SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Casta

A casta is a term, interpreted by certain historians during the 20th century to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of Spaniards and Africans. Basic mixed-race categories that appeared in official colonial documentation include Mestizo offspring of a Spaniard and an India. There were a plethora of terms for mixed-race persons of indigenous and African ancestry, some of which appear in official documentation, but many do not. Racial category labels had legal and social consequences, since racial status was a key organizing principle of Spanish colonial rule. Called the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas, there was, in fact, no fixed system of classification for individuals, as careful archival research has shown. There was considerable fluidity in society, with individuals being identified by different categories or over time. Individuals self-identified by particular terms to shift their status from one category to another to their advantage. For example, Mestizos were exempt from tribute obligations, but were subject to the Inquisition, unlike Indios, who paid tribute and were exempt from the Inquisition.

A Mestizo might try to "pass". An Indio might try to pass as a Mestizo to escape tribute obligations. A number of historians have explicitly questioned the actual existence of this phenomenon, considering it a fabrication of Historians starting from the 1940s. Pilar Gonzalbo, in her study La trampa de las castas discards the idea of the existence of a caste society in New Spain, understood as a "social organization based on the race and supported by coercive power". A recent study by Ben Vinson III based on Mexican archives shows how racial diversity operated in Mexico and how it affect both Mexico and imperial Spain. Joanne Rappaport, in her book on colonial New Granada, rejects the caste system as an interpretative framework for that time, discussing both the legitimacy of a model valid for the entire colonial world and the usual association between "caste" and "race"; the process of mixing ancestries in the union of people of different races is known in the modern era as mestizaje. In Spanish colonial law, mixed-race castas were classified as part of the república de españoles and not the república de indios, which set Amerindians outside the Hispanic sphere.

Other terminology for classification is categorization based on the degree of acculturation to Hispanic culture, which distinguished between gente de razón and gente sin razón, concurrently existed and supported the idea of the racial classification system. Created by Hispanic elites, the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas, varied due to their birth, color and origin of ethnic types. Casta paintings in produced in 18th-century Mexico have influenced modern understandings of race in Spanish America, they purport to show a fixed "system" of racial hierarchy. These paintings should be evaluated as the production by elites in New Spain for an elite viewership in New Spain and Spain, with pejorative portrayals of mixed-race groupings outside of mixtures with Spaniards, they are useful for understanding elites and their attitudes toward non-elites, quite valuable as illustrations of aspects of material culture in the colonial era. Casta is an Iberian word, meaning "lineage", "breed" or "race".

It is derived from the older Latin word castus, "chaste", implying that the lineage has been kept pure. Casta gave rise to the English word caste during the Early Modern Period. There is no question that in the colonial period that ideas of racial difference existed and colonial documentation records categories of difference that had legal and social consequences. In the historical literature, how racial distinction and social status functioned over time in colonial Spanish America has been an evolving and contested discussion. Although the term sistema de castas or sociedad de castas are utilized in modern historical analyses to describe the social hierarchy based on race, with Spaniards at the apex, archival research shows that there is not a rigid "system" with fixed places for individuals. Rather, a more fluid social structure where individuals could move from one category to another, or maintain or be given different labels depending on the context. In the eighteenth century, "casta paintings," imply a fixed racial hierarchy, but this genre may well have been an attempt to bring order into a system, more fluid.

"For colonial elites, casta paintings might well have been an attempt to fix in place rigid divisions based on race as they were disappearing in social reality."In New Spain during the Mexican War of Independence race and racial distinctions were an important issue and the end of imperial had a strong appeal for non-whites. Mixed-race insurgent priest José María Morelos called for the abolition of the formal distinctions the imperial regime made between racial groups, advocating for "calling them one and all Americans." As leader of a large mixed-race insurgent force in southern Mexico, Morelos issued regulations in 1810 to prevent disturbances between Indians and castas, black against whites, whites against mulattos. "He who raises his voice should be punished." In 1821 race was an issue in the negotiations resulting in the Plan of Iguala. Royal

1964 Iowa State Cyclones football team

The 1964 Iowa State Cyclones football team represented Iowa State University in the Big Eight Conference during the 1964 NCAA University Division football season. In their seventh year under head coach Clay Stapleton, the Cyclones compiled a 1–8–1 record, finished in last place in the conference, were outscored by opponents by a combined total of 155 to 72, they played their home games at Clyde Williams Field in Iowa. The regular starting lineup on offense consisted of left end Ernie Kun, left tackle Norm Taylor, left guard Wayne Lueders, center John Berrington, right guard Sam Ramenofsky, right tackle John Van Sicklen, right end Denny Alitz, quarterback Tim Van Galder, halfbacks Tom Vaughn and Ernie Kennedy, fullback Mike Cox. Steve Balkovec was the punter placekicker. Mike Cox was the team captain; the team's statistical leaders included Tom Vaughn with 497 rushing yards and 25 points scored, Tim Van Galder with 354 passing yards, Tony Baker with 76 receiving yards. Three Iowa State players were selected as first-team all-conference players: fullback Mike Cox, right tackle John Van Sicklen, halfback Tom Vaughn

Aila Keto

Aila Inkeri Keto AO is founder and President of the Rainforest Conservation Society in Queensland, now known as the Australia Rainforest Conservation Society. In 2005, Keto was a recipient of the Queensland Greats Awards. Born in Tully, Australia, Dr Keto studied biochemistry and worked at the University of Queensland. Keto was awarded an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1994 and was nominated as Queenslander of the Year in 2000. In 2001 she was awarded the Centenary Medal, "for service as an expert on wet tropics and as a leading conservationist and academic". In 2005 Dr Keto was awarded the Volvo Environment Prize for her work which, led to the protection of more than 15,000 km² of Queensland's rainforest; this is only one of a series of awards that have been given to her for her environmental and conservation work which has resulted in three successful nominations for world heritage status: Wet Tropics, Fraser Island and the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia. Fourteenth Romeo Lahey Memorial Lecture by Aila Keto Keto, Aila Inkeri in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia