, located above the tunnels, was named after him; the tunnel had a fume problem from the coal-burning steam locomotives. It was built with a 1.7% gradient eastbound, too close to the ruling gradient of 2.2%. Because of the steepness of the line, the locomotives had to pull hard to make the grade and thus burn more coal, which would lead to immense smoke in the bore; the tunnel was electrified, with the project completed on July 1909, eliminating the problem. The unusual system used was three-phase AC, 6600 volts at 25 Hz, from a 5 MW hydroelectric plant on the Wenatchee River just west of Leavenworth; the tunnel section only was electrified. The motive power for the section consisted of four GN boxcab locomotives supplied by the American Locomotive Company. Three locomotives were coupled together and hauled trains at a constant speed of 15.7 mph, but when larger trains required four locomotives the motors were concatenated, so that the speed was halved to 7.8 mph to avoid overloading the power supply.

The consulting engineer, Cary T. Hutchinson, published a detailed description of the system in 1909; the tunnel was still plagued by snow slides in the area. On March 1, 1910, an avalanche at Wellington, near the west portal of the original 2.6 miles Cascade Tunnel, killed 96-101 people, the deadliest avalanche disaster in U. S. history. This disaster prompted the construction of the current tunnel; the old tunnel was abandoned in 1929, after the new lower tunnel was opened. During the winter of 2007–2008, a section of the roof caved in and created a debris dam inside the tunnel, making it impassable to pedestrians due to standing water and ceiling debris. A warning was issued to stay clear of the western side of the old tunnel for a distance of one-half mile for the indeterminate future; the new Cascade Tunnel was opened on January 12, 1929. The new line had 93.2 track miles electrified, between Skykomish and Wenatchee. The ruling grade was still 2.2 percent, although 21 miles of 2 percent or worse grade was eliminated.

The line length was reduced by 8.7 miles, maximum elevation was lowered by 502 feet from 3,382 feet to 2,881 feet. The new tunnel was started in December 1925, was built in just over three years by A. Guthrie of St. Paul, Minnesota. Project manager and engineer Frederick Mears was assigned to make sure. While the new tunnel was being constructed, the Great Northern received delivery of five new electric locomotives; the new locomotives had a motor-generator supplying DC traction motors, the single-phase AC supply required only one instead of two overhead conductors. Hence, the Great Northern re-electrified 21 miles of the original route at single-phase AC, including 8 miles that were subsequently abandoned upon completion of the new tunnel, used steam locomotives on the short remaining stretches of the old line. On March 5, 1927, the three-phase electrification was abandoned, the new locomotives were placed in service between Skykomish and the east portal of the old tunnel. Furthermore, for the first time regenerated power could be used by another train or fed back to the utility company.

Two years the new tunnel opened. It was the longest railroad tunnel in the Americas until 1989, when the Mount Macdonald Tunnel in British Columbia was completed, moving the Cascade into second place. Electrification was removed in 1956, after a ventilation system was installed to eliminate diesel fumes. On April 4, 1996 an eastbound freight train broke through the doors at the east portal after they did not open properly. There were no injuries, but the broken doors slowed operations for a couple of days while replacement doors were brought up from the Seattle area. In Fall 2001 a single car was dragged the rest of the way out, it ripped out wiring

IBM Mobile

IBM Mobile is a portfolio of mobile solutions for businesses offered by the information technology company IBM that includes software, cloud services and partnerships. In 2013, IBM launched IBM MobileFirst, a mobile strategy that enables clients to streamline and accelerate mobile adoption. In 2016, IBM incorporated its mobile capabilities into its IBM Cloud portfolio, the MobileFirst naming was discontinued. IBM Cloud combines IBM’s industry expertise with mobile, big data and analytics and social technologies to help organizations capture new markets and reach more people. IBM has more than 4,300 patents in mobile and security, which have been incorporated into IBM Mobile solutions; that address the mobile challenges of industries such as Banking, Retail, Telecom, Government and Automotive. Products in the IBM Mobile portfolio include: IBM Mobile developer console - a single landing page for mobile developers to start creating mobile apps on IBM Cloud. IBM Bluemix - a cloud platform that provides mobile devices with IaaS and PaaS hybrid cloud services.

IBM Mobile Foundation named Worklight - a mobile enterprise application platform that supports the development of HTML5, hybrid and native mobile applications. It can be used with most popular mobile development tools and includes an Eclipse-based IDE that allows mobile developers to make full use of HTML5 functionality and enhance these capabilities with utilities such as encryption of locally stored data, offline authentication, 3rd-party library integration with frameworks such as PhoneGap, Sencha Touch, jQuery, more. IBM MaaS360 - a product of Fiberlink, purchased by IBM in 2013. Cloudant - a NoSQL database-as-a-service that allows mobile apps to store and access data locally on a mobile device and sync with the cloud, when online. In July 2014, IBM and Apple announced a partnership to transform enterprise mobility through a new class of industry-specific business apps for iPhone and iPad; as part of the agreement, IBM, under the brand IBM MobileFirst for iOS, will create exclusive industry applications for iOS and use its services to bring iPads and iPhones to enterprises and corporations.

Apple, on its end, introduced a special AppleCare program that provides 24/7 hardware support for devices for enterprises. The partnership offers Apple access to IBM’s customers and analytics capabilities to power enterprise apps for their devices. On December 10, 2014, Apple and IBM, in a joint statement, introduced 10 mobile apps for business. On December 16, 2015, the two announced the availability of over 100 enterprise apps; the apps provide solutions in a number of different industries such as Banking, Insurance, Financial Services, Telecommunications and Government. Clients include enterprises such as Air Canada, Banorte and Sprint. IBM Mobile The official IBM Mobile website IBM Mobile developer Console The official IBM Mobile developer website

William Penn Adair

William Penn Adair was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, an attorney who served in political office both before and after the American Civil War, as a justice of their court. He entered the Confederate States Army on the promise that the Confederacy would support an Indian state if it won the war, achieved the rank of colonel, he served as delegate from the Nation to Washington, DC during the 1870s. Born in the traditional Cherokee territory in Georgia, he traveled as a child with his family on the Trail of Tears of Indian Removal from the Southeast to Indian Territory. William Penn Adair was born on April 1830, in the old Cherokee Nation in New Echota, Georgia, his parents were Martha Adair. The family was forced to remove to Indian Territory in 1838, a process which their people called the Trail of Tears, because of the loss of their lands and the high number of deaths along the way. Adair attended Cherokee schools in Indian Territory, studied law, he became a Freemason. 5, chartered in 1875. He was described as being "six foot and two inches in height, magnetic and frankly agreeable, the ablest and most brilliant of all Cherokees."Adair married Sarah Ann McNair.

After her death, he married again, to Susannah "Sue" McIntosh Drew. He lived on land along the Grand River in, Oklahoma, it was named for him. During the Civil War, Adair served in the Confederate States Army, first in the First Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, under General Stand Watie; the Confederacy had promised the nations in Indian territory that it would support an Indian-controlled state if it won the war. Adair organized the Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers. Adair served the Cherokee Nation in many capacities, he was a senator, a justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court, delegate to Washington, DC, assistant principal chief. He served as the Senator from the Flint District from 1855-1860 and Senator from the Saline District from 1869-1874. In 1879, he was elected as Assistant Chief. Throughout the 1860s and 1870s, Adair served as a delegate from the Cherokee Nation to Washington, he was a vocal advocate for the rights of the Texas Cherokees. He served as Chairman of the Texas Cherokees and Affiliated Bands from 1871 until his death in 1880.

During this period in 1873, he and Clement Neely Vann co-authored the book, History of the Claim of the Texas Cherokees, which they wrote on behalf of "the Texas Cherokees and Affiliated Bands." The Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands was established by Adair and John Adair Bell in the early 1850's in the Mount Tabor Indian Community in Rusk County, Texas for the purposes of seeking redress over the violations of the 1836 Treaty of Bowles Village which led to the Cherokee-Texas war in 1839 as well as actions by Texas Cherokee leader Chicken Trotter until the Treaty of Birds Fort in 1843 that ended hostilities. The Texas Cherokee continued to seek compensation from the state of Texas for lands taken from them in 1839. Adair along with other Confederate Cherokees went to Washington in order to petition Congress to allow him to sue the state to return lands in Texas once belonging to Texas Cherokee people; this was to allow Southern Cherokees to relocate back on treaty lands due to the hostilities of Cherokee factions after the war.

Some of these issues went back to the Ross-Ridge party feuds stemming from the Trail of Tears, played out during the Civil War. The main point for the suit was that in 1839, while the Republic of Texas was independent, President Mirabeau Lamar had forcibly driven most of the Texas Cherokee into Indian Territory and seized their lands in East Texas; the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands sought the return of 1,500,000 acres in East Texas. In the 1850's the state had offered lands in the Texas Panhandle in exchange, but Adair refused to accept that offer. No such offer was made to settle after that; however the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands continued to pursue litigation as late as 1963 some eighty-three years after Adair's death. While in Washington, D. C. Adair died on October 23, 1880, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, D. C. but his body was soon thereafter transferred to the Tahlequah City Cemetery in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. This move was paid for by the Cherokee Nation.

Several Cherokee boys were named after him in the late 19th century, including the celebrated Cherokee humorist William Penn Adair Rogers. Adair, Oklahoma was named for his brother, Dr. Walter Thompson Adair. In 1955, he was inducted into the Hall of Great Westerners of the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum. Adair, William Penn and C. N. Vann. History of the Claim of the Texas Cherokees. New York: Morgan and Lawrence, 1873. Littlefield, Daniel F. Jr. and James W. Parins. A Biobibliography of Native American Writers, 1772-1924: A Supplement. 1985. ISBN 0-8108-1802-7. Rogers, Arthur Frank Wertheim, Barbara Bair; the Papers of Will Rogers: From Vaudeville to Broadway: September 1908–August 1915. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8061-3315-7. Starr, Emmett. History of the Cherokee Indians and Their Legends and Folklore, Oklahoma City: Warden Company, 1921. Wilson, J. G.. "Adair, William Penn". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Works by or about William Penn Adair at Internet Archive Cherrie Adair Moore, "William Penn Adair", Chronicles of Oklahoma, Spring 1951.

Handbook of Texas Online: Mount Tabor Indian Community

Nydia Westman

Nydia Eileen Westman was an American actress and singer of stage and television. Westman's parents and Lily Westman were active in vaudeville in her native New York City. In addition to their working together on stage, her mother was a writer and her father was a composer, she attended the Professional Children's School. Her sisters and Neville, were actresses, her brother, was an actor and playwright. Westman's career ranged from episodic appearances on TV series such as That Girl and Dragnet and uncredited bit roles in movies to appearances in groundbreaking films such as Craig's Wife, which starred Rosalind Russell, the first film version of Little Women. Westman's screen debut came in Strange Justice, she appeared in 31 films in the 1930s. She appeared as the housekeeper Mrs. Featherstone in the 1962–1963 ABC series, Going My Way, which starred Gene Kelly and Leo G. Carroll as Roman Catholic priests in New York City. Westman's first Broadway play was Pigs, she broke ground on stage, debuting the role of Nell off-Broadway in Samuel Beckett's Endgame, for which she won one of the first Obie awards.

Westman was married to Robert Sparks, a producer, from 1930 until 1937. Westman died of cancer at the age of 68 in California. Nydia Westman on IMDb Nydia Westman at the Internet Broadway Database filmsandtv.com bio Nydia Westman at AllMovie Nydia Westman at Find a Grave

Tonya Williams

Tonya Williams is a Canadian-American-English actress, producer and activist. Sometimes credited as Tonya Lee Williams, she is best known for her role as Dr. Olivia Barber Winters on the American daytime drama The Young and the Restless from 1990 to 2011, she is the founder and executive director of Reelworld Film Festival. Williams was born in London, England to Jamaican parents, she lived in London and Kingston, Jamaica as a young child. At age five, she contracted rheumatic fever. In 1969 she and her family settled in Oshawa, Canada; as a teenager she modeled in Eaton's catalogues and danced on a television series called Boogie! which ran on Citytv. In 1977 Williams was crowned Miss Black Ontario. Williams was married to Robert Simpson from 1983 to 1991, but she has not remarried. Williams' television debut was as a host of the Canadian children's show Polka Dot Door, from 1980 to 1983, after graduating from Ryerson Polytechnical Institute in 1979. Appearances on the television series Check it Out! and Generations followed.

Her involvement on Generations snagged her a role on The Young and the Restless, has become her most lucrative role. Williams won the NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series in 2000 and 2002. Williams appeared on A Very Brady Christmas as Cindy's roommate. In March 2004, Williams hosted the special event program Tonya Lee Williams: Gospel Jubilee on CBC Television, she is a member of Sigma Gamma Rho sorority. Williams is the founder and artistic director of the Reelworld Film Festival, an annual film festival in Toronto that features talent from ethnically diverse communities. 1996: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series – Nomination 1996: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 1997: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 1998: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 1999: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2000: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series – Nomination 2000: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Win 2001: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2002: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Win 2003: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2004: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2005: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2005: ACTRA National Award of Excellence 2006: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2009: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2010: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2011: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2012: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Daytime Drama Series – Nomination 2012: Martin Luther King Jr. Achievement Award for her film and television artistic contributions.

Tonya Lee Williams: Gospel Jubilee, from cbc.ca Tonya Williams on IMDb

Mawson Lakes, South Australia

Mawson Lakes is a residential suburb in the City of Salisbury, Australia. Named in honor of Sir Douglas Mawson, it has a census area population of 10,872 people; the suburb is located in the northern suburbs of Adelaide around 12 km north of the Central business district. Much of the suburb was known as The Levels, was a non-residential area, housing a campus of the University of South Australia and Technology Park Adelaide. Technology Park Adelaide is Australia's first technology park, having been established in 1982 by the Government of South Australia, it is owned and managed by the Government of South Australia's Land Management Corporation. The Technology Park Adelaide is a 65 hectare site which allows any organisation with a technological focus to locate there. Over 90 organisations are located at the Park, with the majority of these organisations having a defence focus; the main types of organisations at the Park are classified as Small to Medium Enterprises however large corporate organisations have a presence in the Park, including Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, Saab Systems, Optus and Raytheon.

The Park is located adjacent to the Mawson Lakes project, a joint venture between the Land Management Corporation and Delfin Lend Lease. According to the 2006 Census the population of the Mawson Lakes census area was 5,246 people. 50.5% of the population were male, 62.6% are Australian born, over 83.1% of residents are Australian citizens and only 0.3% were native born indigenous people. Mawson Lakes has an educated population with over 45% of the population holding a degree, diploma or vocational qualification. 22.3% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while a higher 24.2% identify with no religion at all. Mawson Lakes is connected to the major Adelaide thoroughfares of Main North Road, Salisbury Highway and Port Wakefield Road. Adelaide's city centre can be reached by car in 30 minutes. Although there are good connections to Adelaide's public transport network, only 3.9% take the bus to work, while a smaller 3.6% of people use the train. Bus routes connect Mawson Lakes to the Central business district as well as Salisbury and Modbury.

Mawson Interchange, built in 2005, is located on the Gawler railway line. Services are high frequency, with 15 minute services to the Gawler. Parafield Airport, Adelaide's main civil airport from 1927 to 1955, lies just to the north of Mawson Lakes and is used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation. Mawson Lakes features a dual water supply system, supplying drinking water and recycled water to homes via separate mains; when first installed the facilities at Mawson Lakes were the largest self-contained water recycling scheme in Australia. Purple pipes and fittings are used to distinguish recycled water sources; the recycling scheme results in Mawson Lakes using 50% less potable water than comparable suburbs and means that resident using recycled water are exempt from state water restrictions The recycled water is sourced from the Bolivar Sewage Treatment plant 8 km away and has stormwater added to it from the Salisbury wetlands before it is treated to Class A standard recycled water for use on gardens and connected to the toilet of each residence in Mawson Lakes.

SA Water provides a comprehensive audit of homes within the area to ensure that cross connection between the recycled water and drinking water does not occur. The central commercial area of Mawson Lakes, situated between Main Street and Garden Terrace, north of the Promenade is the central shopping precinct with a Hotel, Target, a number of smaller shops and restaurants. Main Street and its side roads are home to Bank branches, various professional services, a number of offices. In recent years, many offices have been converted into apartments due to the proximity of the university and a glut of office space. Mawson Lakes is a part of the federal division of Makin, represented by Labor MP Tony Zappia since 2007, was a part of the state electoral district of Port Adelaide, represented by State Labor MP and Minister for Education and Child Development and Minister for Higher Education and Skills Susan Close since 2012. Results shown here are from the most recent federal and state elections. Mawson Lakes was part of the state electoral district of Port Adelaide, said to be a'working class' seat and therefore safe-Labor.

It was shifted by the Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission into neighbouring electoral district of Playford for the upcoming 2018 state election, a safe Labor seat. Mawson Lakes is home to the Mawson Lakes Football Club, the only football club in the area, the Palms Golf Club, the Mawson Lakes Cricket Club who have played in the area since 1955, it is home to the Mawson Lakes Soccer Club. As well as being home to the Mawson Lakes Model Yacht Club, the Club is the largest model yacht club in Australia. Mawson Lakes Rowing Club, at the boat shed located off First avenue, with a 450 m course on the main lake. List of Adelaide suburbs mawsonlakes.com.au - Delfin's Mawson Lakes Community Website community.mawsonlakes.org - MawsonLakes. Org Community Website