Constance, Queen of Sicily
Constance was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily. She was Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Constance was the posthumous daughter of Roger II by his third wife Beatrice of Rethel. Constance, unusually for a princess, was not betrothed until she was thirty, which gave rise to stories that she had become a nun and required papal dispensation to marry. Boccaccio related in his De mulieribus claris that a prediction that "her marriage would destroy Sicily" led to her confinement in a convent as a nun from childhood to remain celibate, by 15th century Santissimo Salvatore, Palermo managed to claim Constance as a former member. In the spring of 1168, in Messina, the opposition against Chancellor Stephen du Perche was growing more and more, a rumor spread that William was murdered and the chancellor planned to put his brother on the throne, who would marry Constance to legitimate his claim.
Stephen was forced to flee. Constance became heir presumptive to the Sicilian crown after the death of her younger nephew Henry of Capua in 1172, since her elder nephew King William II did not marry until 1177 and his marriage remained childless, but she was still confined in her convent, her betrothal to Henry was announced 29 Oct 1184 at the Augsburg episcopal palace. In 1185 Constance traveled to Milan to celebrate the wedding accompanied by a grand procession of princes and barons. Henry accompanied her to Salerno in August but had to return to Germany for the funeral of his mother. On August 28 Constance was greeted in the Province of Rieti by ambassadors from the Emperor. Henry and Constance were married on 27 January 1186 at Basilica of Sant ` Milan. In exchange for the marriage Frederick agreed to relinquish his claim to Southern Italy. Before leaving Sicily William II had three main nobles Tancred, Count of Lecce, Roger of Andria and vice chancellor Matthew of Ajello swear fealty to her as the probable successor to the throne at the curia of Troia.
Matthew opposed this marriage. Abulafia points out that William did not foresee the union of German and Sicilian crowns as a serious eventuality. Constance interceded the succession conflict of her maternal-granduncle Count Henry of Namur with her husband and father-in-law: Henry had designated his maternal-nephew Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut as his heir while childless, but he had a daughter Ermesinde in 1186 and thus sought to replace Baldwin with her. Under the instruction of Frederick I Baldwin succeeded Namur in 1189; the papacy an enemy of the emperors, did not want to see the kingdom of southern Italy in German hands, but Henry pressed Pope Celestine III to baptize and crown his son. Knowing that Sicily's Norman aristocracy would not welcome a Hohenstaufen king, William made the aristocracy, the important men of his court, promise to recognize Constance's succession if he died without direct heirs. After his unexpected death in 1189 his cousin, seized the throne. Tancred was illegitimate but he had the support of most of the great men of the kingdom such as Vice-Chancellor Matthew of Ajello.
On the other hand, Archbishop Walter of the Mill, most of the aristocracy, supported Constance. However, Matthew was able to induce Walter, along with other barons, to support Tancred. Joan of England, widow of William, believed Constance to be the rightful successor and vocally supported the Germans. While Constance's father-in-law Frederick Barbarossa was on a crusade Henry and Constance were forced to stay in Germany and could not maintain her claim to Sicily. Emperor Frederick died in 1190 and the following year Henry and Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress. Constance accompanied her husband at the head of a substantial imperial army to forcefully take the Sicilian throne from Tancred with the support of the loyal Pisa fleet; the northern towns of Sicily opened their gates to Henry, including the earliest Norman strongholds Capua and Aversa. Salerno, Roger II's mainland capital, sent word ahead that Henry was welcome and invited Constance to stay in her father's old palace to escape the summer heat, take treatment from doctors for her infirm health.
At Naples Henry met the first resistance of the whole campaign, were held up well into the southern summer from May to August, by which time much of the army had succumbed to malaria and disease. Henry himself fell ill. Although Henry VI recovered, as a result, the imperial army was forced to withdraw from Sicily altogether. Constance remained in Salerno with a small garrison as a sign. Once Henry had withdrawn with the bulk of the imperial army the towns that had fallen to the Empire declared their allegiance to Tancred, for the most part now fearing his retribution. Nicholas of Ajello, son of Matthew and former Archbishop of Salerno, helping defend Naples, wrote letters about the events to his friends in Salerno, thus the populace of Salerno saw an opportunity to win some favour with Tancred, so they besieged the defense
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
Andria is a city and comune in Apulia. It is an agricultural and service center, producing wine and almonds, it is the fourth-largest municipality in the Apulia region and the largest municipality of the Province of Barletta-Andria-Trani. It is known for the 13th-century Castel del Monte; the city is located in the area of the Murgia and lies at a distance of 10 km from Barletta and the Adriatic coast. Its municipality, the 16th per area in Italy, borders with Barletta, Canosa di Puglia, Minervino Murge, Ruvo di Puglia and Trani. Different theories exist about the origins of Andria. In 915 it is mentioned as a "casale" depending from Trani. In the 14th century, under the Angevins, Andria became seat of a Duchy. In 1350 it was besieged by German and Lombard mercenaries of the Hungarian army, in 1370 by the troops of Queen Joan I of Naples. In 1431 the ruler of Andria Francesco II Del Balzo found the mortal remains of Saint Richard of Andria, the current patron saint, instituted the Fair of Andria.
In 1487 the city was acquired by the Aragonese, the Duchy passing to the future King Frederick IV of Naples. It was sold by the Spanish to Fabrizio Carafa, for the sum of 100,000 ducats; the Carafas ruled the city until 1799. After the Bourbon restoration, Andria was a protagonist of the Risorgimento and, after the unification of Italy, the brigandage era. Andria was a favorite residence of Emperor Frederick II, who built the imposing 13th-century Castel del Monte about 15 km south of the city center. Other sights include: The 12th-century cathedral, which has a 7th-century crypt The Ducal Palace, a fortified residence renovated in the 16th century San Domenico. Church contains a bust of Duke Francesco II Del Balzo attributed to Francesco Laurana, a 16th-century wooden sculpture of the Madonna with Child. Sant'Agostino, church built in the 13th century by the Teutonic Knights, who dedicated it to one of their patrons, Saint Leonard; the church was handed over to the Benedictines, rebuilt by the Augustinians after the sieges of 1350.
The main points of interests are the Gothic-style gates, with precious reliefs and crests of the Del Balzo and Anjou families, as well as the Teutonic eagles. San Francesco and monastery with its cloister The Communal Palace Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Sanctuary basilica 2 kilometres from Andria, housing a venerated Byzantine icon from the 9th-10th centuries; the basilica is on three different levels. The lower, most ancient, comprises a hall with a nave and two aisles, with decoration showing stories from Genesis; the middle level has three arcades in polychrome marbles, is home to the Byzantine icon. The upper level, the 18th century basilica designed by Cosimo Fanzago, is preceded by another church, dedicated to the Holy Crucifix and decorated with frescoes depicting the Passion of Christ. San Nicola di Myra, 12th century church, with subsequent refurbishments The church of the Holy Cross, it has two aisles, separated by four pilasters. The crypt includes some natural grottoes; the church of Santa Maria di Porta Santa.
Andria is connected by the A14 National Motorway, the SP 231 provincial road connecting it to Bari and Foggia. Andria has a railway station in the Bari–Barletta railway, part of the Ferrovie del Nord Barese network managed by Ferrotramviaria; the nearest Trenitalia-FS station is that of 10 kilometres from Andria. On 12 July 2016, a head-on collision between two passenger trains occurred on the line south of Andria. At least 23 people were killed and dozens more injured; the nearest airport is that of Bari, 45 kilometres away. The most popular sport in town is football and the main team is Fidelis Andria, its home stadium is Stadio Degli Ulivi. Peter I of Trani Conrad IV of Germany Isabella II of Jerusalem, buried in the Cathedral crypt Isabella of England, buried in the Cathedral crypt Farinelli Richard of Andria Vincenzo Carafa Ettore Carafa Corrado Ursi Lino Banfi Antonio Matarrese Tuccio D'Andria Riccardo Scamarcio Isabella del Balzo Antonia of Baux Andria is twinned with: Alberobello, Italy Monte Sant'Angelo, since 2013 Official website Andria web portal Map of Andria on Google Maps
Aglianico is a black grape grown in the southern regions of Italy Basilicata and Campania. The vine was brought to the south of Italy by Greek settlers; the name may be a corruption of vitis hellenica, Latin for "Greek vine." Another etymology posits a corruption of Apulianicum, the Latin name for the whole of southern Italy in the time of ancient Rome. During this period, it was the principal grape of the famous Falernian wine, said to be white wine, the Roman equivalent of a first-growth wine today. Oenologist Denis Dubourdieu has said "Aglianico is the grape with the longest consumer history of all."Aglianico is nicknamed "the Southern Barolo" because the grape can have striking similarities in frame and taste refinement to the Nebbiolo grape of Piemonte, notably in Barolo. The vine is believed to have first been cultivated in Greece by the Phoceans from an ancestral vine that ampelographers have not yet identified. From Greece it was brought into Italy by settlers at Cumae, near modern-day Pozzuoli, from there spread to various points in the regions of Campania and Basilicata.
While still grown in Italy, the original Greek plantings seem to have disappeared. In ancient Rome, the grape was the principal component of the world's earliest first-growth wine, Falernian. Along with a white grape known as Greco, the grape was commented on by Pliny the Elder, the maker of some of the highest-ranked wines in Roman times. Traces of the vine have been found in Molise, on the island of Procida near Naples, although it is no longer cultivated in those places; the grape was called Ellenico until the 15th century, when it acquired its current name of Aglianico. Despite the similarities in naming, the Campanian wine grape Aglianicone is not a clonal mutation of Aglianico but DNA analysis does suggest a close genetic relationship between the two varieties. In Basilicata, Aglianico forms the basis for the region's only DOCG wine, Aglianico del Vulture, is concentrated in the northern area of the province of Potenza; the most sought-after productions of Aglianico del Vulture come from the vineyards located in and around the extinct volcano Mount Vulture.
In Campania, the area in and around the village of Taurasi produces Aglianico's only DOCG wine called Taurasi. More Aglianico can be found in the province of Benevento. In Campania, it is the principal grape of Aglianico del Taburno and Falerno del Massico; the grape has recently been planted in Australia and California, as it thrives in predominantly sunny climates. In Australia it is being introduced in the Murray Darling region with some success. Producers in McLaren Vale, Margaret River and Riverland are experimenting with plantings. Vieni Estates in the 20 Valleys area of Ontario, Canada has been growing Aglianico vines since 2001 and producing Aglianico Wine since 2010, it shows some promise in the area near Willcox, Arizona. The Aglianico vine grows best in dry climates with generous amounts of sunshine, it has good resistance to outbreaks of oidium, but can be susceptible to Peronospora. It has low resistance to botrytis, but since it is much too tannic to make a worthwhile dessert wine, the presence of this noble rot in the vineyard is more of a viticultural hazard than an advantage.
The grape has a tendency to ripen late, with harvests as late as November in some parts of southern Italy. If the grape is picked too early, or with excessive yields, the grape can be aggressively tannic; the vine seems to thrive in volcanic soils. Wines produced from Aglianico tend to be full-bodied with firm tannins and high acidity, endowing them with good aging potential; the rich flavors of the wine make it appropriate for pairing with rich meats such as lamb. In Campania, the grape is sometimes blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the production of some Indicazione Geografica Tipica wines. In its youth, Aglianico is tannic and concentrated, requiring a few years of ageing before it can be approachable; as it ages, the fruit becomes more pronounced and the tannins more balanced with the rest of the wine. The trademark coloring of the wine is a deep garnet. In well made examples of the wine, it can have plum aromas. Aglianico is known under the synonyms Aglianica, Aglianichello, Aglianico Amaro, Aglianico del Vulture, Aglianico di Castellaneta, Aglianco di Puglia, Aglianico di Taurasi, Aglianico Femminile, Aglianico Mascolino, Aglianico nero, Aglianico Tringarulo, Aglianico Zerpoluso, Aglianico Zerpuloso, Aglianicuccia, Agliatica, Agnanico, Agnanico di Castellaneta, Cerasole, Ellenico, Fiano rosso, Gagliano, Ghianna, Glianica, Gnanico, Olivella di S. Cosmo, Prie blanc, Spriema, Uva Catellaneta, Uva dei Cani, Uva di Castellaneta, Uva near.
Aglianico del Vulture Aglianicone Taurasi DOCG
Big Fence was a secret navigational aid for US Army Air Force sorties from North Africa and Italy during World War II located at the Castel del Monte in Apulia. It was operated by the 6649th Navigational Aids Squadron of the 341st Signal Company, XV Fighter Command, 15th Army Air Force; the 6649th supported missions critically reliant on fixing the position of aircraft. Answering call sign "Big Fence", the central plotting room inside the castle triangulated information from seven direction finding installations, including the Castel headquarters. From September 1943 until cessation of hostilities, the squadron received an estimated 16,000 calls for assistance from lost and air-sea rescue craft. Being a VHF system, Big Fence was valuable to fighters, which only had VHF radios; the bombardment groups could rely on other navigational aids that were at their disposal, but only VHF remained effective in bad weather. Many hundreds of airmen owe their lives to “Big Fence”; the success of many missions was directly attributable to the efficient operation of your station.
Please accept my personal thanks for your superior work with the 15th. Please convey our hope that if the fortunes of war again bring us together, we may have the privilege of calling "Big Fence" in our hour of need
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy
The harvesting of wine grapes is one of the most crucial steps in the process of wine-making. The time of harvest is determined by the ripeness of the grape as measured by sugar and tannin levels with winemakers basing their decision to pick based on the style of wine they wish to produce; the weather can shape the timetable of harvesting with the threat of heat, rain and frost which can damage the grapes and bring about various vine diseases. In addition to determining the time of the harvest and vineyard owners must determine whether to use hand pickers or mechanical harvesters; the harvest season falls between August & October in the Northern Hemisphere and February & April in the Southern Hemisphere. With various climate conditions, grape varieties, wine styles the harvesting of grapes could happen in every month of the calendar year somewhere in the world. In the New World it is referred to as the crush; the majority of the world's wine producing regions lie between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in both hemispheres with regions lying closer to the equator harvesting earlier due to their warmer climates.
In the Northern Hemisphere, vineyards in Cyprus begin harvesting as early as July. In California some sparkling wine grapes are harvested in late July to early August at a unripe point to help maintain acidity in the wine; the majority of Northern Hemisphere harvesting occurs in late August to early October with some late harvest wine grapes being harvested throughout the autumn. In Germany, the United States and Canada, ice wine grapes can be harvested as late as January. In the Southern Hemisphere harvest can begin as early as January 1 in some of the warmer climate sites in New South Wales, Australia; the majority of Southern Hemisphere harvesting occurs between the months of February and April with some cool climate sites like Central Otago, New Zealand picking late harvest wine grapes in June. Recent climate changes have shifted the harvest season in some countries. Throughout the history of wine, winemakers would use the sugar and acid levels of the grape as a guide in determining ripeness.
Early winemakers tasted the grapes to gauge ripeness. Modern winemakers use a refractometer to measure high sugar levels and °Brix or titration tests to determine the titratable acidity within the grape. In recent times there has been more of an emphasis on the "physiological" ripeness of the grape in the form of tannins and other phenolics. Tasting is the only way to measure tannin ripeness, which can take experience and skill to do accurately. Viticulturalists have not yet explained the complex processes that go into the ripening of tannins but most believe it begins with the polymerization of small astringent tannins into larger molecules which are perceived by the taste buds as being softer; the question of using mechanical harvesting versus traditional hand picking is a source of contention in the wine industry. Mechanical harvesting of grapes has been one of the major changes in many vineyards in the last third of a century. First introduced commercially in the 1960s, it has been adopted in different wine regions for various economic and winemaking reasons.
In Australia, the reduced work force in the wine industry has made the use of mechanized labor a necessity. A mechanical grape harvester works by beating the vine with rubber sticks to get the vine to drop its fruit onto a conveyor belt that brings the fruit to a holding bin; as technology improves mechanical harvesters have become more sophisticated in distinguishing grape clusters from mud and other particles. Despite the improvement many harvesters still have difficulties in distinguishing between ripe, healthy grapes and unripe or rotted bunches which must be sorted out at the winemaking facility. Another disadvantage is the potential of damaging the grape skins which can cause maceration and coloring of the juice, undesirable in the production of white and sparkling wine; the broken skins bring the risk of oxidation and a loss of some of the aromatic qualities in the wine. One of the benefits of mechanical harvesting is the low cost. A harvester is able to run 24 hours a day and pick 80–200 tons of grapes, compared to the 1–2 tons that an experienced human picker could harvest.
In hot climates, where picking or in the cool of night is a priority, mechanical harvesting can accomplish these goals well. Despite the costs, some wineries prefer the use of human workers to hand-pick grapes; the main advantage is the knowledge and discernment of the worker to pick only healthy bunches and the gentler handling of the grapes. The production of some dessert wine like Sauternes and Trockenbeerenauslese require that individual berries are picked from the botrytized bunches which can only be done by hand. In areas of steep terrain, like in the Mosel, it would be impossible to run a mechanical harvester through the vineyard. In many wine regions, migrant workers are a sizable composition of the harvest time work force as well as local student and itinerant workers. Karen Ross, president of the California Association of Winegrowers, has estimated that as of 2007 as many as 70% of the employees in the California wine industry may be immigrants from Mexico