click links in text for more info

Cass County, Illinois

Cass County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,642, its county seat is Virginia. It is the home of Wildlife Area. Cass County's official website can be found at Cass County was formed in 1837 out of Morgan County, it was named for Lewis Cass, a general in the War of 1812, Governor of the Michigan Territory, United States Secretary of State in 1860. Cass was serving as Andrew Jackson's Secretary of War. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 384 square miles, of which 376 square miles is land and 7.9 square miles is water. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Illinois River Little Sangamon River Sangamon River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Virginia have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −28 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.35 inches in January to 4.86 inches in May.

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,642 people, 5,270 households, 3,561 families residing in the county. The population density was 36.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,836 housing units at an average density of 15.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.3% white, 3.1% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 8.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were German, 21.0% were American, 10.6% were Irish, 9.5% were English. Of the 5,270 households, 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,544 and the median income for a family was $51,624.

Males had a median income of $37,267 versus $26,634 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,825. About 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. For German-settled western Central Illinois, Cass County opposed the Civil War and became solidly Democratic for the next six decades. Only hatred of Woodrow Wilson’s policies towards Germany following World War I drove the county into Republican hands in the 1920 landslide. Between 1924 and 2008, the county was something of a bellwether, missing the national winner only in the close 1960 election and the drought- and farm crisis-influenced election of 1988. In the 2010s, the county has become powerfully Republican due to opposition to the Democratic Party's social liberalism. Cass County is located in Illinois's 18th Congressional District and is represented by Republican Davin LaHood. For the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is located in the 93rd district and is represented by Republican Norine Hammond.

The county is located in the 47th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican Jil Tracy. Beardstown Virginia Gurney Oak Grove Sylvan National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, Illinois US Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles US Board on Geographic Names US National Atlas

Robert O. Binnewies

Robert O. Binnewies is an American conservationist. Graduate, Colorado State University, 1959, bachelor of science degree, forest recreation. Joined National Park Service, 1961, as a park ranger, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Subsequent NPS assignments included Washington, D. C. 1964–1966, chief ranger, Acadia National Park, Maine, 1967–1971, superintendent, Yosemite National Park, California, 1979–1986. While in Maine, Binnewies assisted Mrs. David Rockefeller in establishment of the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, a nonprofit organization that champions the voluntary use of conservation easements to protect owned lands. To date, the trust has encouraged protection for more than 125,000 acres of island and coastal habitat in Maine. Binnewies served as executive director of the trust, 1971–1976. Binnewies served as group vice president, National Audubon Society, 1977–1978, before being selected as Yosemite National Park superintendent in 1979. While at Yosemite, he signed the 1980 General Management Plan that calls for major reductions in commercial and transportation activities to better preserve the natural values of Yosemite Valley.

He initiated the Return-of-Light fundraising campaign that has generated more than $50 million in charitable financial support for Yosemite. In 1986, Binnewies was abruptly reassigned from Yosemite to the National Park Service Western Regional Office, San Francisco, after confirming that he had but surreptitiously, tape recorded one conversation with a park critic. In 1988, Binnewies was appointed by Governor Mario Cuomo as assistant commissioner for natural resources, New York Department of Environmental Conservation. In 1990, he was selected as executive director, Palisades Interstate Park Commission, led the commission's successful decade-long initiative to acquire 17,500-acre Sterling Forest, the largest remaining open space in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan Region, he initiated action that led to establishment of the National Purple Heart Hall of Honor at New Windsor, New York. He is author of Palisades, 100,000 Acres in 100 Years, Fordham University Press, 2000, an account of the commission's century-long conservation activities.

He is author of Your Yosemite, A Threatened Public Treasure, White Cloud Press, 2015, an account of Yosemite's history and management challenges. Since his retirement, Binnewies has served as chairman of the board of the Santa Lucia Conservancy and the Los Luceros Foundation, New Mexico


Saint-Julien-d'Arpaon is a former commune in the Lozère department in southern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Cans-et-Cévennes. Saint-Julien-d'Arpaon stands at a crossing of the River Mimente on the Robert Louis Stevenson Trail, a popular long-distance path following the route travelled by Robert Louis Stevenson in 1878 and described in his book Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes. Stevenson mentions the village and its ruined chateau in passing, though not by name:...the road passed hard by two black hamlets, one with an old castle atop to please the heart of the tourist. Communes of the Lozère department INSEE commune file Department Web site

Quad 4 engine

The engine family known as the Quad 4s was debuted to the public in the spring of 1987. The Quad 4 is a 2,260.5 cc DOHC inline four-cylinder produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division. The Quad 4 name is derived from the engine's four-cylinder layout; the engine was a modern design for its time, using an aluminum head. Though belts were more popular for this purpose on OHC engines at the time, chains were used to time the camshafts to the crankshaft; the water pump is driven by the timing chain. The Quad 4 was the first wholly domestic regular production DOHC four-cylinder engine designed and built by GM. First released to the public as a regular production option for the 1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais and Pontiac Grand Am, the engine's availability expanded to Buick in late 1988 and Chevrolet in 1990, after which it became a mainstay in GM's lineup until its cancellation after the 2002 model year. Simultaneous to the engine's release in 1988, Oldsmobile attempted to further the Quad 4 name through publicized events featuring such cars as the Oldsmobile Aerotech.

Another such event was the 1988 Indianapolis 500, when Oldsmobile was chosen to pace the race with a convertible version of their Cutlass Supreme, a pre-production turbocharged Quad 4 was the engine of choice for their pace car. Although it was publicized in 1988 that the Quad 4 was forthcoming in a 180 bhp "HO", as well as a 250 bhp turbocharged version, GM never released the turbocharged version as a publicly available option. Although the engine in Oldsmobile Aerotech was a purpose-built, turbocharged example. After the first few years of positive reviews of the Quad 4, the automotive press began to criticize it for its noise and harshness levels. At the time, the Quad 4 was compared to turbocharged four cylinders, V6s, V8s; the first changes of the Quad 4 to address its NVH were two rounds of exhaust port size reductions, followed by the addition of balance shafts in 1995. Further changes were made for the 1996 model year when the engine's bore and stroke were changed, the engine was subsequently redubbed "Twin Cam".

In addition to the 2,260.5 cc DOHC versions, there was both a short-lived SOHC variant, the "Quad OHC", available from 1992 to 1994, the 2,392.3 cc Twin Cam from 1996 to 2002. The Twin Cam was replaced by the Ecotec for the 2003 model year. All engines in the Quad 4 family were produced at the Lansing Engine Plant in Delta Township near Lansing, Michigan; the Twin Cam was the last engine, engineered and produced by Oldsmobile. In recent years, the design has gained a minor following in hot rodding circles as a period style engine because it looks similar to a 1930s Offenhauser DOHC design; the LD2 was the standard version of the Quad 4, the first incarnation was introduced in 1987 for the 1988 model year. In base form, the Quad 4 put out 150 bhp from 1988 to 1989 and 160 bhp from 1990 to 1992. GM was able to produce the 160 bhp with neither a turbo, nor an EGR system to pass emission standards; the base Quad 4 saw several slight changes during its production run including different crankshafts and manifolds, all meant to increase torque and lessen the NVH.

In an effort to yield 5 additional HP some opted 1992 RPO LD2 SC Oldsmobile Achievas received a vortex valve along the TB induction pipe runner with an injection molded auxiliary induction tube funneling cool air from outside the engine compartment to the airbox via the openings around drivers side headlight as until the engine warmed up would cause stumbling issues with the MAF sensor. There was a transitional version of the LD2 in 1995, which displaced the same 2.3 litres as the early Quad 4 but featured the dual balance shafts of the quipped 2.4 L LD9 Twin Cam. Applications: 1988–1991 Buick Skylark 1992–1994 Oldsmobile Achieva 1988–1991 Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais 1990–1991 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme 1988–1994 Pontiac Grand Am 1990–1991 Pontiac Grand Prix 1993–1997 Pontiac Trans Sport For 1995 only, a balance shaft-equipped version of the 2.3 L version was produced. This arrangement ensures a constant load on the shafts: the crank drives one shaft, which drives the second, which drives the oil pump.

The shafts spin at twice the engine rpm. Output is 150 bhp and 150 lb⋅ft; this was the only Quad 4 produced in 1995. This was known as a transitional year for the engine family. Applications: 1995 Pontiac Sunfire GT 1995 Chevrolet Cavalier Z24 1995 Pontiac Grand Am 1995 Oldsmobile Achieva 1995 Buick Skylark The "high output" 2.3 L LG0 was rated at 180 hp from 1989 to 1992, 175 hp in 1993 and 170 hp in 1994. Changes that differentiate the LG0 from the LD2 engine are more aggressive camshafts and an extra half point of compression; these engines were recommended to run ex

Delbar Jan Arman

Delbar Jan Arman Dilbar Jan Arman Shinwari is a politician from Jaji Maidan district of Khost, Afghanistan. He is the ex-governor of Badghis Province. Delbar Jan Arman has a academic background. In the 1970s, he studied for six years at Kabul, he was trained in the Afghan Army. From 2005 till 2009 he was the governor of Afghanistan, he was an anti-Soviet insurgent. He was appointed governor of Zabul on 3 March 2005 by President Hamid Karzai. Delbar Jan Arman is known for his intimate involvement with the U. S. Provincial Reconstruction Team based in Qalat and their combined efforts to deploy development projects across the province. In May 2009 he switched positions with Mohammad Ashraf Naseri. Delbar Jan Arman became governor of Badghis Province, Mohammad Ashraf Naseri took over the Government of Zabul Province

Meadowridge Common

Meadowridge Common is an 8-hectare reserve in the Meadowridge suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, which preserves a fragment of critically endangered Cape Flats Sand Fynbos vegetation. The preserve contains including 4 that are endangered; the endangered Cape Rain Frog is one of the many small animals. In spring, the park becomes colourful as the indigenous fynbos bursts into flower; this small reserve faces considerable challenges. Not least of which are invasive alien plants such as Kikuyu grass; the reserve’s small size and isolation from other natural areas make species extinction a much greater risk. Biodiversity of Cape Town List of nature reserves in Cape Town Cape Flats Sand Fynbos