Cornwall is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, Cornwall has a population of 551,700 and covers an area of 3,563 km2. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and this area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, there is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter and few Roman remains have been found. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline, china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century, the area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate.
Extensive stretches of Cornwalls coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. Some people question the present constitutional status of Cornwall, and a nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly. On 24 April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people will be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The modern English name Cornwall derives from the concatenation of two ancient demonyms from different linguistic traditions, Corn- records the native Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word kernou is cognate with the English word horn. -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, the Ravenna Cosmography first mentions a city named Purocoronavis in the locality.
This is thought to be a rendering of Duro-cornov-ium, meaning fort of the Cornovii. The exact location of Durocornovium is disputed, with Tintagel and Carn Brea suggested as possible sites, in times, Cornwall was known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales to distinguish it from North Wales. The name appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 891 as On Corn walum, in the Domesday Book it was referred to as Cornualia and in c.1198 as Cornwal. Other names for the county include a latinisation of the name as Cornubia, the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods and it continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. The Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues
Brut y Brenhinedd
Brut y Brenhinedd Chronicle of the Kings is a collection of variant Middle Welsh versions of Geoffrey of Monmouths Latin Historia Regum Britanniae. About 60 versions survive, with the earliest dating to the mid-13th century, Geoffreys Historia Regum Britanniae purports to narrate the history of the Kings of Britain from its eponymous founder Brutus of Troy to Cadwaladr, the last in the line. Geoffrey professed to have based his history on a very ancient book written in britannicus sermo which he had received from Walter of Oxford. The influence is most clearly evidenced by the existence of several translations into Welsh from the 13th century onwards, the manuscript history of these texts is a rich and long one attesting to the production of several translations and new redactions, most of which were copied many times over. One notable area in which Welsh translators have corrected or adapted Geoffrey based on native traditions is that of personal names, Geoffreys Hely, for instance, was substituted for Beli Mawr, an ancestor figure who appears in Branwen ferch Llŷr and elsewhere in Middle Welsh literature.
There are about sixty attestations of the Welsh Brut in the manuscripts, the Brut in NLW, Llanstephan MS1, is a relatively close translation of Geoffreys Historia. The Brut in NLW, Peniarth MS44 and this text becomes increasingly more condensed towards the end, omitting Merlins prophecy in the process on stated grounds that it lacks credibility. Yet it has the quality of being the first Brut to incorporate the tale Lludd. Brut Dingestow, now in MS Aberystwyth, NLW5266, once appears to have been in MS6 of the Dingestow court collection, the text is a relatively faithful translation, aided by its occasional reliance on Llanstephan MS1. A revised version, presumably from south Wales, was produced which follows the Dingestow version up to the end of Merlins prophecy, copied in numerous MSS, this conflated version is most famously represented by the text in the Llyfr Coch Hergest or Red Book of Hergest. In most every manuscript, it is preceded by the Ystorya Dared, i. e. a Welsh translation of the De Excidio Troiae ascribed to Dares Phrygius, and followed by the Brut y Tywysogion.
In this way, the text is made the piece in a world history extending from the Trojan War up to events close to the redactors own time. It seems that the Ystorya Dared, which has no independent existence in the manuscripts, was composed to serve as its prologue. The Brut in NLW Peniarth MS23 and elsewhere, a fresh, the Brut in BL Cotton Cleopatra B. v, NLW MS7006 and elsewhere, appears to have circulated in north-east Wales. It represents a freer and more piquant version than was previously attempted and draws on some material, notably Waces Roman de Brut. In the manuscripts, it is sandwiched between the Ystorya Dared and the Brenhinoedd y Saeson, a version of the Brut y Tywysogyon which incorporates material from English chronicles, included is a condensed version of the Lludd and Llefelys tale. This Brut is the used for the Welsh historical compilation attributed to the late 15th-century poet Gutun Owain. Oxford, Jesus College MS28, transcript from Jesus College MS61 made by Hugh Jones in 1695, the editors did not place much faith in the attribution to Tysilio, using that title merely to distinguish it from another Welsh Brut entitled Brut Gruffudd ap Arthur
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
Hexton is a small village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, about 6 miles west of Hitchin. This parish is a salient of Hertfordshire jutting northwards into Bedfordshire, the southern half of the parish is part of the chalky downs of the Chiltern Hills, which are covered with short turf and plantations of fir trees. The hills end abruptly and close to their foot lies the village of Hexton and it stands among grass fields and orchards at the beginning of a low plain, sloping gradually to the north, becomes merged in the large plain of southern Bedfordshire. The southern boundary of the parish is the grassy Icknield Way, Hexton formerly belonged to the half-hundred of Hitchin, but when it came into the possession of the abbots of St. Albans it was probably added by them to their hundred of Cashio. Hexton was originally named Hehstanstuna, Hextenestona, much of the parish was owned by George Hodgson, owner of Hexton Hall, a large modernized house standing in an extensive park. There is no village street, but most of the houses are near cross roads.
Hexton stands in wooded and hilly country adjacent to the Bedfordshire border. The church, dedicated to St Faith, is mediaeval with heavy 19th-century restoration, the Manor House in its extensive park dates from at least the 15th century, although it was substantially altered in 1901. Far older is the Iron Age camp of Ravensburgh Castle, an ancient monument which straddles a hilltop a mile to the south-west. Limited excavations during the 1960s showed that it was built about 400 BC (See J. Dyer in D. W. Harding Hillforts, Later Prehistoric Earthworks 1976, p. 153ff. and refortified around 50 BC. Rectangular in shape, and enclosing 9 hectares, it is defended by a double rampart and ditch on the north and south sides. Of its two entrances, that at the north-west corner belongs to the build, whilst the south-eastern entrance was added around 50 BC. A gap halfway along the side is modern. It has been suggested that Ravensburgh might have been the headquarters of the Celtic chieftain, the excavations showed signs of burning on the eastern rampart.
Access to the site is strictly limited, finds of pottery and a bird-headed weaving comb are in the Stockwood Discovery Centre, Luton. Hexton Chalk Pit is a reserve managed by the Herts. Media related to Hexton at Wikimedia Commons
Devil's Dyke, Hertfordshire
Devils Dyke is the remains of a defensive ditch around an ancient settlement of the Catuvellauni tribe of Ancient Britain. It lies at the east side of the current village of Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire and it has possible associations with Julius Caesars second invasion of Britain. The area was excavated by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1932, according to a plaque at one entrance to the dyke, the land was presented by Lord Brocket in 1937 on the occasion of the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. The site is said to be where Julius Caesar defeated Cassivellaunus in 54 BC, although the historical evidence neither supports nor disproves this, the sign at the entrance to the Dyke states this, which has led to the claim often being repeated as an established fact. It is believed to have been occupied by invading Belgae and nearby archaeological finds of Belgic and pre-Belgic pottery, in excavations during the 1970s, today two sections of the ditch remain. The western section, adjacent to the village, is named Devils Dyke and it is around 30 m wide and 12 m deep at its largest.
A smaller ditch to the east is known as The Slad, a moat continues the line of the ditch to the south of The Slad. The fortifications were erected by King Cunobelinus to define areas of land around their tribal centre at Verlamion – the predecessor of the Roman city of Verulamium. The site is marked as a Belgic Oppidum on Ordnance Survey maps
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. In the case of tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states. The most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in parliamentary cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief and this term has largely fallen out of use and such personages are now often called kings. Historically, tribal societies represent a stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World, excepting Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania, europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances they have retained or regained partial self-government.
Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism. In Botswana, the chiefs of the various tribes are constitutionally empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi. In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes. The band is the unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. As well, there may be hereditary or charismatic chiefs. There were 614 bands in Canada in 2012, there is a national organization, the Assembly of First Nations, which elects a national chief to act as spokesperson of all First Nations bands in Canada. The offices and traditional realms of the chiefs of Ghana are constitutionally protected by the constitution of the country. The chiefs serve as custodian of all lands and the culture of the traditional area. The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities, apo Rodolfo Aguilar serves as the chieftain of the Tagbanwa tribes people living in Banuang Daan and Cabugao settlements in Coron Island, Philippines.
His position is recognized by the Filipino government, the pre-colonial states that existed in what is today Uganda were summarily abolished following independence from Great Britain. However, following constitutional reforms in 1993, a number of them were restored as politically neutral constituencies of the state by the government of Yoweri Museveni, generally, a tribe or nation is considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico, simply Bellum Gallicum, is Julius Caesars firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. The Gaul that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, encompassing the rest of modern France and some of Switzerland. On other occasions, he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celtic peoples known to the Romans as Gauls, the work has been a mainstay in Latin instruction because of its simple, direct prose. It begins with the quoted phrase Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesars death. The boni intended to prosecute Caesar for abuse of his authority upon his return, such prosecution would not only see Caesar stripped of his wealth and citizenship, but negate all of the laws he enacted during his term as Consul and his dispositions as pro-consul of Gaul.
To defend himself against these threats, Caesar knew he needed the support of the plebeians, particularly the Tribunes of the Plebs, by winning the support of the people, Caesar sought to make himself unassailable from the boni. The work is a paradigm of proper reporting and stylistic clarity and it is often lauded for its polished, clear Latin. It contains many details and employs many stylistic devices to promote Caesars political interests, the books are valuable for the many geographical and historical claims that can be retrieved from the work. Notable chapters describe Gaulish custom, their religion, and a comparison between Gauls and Germanic peoples, since Caesar is one of the characters in the Astérix and Obélix albums, René Goscinny included gags for French schoolchildren who had the Commentarii as a textbook. One example is having Caesar talk about himself in the person as in the book. Some English editions state that Astérixs village of indomitable Gauls is the part of Gaul. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, during World War I the French composer Vincent dIndy wrote his Third Symphony, which bears the title De Bello Gallico.
DIndy was adapting Caesars title to the situation of the current struggle in France against the German army, in which he had a son and nephew fighting, and which the music illustrates to some extent. At Gutenberg Project, Caesars Commentaries, English translation by W. A. MACDEVITT, introduction by THOMAS DE QUINCEY De Bello Gallico, Latin text edition. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar, translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO, TheLatinLibrary. com,2008. Dickinson College Commentaries Selections in Latin with notes, Commentaries on the Gallic War public domain audiobook at LibriVox Wikisource, Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, Books 1–8
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Brutus of Troy
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. Notwithstanding this, he is not mentioned in any classical text, the Historia Britonum states that The island of Britain derives its name from Brutus, a Roman consul who conquered Spain. Following Roman sources such as Livy and Virgil, the Historia tells how Aeneas settled in Italy after the Trojan War, Ascanius married, and his wife became pregnant. In a variant version, the father is Silvius, who is identified as either the son of Aeneas, previously mentioned in the Historia. A magician, asked to predict the future, said it would be a boy. Enraged, Ascanius had the magician put to death, the boy, named Brutus, accidentally killed his father with an arrow and was banished from Italy. His reign is synchronised to the time the High Priest Eli was judge in Israel, a variant version of the Historia Britonum makes Brutus the son of Ascaniuss son Silvius, and traces his genealogy back to Ham, son of Noah.
These Christianising traditions conflict with the classical Trojan genealogies, relating the Trojan royal family to Greek gods, yet another Brutus, son of Hisicion, son of Alanus the first European, traced back across many generations to Japheth, is referred to in the Historia Britonum. This Brutuss brothers were Francus and Romanus, ancestors of significant European nations, Geoffrey of Monmouths account tells much the same story, but in greater detail. In this version, Brutus is explicitly the grandson, rather than son, of Ascanius, the magician who predicts great things for the unborn Brutus foretells he will kill both his parents. He does so, in the manner described in the Historia Britonum. Travelling to Greece, he discovers a group of Trojans enslaved there and he becomes their leader, and after a series of battles they defeat the Greek king Pandrasus by attacking his camp at night after capturing the guards. He takes him hostage and forces him to let his people go and he is given Pandrasuss daughter Ignoge in marriage, and ships and provisions for the voyage, and sets sail.
The Trojans land on an island and discover an abandoned temple to Diana. In Gaul, Corineus provokes a war with Goffarius Pictus, king of Aquitaine, Brutuss nephew Turonus dies in the fighting, and the city of Tours is founded where he is buried. The Trojans win most of their battles but are conscious that the Gauls have the advantage of numbers, so go back to their ships and sail for Britain and they land on Totonesium litus—the sea-coast of Totnes. They meet the giant descendants of Albion and defeat them, Brutus renames the island after himself and becomes its first king. Corineus becomes ruler of Cornwall, which is named after him and they are harassed by the giants during a festival, but kill all of them but their leader, the largest giant Goemagot, who is saved for a wrestling match against Corineus
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their Gaulish language forms the branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps, Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC, after this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD. The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, the name Gaul itself may be derived from Latin Galli, or it may be derived from the Germanic word Walha. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC, the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people.
The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC, the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls especially in the Mediterranean area, Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. Following the climate deterioration in the late Nordic Bronze Age, Celtic Gaul was invaded in the 5th century BC by tribes called Gauls originating in the Rhine valley. Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, in the Aegean world, an invasion of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. However, according to the Roman legend of the gold of Delphi. One king Cerethrius invaded the Thracians, while another Gallic king Bolgios invaded Macedonia and Illyria where he killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, in 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother.
They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the number of women and children. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war,4,000 Galatians were hired as mercenaries by the Ptolemaic Egyptian king Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 270 BC. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Celts plotted “to seize Egypt, ”, Galatians participated at the victorious in 217 BC Battle of Raphia under Ptolemy IV Philopator, and continued to serve as mercenaries for the Ptolemaic Dynasty until its demise in 30 BC. They sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor, after the defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor