San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Caldo verde is a popular soup in Portuguese cuisine. The basic traditional ingredients for caldo verde are collard greens, olive oil and salt. Additionally garlic or onion may be added; some recipes add meat, such as ham hock, making it similar to Italo-American wedding soup. The soup is accompanied by slices of paio, chouriço or linguiça, with Portuguese broa cornbread for dipping. In Portugal, caldo verde is consumed during Portuguese celebrations, such as weddings and popular celebrations. For example, the St. John festival, in Porto, it is sometimes consumed as a late supper. Caldo verde originated from the Minho Province in northern Portugal. Today, it is a traditional national favourite that has spread across the nation and abroad to places where a large community of Portuguese immigrants have settled such as Brazil, New Jersey, Rhode Island. References to the soup appear in many novels by Camilo Castelo Branco. Caldo gallego List of soups Stamppot Colcannon
Xiu Xiu is an American experimental band, formed in 2002 by singer-songwriter Jamie Stewart in San Jose, California. The line-up consists of Stewart, Angela Seo, Thor Harris, Jordan Geiger; the band's name comes from the film Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl and has influenced the sound of their music according to Stewart. Jamie Stewart formed Xiu Xiu in 2002 after Ten in the Swear Jar, disbanded. Stewart and Cory McCulloch continued from the previous group, were joined by Yvonne Chen and Lauren Andrews; the band's sound was characterized by its use of indigenous instruments and programmed drums in place of traditional rock instruments: harmonium, brass bells, keyboards, a cross between a guitarrón mexicano and a cello for bass, etc. Xiu Xiu would tour their first LP Knife Play, its successor EP, Chapel of the Chimes, in 2002, blending both melody and cacophony with a heavy reliance on percussive instrumentation and brass instrumentation. Following 2002, the group would shrink in membership as Yvonne Chen left in order to focus on her vegan boutique Otsu and self-published magazine Zum, while Cory McCulloch stopped touring, focusing instead on producing the band's next two LPs.
A personal loss would affect Xiu Xiu as well, as Jamie Stewart's father and record producer Michael Stewart was found dead after an apparent suicide. Coping with these losses, Stewart would record the group's follow-up to Knife Play, 2003's A Promise. Continuing to focus on the subject matter of Jamie Stewart's personal life – as witnessed by Knife Play – A Promise acts like a concept record of internal despair. Consisting of ten tracks, the record was oriented towards a more or less acoustic presentation, rather than relying on the booming brass and percussion which had worked to make Knife Play. However, the record did not veer from the formulated programming for which Stewart and McCulloch would be praised by fans and critics alike. During this time, Stewart recorded Fag Patrol, a collection of previous recorded material as well as covers of songs by The Smiths and his previous group with McCulloch, Ten in the Swear Jar. Released as a handmade CD by Rob Fisk's and Kelly Goodefisk's Free Porcupine Society, Fag Patrol was limited to only a few hundred copies.
In the spring of 2004, Stewart and McCulloch released what is considered by many to be the group's most accessible album, Fabulous Muscles. More pop-friendly in its sound than previous releases, Fabulous Muscles boosted Xiu Xiu to new heights in terms of popularity thanks to its single "I Luv the Valley OH!". The tone of the album reflected an "incredibly violent jarring, difficult to take" string of events in Stewart's life. Stewart described his lyrics as "never fictional", he told Pitchfork that Xiu Xiu songs are based around five topics: family, sex and lovelessness, how they are connected. With the departure of Lauren Andrews in 2003 – who wished to focus on her academic studies – Stewart was joined on stage by his "long-lost" cousin, Caralee McElroy in 2004; the two would tour relentlessly throughout that year, releasing not only the group's third LP, but split recordings with This Song Is a Mess But So Am I and Bunkbed, along with the "Fleshettes" single – which featured a rendition of the Ten in the Swear Jar track "Helsabot" by McElroy.
Seen as a return to Stewart's more dark and crabby demeanor, Xiu Xiu's fourth album La Forêt alluded to a frustration which Stewart had felt throughout the process of recording the 2004 record. Centered around the topic of "horrible times in horrible lives" as well as Stewart's personal frustrations with then-U. S. President George W. Bush, La Forêt is characterized by an altogether different sound – layered by mandolin, clarinet, cello and tuba. In addition to La Forêt, Xiu Xiu would join Italian experimental group Larsen in forming XXL, which released its first LP, ¡Ciaütistico! in 2005, followed by its successor ¿Spicchiology? in 2007. Stewart issued formative splits throughout 2005, working with artists such as The Paper Chase, Kill Me Tomorrow, Devendra Banhart. In 2009, Stewart would break from tradition by ending his professional relationship with McCulloch, he started recording with San Francisco-based band Deerhoof's drummer Greg Saunier as producer for Xiu Xiu's fifth LP entitled The Air Force.
Saunier, who had worked with Stewart on Knife Play, created for the record a greater wall of sound – a stark contrast to that of McCulloch's discordant attitude towards production. The Air Force would be supported throughout 2006 by a three piece ensemble, as Stewart and McElroy were joined by drummer/percussionist Ches Smith, who himself had worked with the group on Knife Play. Produced by Greg Saunier, Stewart said that the album is about "making other people feel bad" instead of feeling bad oneself and the year it was released was "one of the first not dominated by personal tragedies" Its major themes are "guilt and sex as opposed to sorrow and sex". Stewart considered it their best and most consciously pop album yet, he said that the band was obsessed with Weezer's Blue Album and The Smiths's The Queen Is Dead while on tour, though the album does not reflect those albums particularly. The Air Force contained the band's first album-based song without vocals by Stewart – with McElroy singing "Hello From Eau Claire".
A third EP – Tu Mi Piaci – of songs recorded by acts such as Bauhaus, Big Star, The Pussycat Dolls, Nina Simone was released in 2006, along with a collaboration with ambient artist Grouper, entitled Creepshow. Shortly thereafter, Xiu Xiu would record 2008's Women as Lovers, their long
2009 in music
This topic covers notable events and articles related to 2009 in music. 2009 in American music 2009 in Australian music 2009 in British music 2009 in Canadian music 2009 in European music 2009 in Irish music 2009 in Japanese music 2009 in New Zealand music 2009 in Norwegian music 2009 in South Korean music 2009 in alternative and punk rock 2009 in classical music 2009 in country music 2009 in electro pop music 2009 in heavy metal music 2009 in hip hop music 2009 in Latin music 2009 in jazz 2009 in opera January 8 – Lady Gaga's debut single "Just Dance" hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 after 22 weeks – the second longest climb to number one, since Creed "With Arms Wide Open" in November 2000. Just Dance reaches number 1 on the UK Singles Chart three days a week after it debuted at number 3. January 17 – Koncerthuset, the Copenhagen Concert Hall, opens. January 18 – As part of the inaugural celebration of US President Barack Obama, an inaugural concert entitled "We Are One" is held at the Lincoln Memorial.
Performers include Mary J. Blige, Garth Brooks, Renée Fleming, Caleb Green, Josh Groban, Herbie Hancock, Heather Headley, Beyoncé Knowles, Bettye Lavette, Pete Seeger, Bruce Springsteen, James Taylor, U2 and Stevie Wonder. Several of the songs performed had been used by Obama's presidential campaign. January 20 Reel Big Fish published the album Fame and Fornication Artists including Mariah Carey, Jay-Z, Alicia Keys, Sting, Faith Hill, Mary J. Blige, Maroon 5, Stevie Wonder and Will. I. Am performed at the Inaugural Ball for President Barack Obama January 28 – Kelly Clarkson breaks record for the biggest jump to number-one on the Billboard Hot 100 when her single "My Life Would Suck Without You" soars from number 97 to number one fueled by 280,000 digital downloads in the first week of release. January 29 – Madonna announces that she will extend her record-breaking Sticky & Sweet Tour during summer 2009, to visit cities that were excluded during the first run; the tour kicked off at The O2 in London on July 4.
The extension took the Sticky & Sweet Tour to a total of over 80 shows, putting it among the top five tours of all time. February 1 At Super Bowl XLIII, Faith Hill and Jennifer Hudson perform at the pregame show and Bruce Springsteen at the halftime show. Lily Allen's "The Fear" jumps 168 spots to reach the number one spot on the UK Singles Chart, ending Lady Gaga's three-week reign at the top. February 8 At the 51st Grammy Awards which took place at the Staples Center, Los Angeles: Alison Krauss and Robert Plant win five Grammys for their duet album Raising Sand which won Album of the Year Lil Wayne wins four awards, including Best Rap Album for Tha Carter III. Coldplay wins three awards including Song of the Year for Viva La Vida. Adele wins two awards including Best New Artist. Blink-182 announce that they are to reunite for new album. February 10 – Rihanna cancels her Malaysian concert in the Good Girl Gone Bad Tour amid reports that she accused her boyfriend R&B star Chris Brown of assault.
Organizers had announced that she would shun skimpy outfits to conform with Muslim-majority Malaysia's strict rule on performers' dress. February 12 "Crack a Bottle", performed by Eminem, Dr. Dre and 50 Cent, sets a new record for opening week download sales in the United States, at 418,000 copies; the previous record was set by "Live Your Life". Billboard announces that Madonna is the highest-earning entertainer of 2008, with US$242,176,466 from her sold-out Sticky & Sweet Tour. February 13 – Drake releases third official mixtape So Far Gone, which receives universal acclaim. Goes on to become recognized as one of the best modern mixtapes and Drake's launch into mainstream success. February 18 Pet Shop Boys win the outstanding contribution to music award at the Brit Awards. Duffy dominates the Brit Awards, held in Earl's Court, London, her album, the U. K top seller in 2008, won best British album, she won best British female and British breakthrough Kings of Leon win best international album for Only By The Night.
Katy Perry wins best international female trophy. Flo Rida breaks his own record when his single "Right Round" is downloaded 636,000 units in the opening week, his 2008 chart-topper "Low" set the previous record for most downloaded song with 467,000 units sold in the first week of release. February 24 – Lamb of God album Wrath debuts at number 2 on the Billboard 200, making it the highest charting extreme metal album in the last fifteen years. February 26 – Vocalist Steven Page leaves the Barenaked Ladies. March 2 – Elton John and Billy Joel The tour dates are configured for 360-degree view in order to maximize arena capacity; the duo's last tour, in 2003, grossed $USD 45.8 million from only 24 sellouts according to Billboard Boxscore. March 3 – Britney Spears launches her world tour at New Orleans Arena in New Orleans, Louisiana; the 97-show tour would be her first world tour in five years, her first tour since her public breakdown. March 5 – Michael Jackson announces his last concert series, This Is It to be held at the O2 Arena.
The concerts are never held due to Jackson's death three months March 6–8 – Phish's reunion shows at Hampton Coliseum in Virginia. March 10 – Infernus win the Gorgoroth name dispute. March 11 – Tickets started Selling for Michael Jackson's This Is It tour, 10 shows extended to 50 shows and impressively all 50 dated sold out in under four hours making them the fastest selling concerts in history. March 12 – Electroclash singer Miss Kittin reunites with The Hacker to release the duet album Two. March 13–22 – The 2009 South by Southwest Conference and Festival. Fleetwood Mac embark on their first world tour in five years, with a possible new studio album
2015 in music
This topic covers notable events and articles related to 2015 in music. List of 2015 albums See Category:Musical groups established in 2015 1 – Matthew Cogley, British musician and songwriter. 6 – Lance Percival, British actor and singer. 22 – Joan Hinde, British trumpet player. 27 – Margot Moir, Scottish-born Australian singer. 29 – Danny McCulloch, British bassist. 12 – Steve Strange, British musician. 21 – Clark Terry, American jazz trumpeter. 22 – Erik Amundsen, Norwegian jazz upright-bassist. 21 – Jørgen Ingmann, Danish guitarist. 1 – Dave Ball, British musician. 3 – Andrew Porter, British organist, music critic, opera director 10 – Ronald Hambleton, English-born Canadian broadcaster and music critic. 13 – Ronnie Carroll, Northern Irish singer. 17 – Brian Couzens, British music industry executive. 14 – B. B. King, American blues guitarist. 20 – Bob Belden, American jazz saxophonist. 23 – Marcus Belgrave, American jazz trumpeter. 31 – Slim Richey, American jazz guitarist. 11 – Ornette Coleman, American jazz saxophonist.
12 – Monica Lewis, American singer and actress. 21 – Gunther Schuller, American composer and horn player. 1 Val Doonican, Irish-born singer. Edward Greenfield, British music critic and broadcaster. 13 – Eric Wrixon, British musician from Belfast, Northern Ireland. 22 Daron Norwood, American country music singer British singer-songwriter and pianist. 1 – Cilla Black, British singer and presenter. 12 – John Scott, British organist and choirmaster. 14 – Jazz Summers, British music manager, 29 – Phil Woods, American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and composer. 9 – Larry Rosen, American drummer and music producer. 22 – Mark Murphy, American singer. 5 – Nora Brockstedt, Norwegian singer. 25 – Svein Christiansen, Norwegian drummer. 3 – Scott Weiland, American musician and songwriter 28 – Ian Kilmister, English musician and songwriter 30 – Zjef Vanuytsel, Belgian folk singer. 31 – Natalie Cole, American singer and actress. Once Upon a Time in Shaolin Timeline of musical events Women in music
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet
Lo-fi is an aesthetic of recorded music in which the sound quality is lower than the usual contemporary standards and imperfections of the recording and production are audible. These standards have evolved throughout the decades, meaning that some older examples of lo-fi may not have been recognized as such. Lo-fi only began to be recognized as a style of popular music in the 1990s, when it became alternately referred to as DIY music. Harmonic distortion and "analogue warmth" are sometimes wrongly suggested as core features of lo-fi music, its aesthetic is defined by the inclusion of elements viewed as undesirable in professional contexts, such as misplayed notes, environmental interference, or phonographic imperfections. Pioneering, influential, or otherwise significant artists include the Beach Boys, R. Stevie Moore, Paul McCartney, Todd Rundgren, Daniel Johnston, Guided by Voices, Beck and Ariel Pink. Although "lo-fi" first appeared in the Oxford Dictionary in 1976, WFMU DJ William Berger is credited with popularizing the term in 1986.
At various points since the 1980s, "lo-fi" has been connoted with cassette culture, the DIY ethos of punk, indie rock, outsider music, slacker/Generation X stereotypes, cultural nostalgia. The notion of "bedroom" musicians expanded following the rise of modern digital audio workstations, in the late 2000s, lo-fi aesthetics served as the basis of the chillwave and hypnagogic pop music genres; the definition of "lo-fi" evolved continuously between the 2000s. In the 1976 edition of the Oxford Dictionary, lo-fi was added under the definition of "sound production less good in quality than'hi-fi.'" Before the 1990s, there was no appreciation for the imperfections of lo-fi music among critics, but this changed after the emergence of a romanticism for home-recording and "do-it-yourself" qualities. Afterward, "DIY" was used interchangeably with "lo-fi". Whoever popularized the use of "lo-fi" cannot be determined definitively, it is suggested that the term was popularized through William Berger's weekly half-hour radio show on the New Jersey-based independent radio station WFMU, titled "Low-Fi", which lasted from 1986 to 1987.
The program contents consisted of contributions solicited via mail and ran during a thirty-minute prime time evening slot every Friday. In the Fall 1986 issue of the WFMU magazine LCD, the program was described as "home recordings produced on inexpensive equipment. Technical primitivism coupled with brilliance."By the end of the 1980s, qualities such as "home-recorded", "technically primitive", "inexpensive equipment" were associated with the "lo-fi" label, throughout the 1990s, such ideas became central to how "lo-fi" was popularly understood. In 2003, the Oxford Dictionary added a second definition for the term—"a genre of rock music characterized by minimal production, giving a raw and unsophisticated sound". A third was added in 2008: "unpolished, amateurish, or technologically unsophisticated, esp. as a deliberate aesthetic choice." The notion of "bedroom" musicians expanded after the rise of laptop computers in many forms of popular or avant-garde music, over the years, there was an increasing tendency to group all home-recorded music under the umbrella of "lo-fi".
"Bedroom pop" loosely describes a music genre or aesthetic in which bands record at home, rather than at traditional recording spaces. It is connoted with DIY. By the 2010s, journalists would indiscriminately apply "bedroom pop" for any music that sounded "fuzzy". In 2017, About.com's Anthony Carew argued that the term "lo-fi" was misused as a synonym for "warm" or "punchy" when it should be reserved for music that "sounds like it's recorded onto a broken answering-machine." Lo-fi aesthetics are based on idiosyncrasies. More those that are viewed in the field of audio engineering as undesirable effects, such as a degraded audio signal or fluctuations in tape speed. Recordings deemed unprofessional or "amateurish" are with respect to performance or mixing. Musicologist Adam Harper identifies the difference as "phonographic" and "non-phonographic imperfections", he defines the former as "elements of a recording that are perceived as detrimental to it and that originate in the specific operation of the recording medium itself.
Today, they are the first characteristics people think about when the subject of'lo-fi' is brought up."Recording imperfections may "fall loosely into two categories and noise", in Harper's view, although he acknowledges that definitions of "distortion" and "noise" vary and sometimes overlap. The most prominent form of distortion in lo-fi aesthetics is harmonic distortion, which can occur when an audio signal is amplified beyond the dynamic range of a device. However, this effect is not considered to be an imperfection; the same process is used for the electric guitar sounds of rock and roll, since the advent of digital recording, to give a recording a feeling of "analogue warmth". Distortion, generated as a byproduct of the recording process is avoided in professional contexts. "Tape saturation" and "saturation distortion" alternately describe the harmonic distortion that occurs when a tape head approaches its limit of residual magnetization (a c