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Castle Clinton

Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton known as Castle Garden, is a circular sandstone fort now located in Battery Park, in Manhattan, New York City. Built from 1808 to 1811, it was the first U. S. immigration station, where more than 8 million people arrived in the United States from 1855 to 1890. Over its active life, it has functioned as a beer garden, exhibition hall and public aquarium. Castle Clinton National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Castle Clinton stands west of where Fort Amsterdam was built in 1626, when New York City was known by the Dutch name New Amsterdam. Fort Amsterdam was demolished by 1790 after the American Revolutionary War. Proposals for a new fort were made after two separate war scares involving Britain and France in the 1790s, but neither plan was carried out. By 1805, there were growing tensions between Britain and the U. S. which would mark the run-up to the War of 1812. Late that year, Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Williams of the United States Army Engineers began planning a series of fortifications in New York Harbor.

Williams was part of a group of three commissioners who, in 1807, submitted a report that recommended the construction of fortifications in New York Harbor. Castle Clinton known as West Battery and sometimes as Southwest Battery, was built on a small artificial island just off shore. Construction began in 1808 and the fort was completed in 1811, though modifications continued through the 1820s. Designed by John McComb Jr. and Jonathan Williams, West Battery was circular shaped with a radius of 92 feet, contained a red brick facade, had 28 "thirty-two pounder" cannons. About one-eighth of the circle was left "unfinished", with a straight wall constructed between the "unfinished" segments. West Battery was intended to complement the three-tiered Castle Williams, the East Battery, on Governors Island. Though garrisoned in 1812, the fort never saw action in any war. By 1815, West Battery was renamed Castle Clinton, its current official name, in honor of New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton; the castle itself was converted to administrative headquarters for the Army.

At the end of the war, there was a public movement to build a park in the Battery area. A 1816 proposal to construct two small office buildings at Castle Clinton was canceled due to public opposition, the castle lay dormant for three years. In 1820, it was only being used as a paymaster's quarters and storage area; the United States Army stopped using the fort in 1821, it was ceded to the city by an act of Congress in March 1822. By the bridge leading to Castle Clinton was used by fishermen who were catching fish from the bridge; the fort was leased to New York City as a place of public entertainment in June 1824. It opened as Castle Garden on July 3, 1824, a name by which it was popularly known for most of its existence, it served in turn as a promenade, beer garden/restaurant, exhibition hall, opera house, theater. Designed as an open-air structure, it was roofed over to accommodate these uses. In 1850, the castle was the site of two concerts given for charity by Swedish soprano Jenny Lind to initiate her American tour.

A year European dancing star Lola Montez performed her notorious "tarantula dance" in Castle Garden. In 1853–54, Louis-Antoine Jullien, the eccentric French conductor and composer of light music, gave dozens of successful concerts mixing classical and light music; the Max Maretzek Italian Opera Company notably staged the New York premieres of Gaetano Donizetti's Marino Faliero on June 17, 1851, Giuseppe Verdi's Luisa Miller on July 20, 1854, at Castle Garden. Landfill was used to expand Battery Park during the 1860s, at which point the island containing the fort was incorporated into the rest of Manhattan Island. In the first half of the 19th century, most immigrants arriving in New York City landed at docks on the east side of the tip of Manhattan, around South Street. On August 1, 1855, Castle Clinton became the Emigrant Landing Depot, functioning as the New York State immigrant processing center, it was operated by the state until April 18, 1890, when the U. S. government assumed control of immigration processing, soon moving the center to the larger, more isolated Ellis Island facility on January 2, 1892.

After many unnecessary deaths, scandals over immigration workers cheating and stealing from immigrants, the immigration center was moved to Ellis Island. Most of Castle Clinton's immigrant passenger records were destroyed in a fire that consumed the first structures on Ellis Island on June 15, 1897, but it is accepted that over 8 million immigrants were processed during its operation. Called Kesselgarten by Yiddish-speaking Eastern European Jews, a Kesselgarten became a generic term for any situation, noisy, confusing or chaotic, or where a "babel" of languages was spoken. Prominent persons associated with the administration of the immigrant station included Gulian Crommelin Verplanck, Friedrich Kapp, John Alexander Kennedy. From 1896 to 1941, Castle Garden was the site of the New York City Aquarium. For many years, it was the city's most popular attraction, drawing hundreds of thousands of visitors each year; the structure was extensively altered and roofed over to a height of several stories, though the original masonry fort remained.

In 1941, Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Commissioner Robert Moses wanted to tear the structure down claiming that this was necessary t

Faliscan language

The Faliscan language is the extinct Italic language of the ancient Falisci who lived in Southern Etruria. Together with Latin, it formed the Latino-Faliscan languages group of the Italic languages, it seems probable that the language persisted, being permeated with Latin, until at least 150 BC. An estimated 355 inscriptions survive short and dating from the 7th to the 2nd centuries BC; some are written from right to left in a variety of the Old Italic alphabet, derived from the Etruscan alphabet, but they show some traces of the influence of the Latin alphabet. An inscription to Ceres of c. 600 BC, found in Falerii taken to be the oldest example, is written left to right. A specimen of the language appears written round the edge of a picture on a patera, the genuineness of, established by the fact that the words were written before the glaze was put on: "foied vino pipafo, cra carefo", in Latin hodie vinum bibam, cras carebo'today I will drink wine; that sample indicates that Faliscan was less conservative in some respects than Latin, with the wearing down of final case endings and the obscuring of the etymology of foied "today", more obvious in Latin hodie.

There are remains found in graves, which belong to the period of Etruscan domination and give ample evidence of material prosperity and refinement. Earlier strata have yielded more primitive remains from the Italic epoch. Many inscriptions with proper names may be regarded as Etruscan rather than Faliscan; the town of Feronia, in Sardinia, was named after their native goddess by Faliscan settlers. A votive inscription from some of them is found at S. Maria di Falleri. Here are some of the phonetic characteristics of the Faliscan language: The retention of medial f, which Latin changed to b; the question of irregular, unexpected developments of the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirates in Faliscan, as opposed to the normal Latin rendering, is the appearance of both h and f as reflexes of *bh/*dh and *gh: filea'daughter' and hileo'son' = Latin filius < Proto-Indo-European *dheh₁-lyo- and fe'here' and hec = Latin hic < Proto-Indo-European *ghey-ke. In 1991, Rex E. Wallace and B. D. Joseph offered an explanation.

They suggested that while it is documented in Latin, it is the Faliscan material that provides a clearer picture of the supposed developments. They remark that the unexpected outcomes are absent from the archaic Faliscan inscriptions and that the regular outcomes outnumber the irregular ones in the Faliscan epigraphic corpus; the unexpected outcomes show up only in late Faliscan. The following are the only instances: h for expected f: hileo Middle Faliscan hirmia Middle Faliscan hirmio Late Faliscan holcosio Late Faliscan haba'a kind of bean' < *bhabo- f for expected h: foied'today' Middle Faliscan < *gho:d ded fe'here' Late Faliscan < *ghey-keWallace and Joseph suppose that the first change is a natural sound change that can be seen in many languages hijo'son' from Latin filium'son' ), which in Faliscan affected only a few possible candidate words. The second outcome cannot be explained as a sound change and so they argue it is a hypercorrect form caused by the other development. While the change from f to h was taking place and awareness of the correct forms was being lost, some speakers started restoring f when it was not etymologically appropriate.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Robert Seymour. "Falisci". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. P. 148. Adams, Douglas Q. and James P. Mallory. 1997. "Italic languages." In The encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, 314–19. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Bakkum, Gabriël C. L. M. 2009. The Latin Dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 Years of Scholarship. Part 1. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Baldi, Philip. 2002. The foundations of Latin. Berlin: de Gruyter. Clackson and Geoffrey Horrocks. 2007. The Blackwell history of the Latin language. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Coleman, Robert. 1986. "The central Italic languages in the period of Roman expansion." Transactions of the Philological Society 84, no. 1: 100–131. Mercado, Angelo. 2012. Italic Verse: A Study of the Poetic Remains of Old Latin and Sabellic. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck. Pulgram, Ernst.

1968. The tongues of Italy: Prehistory and history. New York: Greenwood. --. 1978. Italic, Italian, 600 B. C. to A. D. 1260: Texts and commentaries. Heidelberg, West Germany: Winter

Đorđe Topalović

Đorđe Topalović is a Serbian former professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. Topalović was a member of Zemun for seven seasons, he subsequently spent two years in Iran, with Esteghlal and Oghab Tehran. In the 2007 winter transfer window, Topalović joined OFK Beograd. In 2008, Topalović played for Kazakhstan Premier League side Vostok, before returning to OFK Beograd in 2009. Topalović represented FR Yugoslavia at under-21 level. Đorđe Topalović at Soccerway Đorđe Topalović at WorldFootball.net Đorđe Topalović at FootballDatabase.eu