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Case Blue

Case Blue was the German Armed Forces' name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942, during World War II. The operation was a continuation of the previous year's Operation Barbarossa, intended to knock the Soviet Union out of the war, it involved a two-pronged attack: one from the Axis right flank against the oil fields of Baku, known as Operation Edelweiss, one from the left flank in the direction of Stalingrad along the Volga River, known as Operation Fischreiher. Army Group South of the German Army was divided into Army Groups A and B. Army Group A was tasked with crossing the Caucasus mountains to reach the Baku oil fields, while Army Group B protected its flanks along the Volga. Supported by 2,035 Luftwaffe aircraft and 1,934 tanks and assault guns, the 1,370,287-man Army Group South attacked on 28 June, advancing 48 kilometers on the first day and brushing aside the 1,715,000 Red Army troops opposite, who falsely expected a German offensive on Moscow after Blau commenced.

The Soviet collapse in the south allowed the Germans to capture the western part of Voronezh on 6 July and reach and cross the Don river near Stalingrad on 26 July. Army Group B's approach toward Stalingrad slowed in late July and early August owing to constant counterattacks by newly deployed Red Army reserves and overstretched German supply lines; the Germans defeated the Soviets in the Battle of Kalach and the combat shifted to the city itself in late August. Nonstop Luftwaffe airstrikes, artillery fire and street-to-street combat destroyed the city and inflicted heavy casualties on the opposing forces. After three months of battle, the Germans controlled 90% of Stalingrad on 19 November. In the south, Army Group A captured Rostov on 23 July and swept south from the Don to the Caucasus, capturing the demolished oilfields at Maikop on 9 August and Elista on 13 August near the Caspian Sea coast. Heavy Soviet resistance, Polish sabotage operations in occupied Poland, the long distances from Axis sources of supply reduced the Axis offensive to local advances only and prevented the Germans from completing their strategic objective of capturing the main Caucasus oilfield at Baku.

Luftwaffe bombers destroyed the oilfields at Grozny but attacks on Baku were prevented by the insufficient range of the German fighters. The Allies were concerned about the possibility of German forces continuing to the south and east and linking up with Japanese forces in India. However, the Red Army defeated the Germans at Stalingrad, following Operations Uranus and Little Saturn; this defeat forced the Axis to retreat from the Caucasus. Only the Kuban region remained tentatively occupied by Axis troops. On 22 June 1941 the Wehrmacht had launched Operation Barbarossa with the intention of defeating the Soviets in a Blitzkrieg lasting only months; the Axis offensive had met with initial success and the Red Army had suffered some major defeats before halting the Axis units just short of Moscow. Although the Germans had captured vast areas of land and important industrial centers, the Soviet Union remained in the war. In the winter of 1941–42 the Soviets struck back in a series of successful counteroffensives, pushing back the German threat to Moscow.

Despite these setbacks, Hitler wanted an offensive solution, for which he required the oil resources of the Caucasus. By February 1942 the German Army High Command had begun to develop plans for a follow-up campaign to the aborted Barbarossa offensive – with the Caucasus as its principal objective. On 5 April 1942, Hitler laid out the elements of the plan now known as "Case Blue" in Führer Directive No. 41. The directive stated the main goals of the 1942 summer campaign on Germany's Eastern Front: holding attacks for Army Group Centre, the capture of Leningrad and the link-up with Finland for AG North, the capture of the Caucasus region for Army Group South; the main focus was to be the capture of the Caucasus region. The Caucasus, a large, culturally diverse region traversed by its eponymous mountains, is bounded by the Black Sea to the west and the Caspian Sea to the east; the region north of the mountains was a production center for grain and heavy farm machinery, while its two main oilfields, at Maykop, near the Black Sea, Grozny, about halfway between the Black and the Caspian Seas, produced about 10 percent of all Soviet oil.

South of the mountains lay Transcaucasia, comprising Georgia and Armenia. This industrialized and densely populated area contained some of the largest oilfields in the world. Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, was one of the richest, producing 80 percent of the Soviet Union's oil—about 24 million tons in 1942 alone; the Caucasus possessed plentiful coal and peat, as well as nonferrous and rare metals. Manganese deposits at Chiaturi, in Transcaucasia, formed the richest single source in the world, yielding 1.5 million tons of manganese ore annually, half of the Soviet Union's total production. The Kuban region of the Caucasus produced large amounts of wheat, sunflower seeds, sugar beets, all essential in the production of food; these resources were of immense importance to the German war effort. Of the three million tons of oil Germany consumed per year, 85 percent was imported from the United States and Iran; when war broke out in September 1939, the British naval blockade cut Germany off from the Americas and the Middle East, leaving the country reliant on oil-rich European countries such as Romania to supply the resource.

An indication of German reliance on Romania is evident from its oil consumption.

Floyd B. Olson

Floyd Bjørnstjerne Olson was an American politician and lawyer. He served as the 22nd Governor of Minnesota from January 6, 1931, to August 22, 1936, dying in office of stomach cancer. Olson was a member of the Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party, the first member of that party to win the office of governor, he was a prominent governor of an influential American politician. Floyd B. Olson was born on the north side of Minneapolis, the only child of a Norwegian father and a Swedish mother; the North Side neighborhood where Olson grew up was the home of a sizable Orthodox Jewish community, Olson's friendships with some of the local Jewish families led him to serve as a shabbos goy, assisting Jews on the Sabbath by performing actions they were not permitted to do. Olson picked up Yiddish from his childhood associations with his Jewish neighbors and years spoke the language fluently while campaigning in Jewish communities, in addition to having several Jews serve him in advisory roles while in elected office.

After graduating from North High School in Minneapolis in 1909, Olson went to work for the Northern Pacific Railway. The next year, he enrolled at the University of Minnesota, but he left after only a year, during which he was always in trouble for wearing a derby in violation of school rules and for refusing to participate in required ROTC drills. Heading west, Olson worked a series of odd jobs in Canada and Alaska before settling in Seattle, where he became a stevedore and joined the Industrial Workers of the World. During this time, Olson read and began to adopt a populist, semi-socialist philosophy he would retain for the rest of his life. Returning to Minnesota in 1913, Olson enrolled at William Mitchell College of Law, earning his degree in 1915; that same year, he met and married Ada Krejci in New Prague and became a practicing lawyer. In 1919, Olson was hired as an Assistant Hennepin County Attorney and by the following year had himself become the Hennepin County Attorney after his former boss was fired for accepting bribes.

During that period, he made his first foray into politics when he helped form the Committee of 48, an organization that attempted to draft Senator Robert M. La Follette, Sr. to run for president on a third-party ticket. The effort proved unsuccessful, but La Follette would run on the Progressive Party ticket in 1924; that same year, Olson ran in the Democratic primary for the local seat in the House of Representatives but lost. As Hennepin County Attorney, Olson earned a name for himself as a stern prosecutor who relished going after crooked businessmen, he took on the Ku Klux Klan in a well-publicized case that brought both respect and death threats and was reelected to the position in 1922 and 1926. In 1923, Olson brought a case against the leaders of the Minnesota Citizens Alliance, a conservative business organization dedicated to preserving right-to-work laws, after they hired a hitman to dynamite the home of a union leader. Olson's vigorous pursuit of the Citizens Alliance made him a hero to the local labor movement, which encouraged him to run for the Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party's gubernatorial nomination in 1924.

Having secured the endorsement of the Hennepin County Farmer-Labor Central Committee, Olson narrowly won the nomination in a bitterly fought primary. Buoyed by La Follette's presidential campaign, he received 43% of the vote to Republican candidate Theodore Christianson's 48%. Democratic candidate Carlos Avery came in a distant third with 6%. Four years in 1928, the new "Farmer-Labor Association" attempted to draft Olson to run for governor again. Although the party committee once again endorsed him and this time guaranteed that he would not face a primary battle, Olson declined to run. In the U. S. presidential election, 1928, the Farmer-Labor candidate lost in the Republican landslide that accompanied Herbert Hoover's election. By 1930, the stock market had crashed, the Great Depression had begun. After the party's newspaper urged that Olson be drafted, he won the nomination. Forming a coalition of farmers, organized labor, small businessmen, Olson swept to a landslide victory in the election, receiving 59% of the vote in a four-way race and winning 82 of the state's 87 counties.

At the time Olson assumed his office, Minnesota's legislature was non-partisan but was in reality dominated by conservative Republicans who opposed most of what Olson stood for. Olson soon proved himself skilled at the art of politics and managed to fulfill the vast majority of his campaign promises. During his three terms as governor, Olson proposed, the legislature passed, bills that instituted a progressive income tax, created a social security program for the elderly, expanded the state's environmental conservation programs, guaranteed equal pay for women and the right to collective bargaining, instituted a minimum wage and a system of unemployment insurance. Despite these changes, the thing Olson wanted the most, a bill that would have put Minnesota's electric utilities, iron mines, oil fields, grain elevators, meatpacking plants under state ownership, never saw the light of day, as the legislature balked at what they saw as socialism and Olson insisted was "cooperativism." As the platform of his party grew successively more radical, Olson's support amongst the middle class began to erode.

His vigorous support from labor and agriculture, remained undiminished and he was reelected in 1932 and 1934. In its April 24, 1933, Time magazine quoted Olson speaking from the steps of the state capito

Intentional Software

Intentional Software is a software company that designed tools and platforms that follow the principles of intentional programming in which programmers focus on capturing the intent of users and designers, spend as little time as possible interacting with machines and compilers. Its tools include language workbenches, tools that separated software function from implementation, allowed'language-focused' development; this allowed automatic rewriting of code. The company began developing a platform for improving productivity of software groups; the company was founded by Charles Simonyi in 2002, headed by CEO Eric Anderson. In 2017 it had 100 staff. On April 18, 2017, it was acquired by Microsoft, with many of its employees joining the Microsoft Office team. Intentional Software developed the Domain Workbench, a language workbench for building and working with domain-specific languages, designed custom languages for clients for their particular uses, they built the Intentional Platform, a platform for group productivity software.

Intentional Software website Martin Fowler's essay on the company

Euura venusta

Euura venusta is a species of sawfly belonging to the family Tenthredinidae. The larvae feed within the leaf-stalk of willows forming a gall; the sawfly was first described by Carl Gustav Alexander Brischke in 1883. The gall is 8 -- 10 mm long and 2 -- 4 mm wide at the base, it contains one larva, along with its frass, can be found on eared willow, goat willow, grey willow, downy willow and S. silesiaca. E. Venusta is one of three related species known as the Euura amerinae species subgroup; the other member of the group is E. testaceipes. The sawfly has been found in central and northern Europe and the Russian far east, including Armenia, Great Britain, Norway and Sweden. Euura Gallers Media related to Euura venusta at Wikimedia Commons

X-Men: Gamesmaster's Legacy

X-Men: Gamesmaster's Legacy is an action game released in 1995 on the Sega Game Gear system. The game starts off with Cyclops and Storm as playable X-Men, although Wolverine, Rogue, Jean Grey, Cable can be unlocked, it is loosely based on the "Upstarts" and "X-Cutioner's Song" storylines that took place in the comics. It is the sequel to the original X-Men Game Gear game; the following year, Sega released X-Men: Mojo World. The Legacy Virus is annihilating mutantkind and the Gamesmaster is holding the key, he offers the X-Men a chance to play his game and win the secret, but he offers the same to their arch-enemies with the added satisfaction of destroying the X-Men. The X-Men must split up to perish forever; the game is split up into two parts, with five stages in the first part where players rescue the missing gears, three stages in the second part. The bosses include Siena Blaze, Shinobi Shaw, Trevor Fitzroy, Fabian Cortez, Apocalypse, Mister Sinister, Stryfe; the character lineup for the game includes Cyclops, Wolverine, Rogue, Bishop and Cable Electronic Gaming Monthly deemed the game "a good sequel", praising the graphics and the increasing selection of X-Men as the game progresses.

They gave it a 6.4 out of 10. GamePro noted how the game was an improvement over the earlier Game Gear title Spider-Man and the X-Men in Arcade's Revenge, removing the frustrations of that game while featuring improved graphics


A bartender is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar in a licensed establishment. Bartenders usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar. A bartender can mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Old Fashioned, Mojito. Bartenders are usually responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, bartenders are required to refuse more alcohol to drunk customers. Bartending was a profession with a low reputation, it was perceived through the lens of ethical issues and various legal constraints related to the serving of alcohol. The pioneers of bartending as a serious profession appeared in the 19th century. "Professor" Jerry Thomas established the image of the bartender as a creative professional. Harry Johnson established the first bar management consulting agency. At the turn of the 20th century less than half the bartenders in London were women, such as Ada Coleman.

"Barmaids", as they were called, were the daughters of tradesmen or mechanics or young women from the "better-born" classes, "thrown upon their own resources" and needed an income. The bartending profession was a second occupation, used as transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; the reason for this is because bartenders in tipping countries such as Canada and the United States, can make significant money from their tips. This view of bartending as a career is changing around the world and bartending has become a profession by choice rather than necessity, it includes specialized education — European Bartender School operates in 23 countries. Cocktail competitions such as World Class and Bacardi Legacy have recognised talented bartenders in the past decade and these bartenders, others, spread the love of cocktails and hospitality throughout the world. Kathy Sullivan owner of Sidecar Bartending expressed the difficulties with becoming a prolific bartender, comparing you to the drink you make: “In drinks you want balance.

And you have to be balanced physically and mentally.” In the United Kingdom, bar work is not regarded as a long-term profession, but more as a second occupation, or transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees. As such, it therefore has a high turnover; the high turnover of staff due to low wages and poor employee benefits results in a shortage of skilled bartenders. Whereas a career bartender would know drink recipes, serving techniques, alcohol contents, correct gas mixes and licensing law and would have cordial relations with regular customers, short-term staff may lack these skills; some pubs prefer experienced staff, although pub chains tend to accept inexperienced staff and provide training. Tipping bartenders in the United Kingdom is uncommon, not considered mandatory but is appreciated by the bartender; the appropriate way to tip a bartender in the UK is to say'have one for yourself', encouraging the bartender to buy themselves a drink with one's money, where a bartender may instead opt to add a modest amount to a bill to take in cash at the end of their shift.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics data on occupations in the United States, including that of bartender, publishes a detailed description of the bartender's typical duties and employment and earning statistics by those so employed, with 55% of a bartender's take-home pay coming in the form of tips. The hourly wage a bartender receives can vary depending on the state; the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, the laws of most states, allow employers a tip credit, which counts employees tips toward minimum wage. As of January 1, 2019, the federal minimum wage rate is $7.25/hour. Bartenders in the United States may work in a large variety of bars; these include hotel bars, restaurant bars, sports bars, gay bars, piano bars, dive bars. Growing in popularity is the portable bar, which can be moved to different venues and special events. Bartenders may learn while on the job. Bartenders in the United States have on-the-job training, from the owners, management, or other superior stuff with experience. Prospective bartenders may gain experience by working as wait staff in a restaurant with a bar.

Some vocational schools offer. Some US states require a health certificate issued from the state. Most pubs and bars seek to recruit personable individuals as bartenders. All bartenders must comply in the United States. All bartenders in the United States should be knowledgeable in mixing and serving drinks with a positive attitude and excellent communication skills; the competition for jobs is high in this field of work. Bar-back, or runner, a bartender's assistant Hospitality List of bartenders List of public house topics List of restaurant terminology Tavern Vintner Media related to Bartenders at Wikimedia Commons