SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Castellan

A castellan is the title used in Medieval Europe for an appointed official, a governor of a castle and its surrounding territory referred to as the castellany. The title of governor is retained in the English prison system, as a remnant of the medieval idea of the castellan as head of the local prison; the word stems from the Latin Castellanus, derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes known as a constable of the castle district, the Constable of the Tower of London is, in fact, a form of castellan, with representative powers in the local or national assembly. A castellan was always male, but could be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice of Bourbourg inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg upon the death of her brother, Roger. Of Agnes at Harlech Castle upon the death of her husband John de Bonvillars in 1287. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, foreign tribes migrated into western Europe, causing strife; the answer to recurrent invasion was to create fortified areas. Some military leaders gained control of each with a castle.

The problem lay in exerting control and authority in each area when a leader could only be in one place at a time. To overcome this, they appointed castellans as their trusted vassals to manage a castle in exchange for obligations to the landlord a noble. In the ninth century, as fortifications improved and kings had difficulty making their subordinates pay their taxes or send the military aid they demanded, castellans grew in power, holding their fiefdoms without much concern for their overlord's demands; this changed as kings grew in power and as the Holy Roman Emperors replaced recalcitrant vassals with rival ministerial appointments. The duties of a castellan consisted of military responsibility for the castle's garrison, maintaining defences and protecting the castle's lands, combined with the legal administration of local lands and workers including the castle's domestic staff; the responsibility applied where there was no resident castellan at the castle, or if he was absent. A castellan could exercise the power of the "ban" – that is, to hear court cases and collect fines, taxes from residents, muster local men for the defence of the area or the realm.

There are similarities with a Lord of the Manor. Castellans had the power to administer all local justice, including sentencing and punishments up to and including the death penalty, as when, in 1111, the Salzburg castellan caught the minister fomenting armed rebellion and had the offender blinded, "as one would a serf"; the castellan came to serve as the representative of the people of his castellany. So happened in the case of the castellan of Bruges, when the burghers stood up for more privileges and liberties from the counts of Flanders. A particular responsibility in western Europe concerned jurisdiction over the resident Jewish communities bordering the English Channel; the Constable of the Tower of London and those castellans subordinate to the dukes of Normandy were responsible for their administration. Vivian Lipman posits four reasons for this: the castles provided defence, they were centres of administration, their dungeons were used as prisons and castellans could turn to the Jewish community to borrow money as usury was forbidden to Catholics.

A castellany, or castellania, is a term denoting a district administered by a castellan. Castellanies appeared during the Middle Ages and in most current states are now replaced by a more modern type of county subdivision; the word is derived from castle and means the extent of land and jurisdiction attached to a given castle. There are equivalent cognate, terms in other languages. Examples of French châtelainies include the castellanies of Ivry-la-Bataille, Pacy-sur-Eure and Gaillon, all in Normandy, which under in the treaty of Issoudun of 1195, after a war with king Richard I of England, were acquired for the French crown by Philip Augustus. Examples of castellanies in Poland include: Łęczyca and Sieradz, Rozprza, Wolbórz now in the Lodz Voivodeship, Wojnicz now in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Otmuchów in Silesia. In France, castellans who governed castellanies without a resident count, acquired considerable powers such that the position became hereditary. By the tenth century, the fragmentation of power had become so widespread that in Mâcon, for instance, where the castellany was the basic unit of governance, there was no effective administrative level above it, so that the counts of Mâcon were ignored by their subordinate castellans from about 980 to 1030.

In the 12th century châtelains had become "lords" in their own right and were able to expand their territories to include weaker castellanies. Thus the castellan of Beaujeu was able to take over lands in Lyons, or the castellan of Uxelles annexed first Briançon Sennecey-le-Grand and l'Épervière. In other areas, castellans did not manage to rise to noble status and remained the local officer of a noble. During the Ancien Régime, castellans were heads of local royal administration, their power was further delegated to their lieutenants. All remaining lordships and local royal administrators were suppressed during the French Revolution. During the 19th and 20th centuries, châtelain was used to describe the owner of a castle or manor house, in many cases a figure of authority in his parish, akin to the English squire. In Germany the castellan was known as a Burgmann, or sometimes Hauptmann, who reported to the lord of the castle, or Burgherr often known as the burgrave; the burgmann may have been either a free noble or a ministerialis, but either way, he administered the castle as a vassal.

A ministeriali

Monster Hunter Tri

Monster Hunter Tri is the third console installment in the Monster Hunter franchise, developed by Capcom and released for the Wii in Japan on August 1, 2009. Monster Hunter Tri was released on April 20, 2010, in North America, April 23 in Europe, April 29 in Australia; the game was planned to be a PlayStation 3 title, but Cancelled due to high development costs for that console Capcom instead decided to develop it for the Wii. Prior to its debut, a demo of Monster Hunter Tri was included with Japanese copies of Monster Hunter G. A special bundle was released on August 1 featuring the game packaged with a black Wii console and a Classic Controller Pro. On August 3, 2009, Capcom issued a press release confirming the game would be localized for North American and European markets. On February 24, 2010, Capcom announced. Although now, online play is no longer supported. In America and Europe, separate servers are used and Wii Speak is supported, making the first game in the franchise to include native VoIP capability.

It was a commercial success. An enhanced port called Monster Hunter 3 G in Japan and Monster Hunter 3 Ultimate in other territories was released for the Nintendo 3DS in Japan in December 2011 and in North America and Europe in March 2013; the online servers for the Wii version of the game have been shut down as of May 1, 2013. Players of Monster Hunter Tri take on the role of a monster slayer from the Guild, assigned to help revitalize Moga Village, a small fishing community, under threat of monsters from a nearby deserted island; the player does this by completing free hunts on the island, where they collect materials and slay or capture monsters which are converted into resources that can be used to improve the village, by completing time-limited quests for the Guild slaying or capturing a monster in a specific region, for in-game money and material resources that can be used to improve their equipment that allows them to take on more difficult monsters. Improving the village gives the player access to a farming area and a fishing fleet, from which raw resources can be harvested, companions that can help while on the field, access to a trader that can provide rare items to the player.

The player's character does not have any innate statistics but instead gains these from the equipment they outfit the character in. In particular, the player selects from one of ten weapon classes divided into melee weapons like swords and hammers, ranged weapons like bows and bowguns; each weapon type has a unique style of play. The player can equip different sets of armor, which impart attack and defensive bonuses; some weapons and armor include slots that gem decorations can be slotted into which boosts the item's statistics. Various armor pieces give special skill boosts, if the player can equip a set that boosts a skill past set thresholds, they can gain additional passive bonuses such as full resistance to fire or poison attacks; the player can swap weapons and armor outside of adventuring. To progress in the game, the player is required to collect parts of the larger monsters that they are assigned to kill, using those to forge or upgrade weapons and armor. By being able to take on higher-ranked Guild quests with improved equipment, the player will gain access to a larger array of monster parts and world resources that lead to better equipment they can craft.

In the field, the player has a health and stamina meter, as well as an item pouch with limited space where resources like healing potions and materials picked up in the field are stored. Certain materials can be combined to make more potent items, such as stronger healing potions. However, once the item pouch is full, the player must choose to discard or swap out items with new ones; as the player hunts, they will take damage from monsters. The stamina meter drops after performing most intensive actions like running, dodging, or attacking, but restores when the player otherwise is walking around; when the player's stamina is depleted, the character will be forced to stop for a brief period to catch their breath before they can move, leaving them vulnerable to attack. In addition, the maximum stamina that the player has will drop over time while in the field, though certain items can restore the maximum stamina level. While on free hunts, the player can leave the field and return to the village at any time, keeping any items they have collected.

Players with both the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U versions are able to transfer their character data back and forth between these units, allowing them to continue to build their character while on either system. Monster Hunter on the Wii and Wii U offer an online component where up to 4 players can venture on new quests together, represented by the character traveling to a nearby city harbor port; the game uses the same character data as the single-player offering, letting players continue to build up better equipment from quest rewards within either mode. Quests in this mode featured more difficult monsters than the single player game due to the added players available

Airborne Express

Airborne Express was an express delivery company and cargo airline. Headquartered in Seattle, its hub was in Wilmington, Ohio. Airborne was founded as the Airborne Flower Traffic Association of California in 1946 to fly flowers from Hawaii to the US Mainland. Airborne Express Inc. was acquired by DHL in 2003. Prior to the acquisition, it rose to be the third largest private express delivery company in the United States, behind Federal Express and United Parcel Service. Growth during Airborne's first 22 years was slow. Progress came and competition was stiff, but in 1968, the airline known as Airbourne Freight Company, started going through some changes. The company Air Cargo Equipment Corporation developed and patented a special narrow container, known in the industry as the "C" container, which allowed the more efficient use of space within large jet aircraft; the containers eliminated the need to modify the cargo doors, thus saving any air-freight company that used them substantial sums of money.

It does appear that around this time, early on, that Airborne began using the more efficient containers. Known at that time as Airborne of California, the company merged with Pacific Air Freight of Seattle; the newly formed airline moved its headquarters north to Seattle and changed its name to Airborne Freight Corporation. This was the name they kept until 1980. 1980: The airline changed its name to Airborne Express Inc. after buying Midwest Air Charter. Airborne Express made history by buying the Clinton County Air Force Base in Wilmington, became the first airline in history to own and operate an airport. A number of NAMC YS-11 twin-engined turboprop freight conversions were purchased. From that point on, Ohio became the company's main freight-sorting hub. 1988: Airborne started offering same day delivery after buying Sky Courier as well as forming contracts with other private logistical contractors, in every city where they operated an office. The vehicles, the drivers employed by these contracted companies, were all outfitted with the colors and uniforms of the recognizable Airborne colors: gray and black.

Around this time, Airborne Express offered a less expensive second-day package service, modeled after Federal Express' second-day, or "P2" parcel service. 1991: Airborne received awards from three major companies, including Volvo, in 1992, the airline introduced Flight-Ready SM, a prepaid express letters and Express Pack system. 1993: Airborne introduced the Airborne Logistics System, which provided Airborne with warehousing and distribution services. 1994: Airborne opened the Ocean Services Division, along with ALS, helped establish the first new film distribution program for Technicolor labs since 1944. In addition, relations were established with Vietnam. 1995: Airborne opened a second runway at Wilmington, Boeing 767 jets were added to the fleet. The Airborne Alliance Group took care of many departments for the company. 1996: Airborne's stock tripled, which would lead into a two for one stock split in February 1998. Formed that year was Airborne Brokerage Services. 1998: Airborne entered the Fortune 500 list for the first time.

Airborne's first of 30 total Boeing 767s arrived at Wilmington, the airline won an award by The Business Consumer Guide. 1999: Airborne@Home, an alliance with the United States Postal Service, was formed. 2000: Carl Donaway became the company's new president, which led to many managerial changes. That year, Airborne started a ground service for the first time in its history. 2001: Airborne Express launched Ground Delivery Service and 10:30 AM Delivery Service. Airborne.com launched some services of its own, including the Small Business Center and Airborne eCourier. August 14, 2003: Airborne shareholders approved the acquisition of Airborne Inc. by DHL of Brussels, Belgium. DHL is 100% owned by Deutsche Post World Net; the acquisition became effective the next day. DHL retained ownership of Airborne's ground operations and spun off its air operations as ABX Air, Inc. November 10, 2008: Global delivery company DHL announced that it is cutting 9,500 jobs as it discontinues air and ground operations within the United States.

DHL said its DHL Express will continue to operate between other nations. But the company said it was dropping "domestic-only" air and ground services within the United States by Jan. 30 "to minimize future uncertainties". DHL's 9,500 job cuts are on top of 5,400 job reductions announced earlier this year. After these job losses, between 3,000 and 4,000 employees will remain at DHL's U. S. operations, the company said. The company said it was shutting down all ground hubs and reducing its number of stations to 103 from 412. Airborne Express has experienced seven accidents, with six of them being hull losses, two resulting in fatalities. On June 11, 1979, a de Havilland Dove operated by Midwest Air Charter on behalf on Airborne Express made a belly landing at St. Louis Lambert International Airport. Both crew members survived. On June 19, 1980, a Sud Aviation Caravelle VI-R made a hard landing at Atlanta Municipal Airport, causing its left main landing gear to collapse; the aircraft was caught in wake turbulence from a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

The four occupants on board survived. The aircraft was written off. On February 5, 1985, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15 crashed after takeoff from Philadelphia International Airport. Both pilots on board survived, but the aircraft was damaged and written off. On August 20, 1987, Ai