Cassette culture refers to the practices associated with amateur production and distribution of recorded music that emerged in the late 1970s via home-made audio cassettes. It is characterized by the adoption of home recording by independent artists, involvement in ad-hoc self-distribution and promotion networks—primarily conducted through mail and fanzines; the culture was in part an offshoot of the mail art movement of the 1970s and 1980s, participants engaged in tape trading in addition to traditional sales. The culture is related to the DIY ethic of punk, encouraged musical eclecticism and diversity. Several factors led to the rise of cassette culture; the development of the cassette tape recording format was important - the improvement of tape formulations and availability of sophisticated cassette decks in the late 1970s allowed participants to produce high-quality copies of their music inexpensively. Significant was the fact that bands did not need to go into expensive recording studios any longer.
Multi-track recording equipment was becoming affordable, portable and of high quality during the early 1980s. 4-track cassette recorders developed by Tascam and Fostex allowed artists to record and get a reasonable sound at home. As well, electronic instruments, such as drum machines and synthesizers, became more compact and inexpensive. Therefore, it became feasible to construct home-recording studios, giving rise to an increase of recording artists. Add to this the fact that college radio was coming into its own. For many years there were non-commercial college radio stations but now they had a newfound freedom in format - giving rise to regular cassette-only radio shows that showcased and promoted the work of home recording artists. With the influx of new music from sources other than the major record companies—and the quasi-major medium of college radio to lend support—the audio boom was on. In the United Kingdom cassette culture was at its peak in what is known as the post-punk period, 1978–1984.
UK cassette culture was championed by marginal musicians and performers such as Tronics, the Instant Automatons, Storm Bugs, Sean T Wright, the insane picnic, the Cleaners from Venus and Final Program, anarcho-punk groups such as the APF Brigade, the Apostles and Chumbawamba, many of the purveyors of Industrial music, e.g. Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, Clock DVA. Artists self-releasing would copy their music in exchange for "a blank tape plus self-addressed envelope", but there existed many small'tape labels' such as Falling A Records, Sterile Records and Third Mind Records that operated in opposition to the capitalistic aim of maximizing profit. There was great diversity amongst such labels, some were entirely'bedroom based', utilising new home tape copying technologies whilst others were more organised, functioning in a similar way to more established record labels; some did vinyl releases, or developed into vinyl labels. Many compilation albums were released, it was not uncommon for artists who had a vinyl contract to release on cassette compilations, or to continue to do cassette-only album releases after they had started releasing records.
In September 1982 the NME acknowledged the band Tronics for releasing in 1980 the first independent cassette album, entitled Tronics, to be nationally distributed. Cassette culture received something of a mainstream boost when acknowledged by the major music press; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Sounds, the three main weekly music papers of the time in the UK, launched their own'cassette culture' features, in which new releases would be reviewed and ordering information given. In the U. S. magazines such as Op Magazine, Factsheet Five and Unsound rose to fill the void. The October 2011 edition of Record Collector magazine published an article about the significance of cassette culture in the UK and listing 21 rare but sought after cassette releases. In the US, cassette culture activity extended into the 1990s. Although larger operators made use of commercial copying services, anybody who had access to copying equipment could release a tape, publicize it in the network of fanzines and newsletters that served smaller markets.
Therefore cassette culture was an ideal and democratic method for making available music, never to have mainstream appeal. Many found in cassette-culture music, more imaginative, challenging and groundbreaking than output released on vinyl. In the United States, Cassette Culture was associated with DIY sound collage, riot grrrl, punk music and blossomed across the country on cassette labels like Ladd-Frith, Tellus Audio Cassette Magazine, Swinging Axe, Pass the Buck, E. F. Tapes, Happiest Tapes on Earth, Apraxia Music Research, Sound of Pig, Portland's label From the Wheelchair to the Pulpit, Walls of Genius and in Olympia, Washington on labels like K Records and brown interior music. Artists such as PBK, Big City Orchestra, Alien Planetscapes, Don Campau, Ken Clinger, Dino DiMuro, Tom Furgas, The Haters, Zan Hoffman, If, Hal McGee, Minóy, Dave Prescott, Dan Fioretti who now identifies as female and goes by the name Dreamgirl Stephanie Ashlyn, dk, Jim Shelley, Suburban Campers, The Silly Pillows, Atlanta's Saboteur, hundreds of others recorded numerous albums available only on cas
John Brindley Coffey was a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the USAAF who flew with the Hell's Angels in the 303d Bombardment Group in World War II and was Deputy Chairman and Chairman of the USAAF Nato Planning Liaison Group during the Cold War. He was born in Rossville, United States, to Robert L. Coffey, a brick manufacturer and Curie Ethel Brindley, a milliner, he is the 2nd of three sons, between Robert L. Coffey, Jr. born 1921, William B. Coffey born 1923. Both his brothers became pilots in the USAAF, both died in plane crashes. After the failure of his business during the Great Depression, Robert Coffey, Sr. moved the family first to Philadelphia and to Johnstown, Pennsylvania where he found work as supervisor in a coal mine. John Coffey followed his father into the mine and became a member of the UMWA, he joined the USAAF in 1939, in Santa Ana,California, training as a glider pilot in Pittsburg, Kansas. In 1943 the glider pilot program was winding down. Stationed in Molesworth, one of the first Eighth Air Force stations attached to the USAAF, he was assigned to the 303d Bombardment Group, 427th Bombardment Squadron.
In two B-17 Flying Fortress tours, he was credited with 35 bombing missions over Nazi Germany. Midway through the missions, after developing and conducting a navigational training curriculum for pilots, he was promoted to lead navigator. In 1948 he left active service, returned to the United States, while still in the Military Reserves, enrolled in the University of Miami on the GI Bill. There he met Valerie Kendall, they were married in 1949, they honeymooned in Havana and had three sons: Christopher and Kevin. In 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, he was recalled to active duty and began training in the new technologies that the Strategic Air Command in the early years of the Cold War was developing under the leadership of then-Lieutenant General Curtis LeMay; the stated mission was being able to strike anywhere in the world. To do so demanded development and integration in the areas of jet engines, in-air refueling, ballistic missiles, nuclear missiles. Lt. Col. Coffey became part of War Planning Operations and was stationed variously at Loring Air Force Base, Robins Air Force Base, Westover Air Force Base, headquarters of the Eighth Air Force, where he was on the IG team inspecting Strategic Air Command facilities for standards.
In 1966 he was redeployed overseas and assigned to Lindsey Air Station in Wiesbaden, headquarters for United States Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa, while the family found housing at Finthen Army Airfield in Mainz. While in Mainz his skills as a community liaison prompted an invitation for him to join the Reitercorps of the Mainzer Ranzengarde, a local equestrian club, an honor reserved for Germans; as Deputy of Operations, headquarters, USAFE, he served as Chief of the Special Plans Branch where he was responsible for HQ USAFE "planning for all aspects of unconventional warfare in the European theater and coordination of all Berlin contingency planning, involving frequent and sensitive high-level coordination and conferences with military and civilian planners of four nations." He created an operational planning concept covering all aspects of conventional warfare that became a basic reference for the work of the USAFE Force Employment Panel on which Lt. Col. Coffey was assistant chairman and coordinator.
The panel's determinations affected strategy and tactics for U. S. and Nato war planning in Europe. In 1969 he retired and was transferred back to Homestead Air Force Base and into civilian life. Among the decorations Lt. Col. Coffey received were the Air Force Commendation Medal, the First Oak Leaf Cluster to the Air Force Commendation Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal. In 1977 the Coffeys moved to Moore Haven, where they bought a ranch and raised cattle. In 1980 he entered the Democratic primary for the U. S. Senate but did not qualify for the runoff. Gunter lost to Republican Paula Hawkins, the only woman elected to the US Senate from Florida, he became active in local politics and served as a Glades County Commissioner from 1982–1990, as Commissioner Chairman for two years. He played a prominent role in the movement to preserve public access for Fisheating Creek when private interests threatened to abolish it. Valerie Coffey died in 2005, Lt. Col. Coffey died on Nov. 26, 2013 in West Palm Beach, Florida.
The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend is a 1991 biographical sports film about the 1959 8th grade basketball season of Pete Maravich and his father Press Maravich. The film, which presents his early beginnings and the origin of the "Pistol" nickname, is set in Clemson, SC, where the elder Maravich served as head coach for Clemson Tigers men's basketball; the film is regarded as a family film, listed by several Christian book and film clubs. The film was released on January 17, 1991 in theatres, on November 8, 2005 on DVD, on November 11, 2013 on Blu-ray; the film was produced soon after Pete Maravich's 1988 death. The film shows 5-foot-2-inch Maravich's efforts to make the D. W. Daniel High School varsity team as an eighth grader as he deals with racially charged issues in the deep south of the 1950s. Press Maravich serves as his son's drill sergeant, motivator and cheerleader. Set in 1959 Clemson, SC, the film begins with Pete Maravich shooting in the back yard as his father, impresses the importance of focusing on a goal with dedication and diligence.
In addition to motivational talks, Press gave Pete a range of drills and technique advice. At school, Pete perceives himself as an outcast on the basketball team, where at one point he was benched for ten games. Pete believed in himself and his father stood behind him. Pete begins dribbling the basketball and in strange situations such as during his bike rides while he keeps it with him around the clock. Pete's coach looks down on Pete's fancy basketball skills as the kind of thing that the Blacks from the bad part of town do; when Pete is given the chance, he wins the game. Because he shot the basketball from the hip, he earned the nickname "Pistol Pete". After winning the state championship, Press convinced the coach and team that they can't be champions without beating the all black Cleveland High School in an unofficial contest. Press concluded the film with the advice to "give the fans a show they'll never forget, they'll come back again and again." Millie Perkins as Helen Maravich Nick Benedict as Press Maravich Boots Garland as Coach Vern Pendleton Tom Lester as Pete Maravich Adam Guier as Pete Maravich The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend was produced soon after Pete Maravich's January 5, 1988 death when producers decided to capture the story of his legend.
It was a low budget movie. In 2014, Complex named it the 19th best basketball movie of all time. Hal Erickson of AllMovie said that "The film is for the most part an exercise in joie de vivre" and he lauded the film for making the most of a small budget. Using words like "uplifting" and "heartwarming", CD Universe says the film depicts the devotion of a father to his son and of a boy to the game of basketball. Ted Baehr's Movieguide depicts Maravich as a misfit at school, while his father attempts to give him dreams at home. Movieguide describes the film as subtle with emphasis on the value of sharing of special moments in life; the Pistol: The Birth of a Legend on IMDb The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend Inspirational Edition DVD at Pistol Pete Videos The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend at Rotten Tomatoes The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend at AllMovie The Pistol: The Birth of a Legend at the TCM Movie Database