Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Cape Bridgewater is a locality in the Australian state of Victoria located on the western shore of Bridgewater Bay about 21 kilometres south-west of Portland and about 383 kilometres west of Melbourne. The area was settled in the 1860s by the Henty family who had settled nearby Portland, a post office opened in 1863 though known as Bridgewater Lower for some years. Both Cape Bridgewater and Bridgewater Bay were named after the Duke of Bridgewater, by Lieutenant James Grant sailing on the Lady Nelson on 4 December 1800. Cape Bridgewater includes the following protected areas within its boundaries - the Discovery Bay Coastal Park and the Mount Richmond National Park. Cape Bridgewater is home to a colony of up to 650 fur seals and has the highest coastal cliff in Victoria; these cliffs are suitable spot to observe southern right whales in spring. The cape itself boasts a large blowhole and karst solution pipes, colloquially known as the petrified forest, but now known to be hollow tubes of limestone, eroded as a result of millions of years of rainfall.
Bridgewater Bay and the adjacent Cape form a submerged volcanic caldera. To the west is a large area with huge sand dunes. For these reasons the Cape and the nearby coastal area is classed by the government as the second most important coastline in Victoria, after the'Twelve Apostles', along the Great Ocean Road Construction of wind turbines by the company Pacific Hydro has begun on the cape after some controversy; this is part of the Portland Wind Project Great South West Walk Media related to Cape Bridgewater at Wikimedia Commons Cape Bridgewater
Scouts Australia The Scout Association of Australia, is the largest Scouting organisation in Australia and is a registered member organisation of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. It operates personal development programs for children and young adults from 6 to 25 years of age in Australia and Australian territories. Scouts Australia was formed in 1958 and was incorporated in 1967. Scouts Australia's programs were opened to girls after 1971. Despite opening participation to girls and younger children and Australia having a high population growth rate well above the world average, participation in the organisation's programs declined in the late 20th century and early 21st century. According to a 2014 media article: "Scouts Australia is hoping arrest a steady decline in membership. In 1979 the organisation had 114,500 youth members, today there are 52,000."To bring Scouting in Australia into the 21st century, a review of the nationwide youth program commenced in 2013. In 2019, a progressive, new program - along with new branding - was launched at the Australian Jamboree in order to appeal to a larger audience.
The implementation of the program will take place over the next few years and the process will vary between each branch. Core elements of the new program include "youth leading, adults supporting", an overhaul of the Award Scheme, "plan, do, review", a return to the focus on outdoor adventure; the Purpose of Scouts Australia is to "contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, emotional and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local and international communities". For the history of Boy Scouts and the Scout Movement in Australia see Scouting and Guiding in Australia. Branches of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom were formed in each of the Australian states; each Australian state branch was directly responsible to Imperial Headquarters of The Boy Scouts Association in London. In 1922, The Boy Scouts Association formed its Australian Federal Council, consisting of nominees of its Australian state branches, to achieve co-operation and coordination at a national level.
The Boy Scouts Association appointed an Australian Commissioner. The Australian Federal Council functioned as a branch of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom and the Australian Commissioner was appointed by the Imperial Headquarters in London; the Australian Federal Council of The Boy Scouts Association became a member of the World Scout Organisation of Scout Movements in 1953, rather than being represented through The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom. In 1958, The Australian Boy Scouts Association was formed and it succeeded the Australian Federal Council of The Boy Scouts Association. In 1967, The Australian Boy Scouts Association was incorporated by royal charter as a branch of The Scout Association of the United Kingdom; each of the Australian state branches and the Papua New Guinea branch of The Scout Association became branches of The Australian Boy Scouts Association. In 1971, the association changed its name to The Scout Association of Australia; until 1976, it admitted only British subjects to membership and programs and other nationalities only on special conditions and approval.
After 1976, British subjects continued to be automatically admitted to membership while foreign subjects, including residents were still subject to special conditions and approval. In 1997, the organisation adopted the trading name Scouts Australia; the National Youth Council was founded in 2001 to engage youth members in national operations and provide opportunities for youth leadership at a national level. It is composed of 25 Scouts and Rovers from across the country; the Council meets face to face twice a year and meets using online collaborative tools throughout the rest of the year. To bring Scouting in Australia into the 21st century, a review of the nationwide youth program commenced in 2013. In 2019, a progressive, new program - along with new branding - was launched at the Australian Jamboree in Adelaide in order to appeal to a larger audience; the implementation of the program will take place over the next few years and the process will vary between each branch. Core elements of the new program include "youth leading, adults supporting", an overhaul of the Award Scheme, "plan, do, review", a return to the focus on outdoor adventure.
Youth development in Scouts Australia is divided into several age group stages. The age groups encourage movement through the sections; the sections are: Joey Scouts: helping to develop a child's sense of personal identity Cub Scouts: aims to develop a sense of adventure and achievement and a chance to grow their character Scouts: promotes leadership and teamwork, as well as an appreciation of the outdoors Venturer Scouts: develops leadership and management skills, as well as an understanding of camping and the environment Rover Scouts: continues to develop leadership skills, as well as placing a strong emphasis on service to the community and other parts of the organisation The core uniform is a navy blue shirt with the relevant youth section colour across the sleeves and collar, a scarf and woggle. The Leaders' shirt is only dark blue; the section colours are: Tan for Joeys Yellow for Cubs Green for Scouts Maroon for Venturers Red for RoversIn January 2019, new branding for Scouts Australia was launched at the AJ2019 25th Australian Jamboree.
The nature-inspired rebrand incorporates the tan for Joeys, yellow for Cub Scouts, green for Scouts, maroon for Venturers and red for Rovers. The Lone Scout Group is for the youth unable to attend or find a local
Division of Wannon
The Division of Wannon is an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. It is located in the south-west of the state, encompasses most of the Western District of the state, it adjoins the South Australian border in the west, the Bass Strait coast in the south. The division encompasses the towns of Warrnambool, Ararat and Halls Gap; the Grampians and the Port Campbell National Parks are in the division. Maryborough and Avoca became part of Wannon at the 2013 federal election due to a redistribution that took place on 24 December 2010; the division was proclaimed in 1900, was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first Federal election. The division was named after the Wannon River. For the first half-century after Federation, it traded hands between the Australian Labor Party and the conservative parties. However, a 1955 redistribution removed most of the seat's Labor-friendly territory, it has been a safe Liberal seat for most of its history since then; the seat's most notable member was former Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser, to date the last prime minister from a country seat.
His successor, David Hawker, was Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives during the last term of the Howard Government. Hawker was succeeded by member Dan Tehan. Division of Wannon - Australian Electoral Commission
Alan Richardson (footballer, born 1940)
Alan Richardson known as Bull Richardson, was an Australian rules football player who played in the VFL between 1959 and 1969 for the Richmond Football Club and from mid-1969 until 1970 for the South Melbourne Football Club. Recruited from Casterton Football Club in 1959, he was a strong and intelligent player, with exceptional ball sense and judgement, who worked hard and followed instructions, he played his first match for Richmond's senior side when just 18. For some time he only played intermittently with the seniors — playing in Richmond's 1962 Night Football premiership team — and, in 1963 and 1964, he was the captain of the Reserves side, winning the Reserves' best and fairest in both years, he did not become a permanent senior player until 1965. He played in the 1967 premiership team. Having been drilled in the importance of handball as a promoter of play-on football by the legendary coach and football analyst Len Smith, "Bull" found his calling as a ruck-rover under new coach Tom Hafey, who had replaced Jack Titus at Richmond in 1966.
Although strong and persistent, "Bull" was an inconsistent and unreliable kick, was far from speedy. It seemed a strategic masterstroke when Hafey encouraged "Bull" to play ruck-rover, to rove to the rucks' hitouts, rather than contesting the ball-ups and throw-ins with them, to hand-pass the ball, rather than kick it he had it. Anyone who saw "Bull" develop over 1966, saw him flourish in 1967 — being Richmond's unchallenged best on the ground in the Grand Final, when he played his heart out with a superb display of ruck-roving and handball, until he was replaced early in the last quarter due to severe cramps after having more than 20 "possessions" — and seeing him lurking behind the pack, collecting the hitout, making one of his unique looping hand-passes could not fail to identify "Bull" as the glue that held the whole of Hafey's team together. In 1967 he played in Richmond's first premiership team since 1944 when Richmond beat Geelong 16.18 to 15.15. Halfway through the 1969 season he was released to South Melbourne, he continued to play with them until the end of 1970.
He was the captain-coach of the East Devonport Football Club and the Irymple Football Club. He served several terms as President of the East Devonport Football Club, he died in 2015, aged 74. His football record is impressive: 1956-1958: Casterton Football Club, 54 games 1959-1964 and 1967-1969: Richmond Football Club Reserves, 92 games, captain 1963, 1964, best and fairest 1963, 1964. 1959-1969: Richmond Football Club Seniors, 103 games, member 1962 Night Football premiership team, 1967 VFL premiership team 1969-1970: South Melbourne Football Club Reserves, 11 games 1969-1970: South Melbourne Football Club Seniors, 11 games 1971-1973: East Devonport Football Club, captain-coach, 54 games 1974: Irymple Football Club, captain-coach, 19 games Richardson's brother, played 36 reserve matches and one senior game for Richmond. He played 37 games for Prahran, he played 70 games for Oakleigh Football Club, two seasons with Carnegie Football Club, half a season with Cranbourne Football Club. He coached Clayton Juniors Football Club for 10 years.
"Bull" had one child Tracey-Ann from this marriage. In 1972,he married his second wife Dianne, had three children, Matthew and Andrew. Matthew played for Richmond until his retirement and was selected on the half forward flank of Richmond's "Team Of The Century". Alan has four grandchildren - Molly and Andie, Zoey. Hogan P: The Tigers Of Old, Richmond FC, Melbourne 1996 Alan Richardson's playing statistics from AFL Tables
Portland is a small city in Victoria, is the oldest European settlement in the state. It is the main urban centre in the Shire of Glenelg and is located on Portland Bay; the bay was named in 1800 by the British navigator James Grant, who sailed in the Lady Nelson along the Victorian coast. "I distinguished the Bay by the name of Portland Bay, in honour of His Grace the Duke of Portland", wrote Grant. The bay, the only deep sea port between Adelaide and Melbourne, offers a sheltered anchorage against the wild weather of Bass Strait. By the early 19th century and sealers were working the treacherous waters of Bass Strait, Portland Bay provided good shelter and fresh water, which enabled them to establish the first white settlement in the area. Whaling captain William Dutton is known to have been resident in the Portland Bay area when the Henty clan arrived, is said to have provided seed potatoes for the Henty garden. In 1834, Edward Henty and his family, who had migrated from England to Western Australia in 1829, moved to Van Diemen's Land, ferried some of their stock across the Strait in search of the fine grazing land of the Western District.
After a voyage of 34 days, the Thistle arrived at Portland Bay on 19 November 1834. Edward Henty was only 24 years old, early in December, cultivated the land using a plough he had made himself, he was the first white man to turn a sod in Victoria. The next voyage of the Thistle brought his brother Francis with additional stock and supplies, in a short time houses were erected and fences put up. In his diary entry for 3 December 1834, Henty wrote Arrived at 6p.m. Made the boat fast in the middle of the river, started three days' walk in the bush accompanied by H Camfield, Wm Dutton, five men, one black woman and 14 dogs, each man with a gun and sufficient quantity of damper to last for the voyage. In the 5 December entry Henty wrote, he ran on seeing us. He was busily employed pulling the gums from the wattle trees. By contrast, the capital of Victoria, was founded the following year in 1835 by John Batman. There in Portland the Hentys were "discovered" by the explorer Thomas Mitchell in 1836; the squatter settlement was illegal since, at that time, the British Colonial Office policy was to contain colonial settlements in Australia within geographic limits.
It had been still considering. The Hentys farmed in areas known as "Australia Felix", around Casterton. By 1838, land auctions had been authorised from Sydney and Charles Tyers surveyed the Portland township in 1839. "It was government policy to encourage squatters to take possession of whatever land they chose". A Post Office was opened on 4 December 1841, the third to open in the Port Phillip District after Melbourne and Geelong. Around 1842 a Presbyterian church and school were founded by the Rev. Alexander Laurie, who ran the Portland Herald, his widow Janet Laurie and two sons founded The Border Watch in nearby Mount Gambier. From settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, this gained some administrative status prior to separation from New South Wales and declaration as the Colony of Victoria in 1851; the Gunditjmara are the traditional owners of the south west, taking in. They were present when the early commercial sealers like William Dutton arrived and when the Henty family created what would become Victoria's first permanent European settlement.
It has been argued whether Dutton was first, but he was considered to be somewhat itinerant by the establishment of the era and not the discoverer of this deepwater bay and fertile hinterland. Henty sowed the first Victorian wheat crop on cliff top land, known today as'The Ploughed Field'. One notable incident called the Convincing Ground massacre occurred in Portland Bay in 1833 or 1834 in a dispute about a Beached whale between whalers and the Kilcarer gundidj clan of the Gunditjmara people. Gunditjmara still reside around the district. Physical remains such as the weirs and fish traps are to be found in Lake Condah, to the south of Hamilton; the Gunditjmara were a settled group. The ancestors of the Gunditjmara people lived in villages of weather-proof houses with stone walls a metre high, around eel traps and aquaculture ponds at Lake Condah – on just one hectare of Allambie Farm, archaeologists have discovered the remains of 160 house sites. On 30 March 2007, the Gunditjmara People were recognized by the Federal Court to be the native title-holders of 140,000 hectares of Crown land and waters in the Portland region.
On 27 July 2011, together with the Eastern Maar People, the Gunditjmara People were recognized to be the native title-holders of 4,000 hectares of Crown land in the Yambuk region, including Lady Julia Percy Island, known to them as Deen Maar. Portland was proclaimed a city on Monday 28 October 1985, in the presence of Their Royal Highnesses, The Prince and Princess of Wales. Today, Portland is a town of 11,872 residents. Portland is in the Victorian Legislative Assembly electoral district of South West Coast, the Western Victoria Region of the Victorian Legislative Council and the federal Division of Wannon, its postcode is 3305. Through the 19th century Portland developed to become an important fishing port providing for the town and with the connection of the railway, to the region as far afield as Ballarat and Melbourne. Barracouta, Australian salmon and crayfish were the main catches with many fishermen wo