The cougar, commonly known as the mountain lion, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, an adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the second-heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although there are daytime sightings. The cougar is more related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae. The cougar is a predator and pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, particularly deer, but livestock and it hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, the cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities.
Individual territory sizes depend on terrain and abundance of prey, while large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people, fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter their territories. Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, reports of eastern cougars still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011. With its vast range across the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. Currently, it is referred to as puma by most scientists, Mountain lion was a term first used in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A.
Jackson of Colorado. Other names include catamount, mountain screamer, and painter, lexicographers regard painter as a primarily upper-Southern US regional variant on panther. The word panther is used to specifically designate the black panther, a melanistic jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther. P. concolor holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, Cougar may be borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana, the term was originally derived from the Tupi language susuarana, meaning similar to deer. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana and it may be borrowed from the Guaraní language term guaçu ara or guazu ara. Less common Portuguese terms are onça-parda or leão-baio, or unusually non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, people in rural regions often refer to both the cougar and the jaguar as simply gata, and outside of the Amazon, both are colloquially referred to as simply onça by many people
Buckwheat is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. To distinguish it from a species, Fagopyrum tataricum, it is known as Japanese buckwheat. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass, buckwheat is related to sorrel and rhubarb. Because its seeds are eaten and rich in carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal. The cultivation of grain declined sharply in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples. The name buckwheat or beech wheat comes from its seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree. The word may be a translation of Middle Dutch boecweite, boec and weite, the wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan. The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini, common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in inland Southeast Asia, possibly around 6000 BCE, and from there spread to Central Asia and Tibet, and to the Middle East and Europe.
Domestication most likely place in the western Yunnan region of China. Buckwheat is documented in Europe in Finland by at least 5300 BCE as a first sign of agriculture, russian-speakers call buckwheat гречка meaning of Greece, due to its introduction in the seventh century by the Byzantine Greeks, the same is the case in Ukrainian. The oldest remains found in China so far date to circa 2600 BCE and it is the worlds highest-elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the plateau itself. Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America, dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was widely planted in China. In India, buckwheat flour is known as kuttu ka atta and is associated with Navratri festival. On the day of festival, food items made only from buckwheat are consumed. Buckwheat, a crop, does well on low-fertility or acidic soils. Too much fertilizer, especially nitrogen, reduces yields, in hot climates it can only be grown by sowing late in the season, so that it blooms in cooler weather.
The presence of pollinators greatly increases the yield, the nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark-colored honey
Darmera peltata is a flowering plant, the only species within the genus Darmera in the family Saxifragaceae. It is a spreading rhizomatous perennial native to mountain streamsides in woodland in the western United States. In late spring the flowers emerge before the leaves, with rounded cymes of numerous five-petalled white to pink flowers borne on flower stems up to 2m long. The leaves are peltate, deeply lobed, coarsely toothed, conspicuously veined and dark green, the leaves turn red in autumn. In gardens, Darmera peltata flourishes in pond margins and bog gardens and it is suited to smaller gardens where there is no room for Gunnera manicata or Gunnera tinctoria, unrelated plants that are somewhat similar in appearance, but much larger. D. peltata has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit
Castle Crags is a dramatic and well-known rock formation in Northern California. Elevations range from 2,000 feet along the Sacramento River near the base of the crags, located just west of Interstate 5, between the towns of Castella and Dunsmuir, Castle Crags is today a popular tourist stop along the highway. Although the Northern Coast Ranges of northwestern California consist largely of rocks of volcanic and sedimentary origin, heavy glaciation at this location during the Pleistocene eroded much of the softer surrounding rock leaving the towering crags and spires exposed, from which the Castle Crags pluton derives its name. Exfoliation of huge, convex slabs of granite yielded rounded forms such as the prominent Castle Dome feature of Castle Crags, situated along an ancient trade and travel route known as the Siskiyou Trail, Castle Crags has witnessed dramatic events. Exploitation of the land by lumber and mining operations encouraged concerned citizens in 1933 to acquire much of the land, however much of the crags themselves are part of the Castle Crags Wilderness Area within the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, managed by the U. S.
Forest Service. The forested area of Castle Crags State Park was used by native groups. The wilderness was the home to the Okwanuchu Shasta people. Many features of the Castle Crags Wilderness are considered sacred to Native Americans including all of the streams, the Sacramento River, thousands of miners invaded the Castle Crags Wilderness when false rumors of the fabled Lost Cabin Mine began to circulate in the region. This invasion led to the genocide and forcible displacement of indigenous people, the mineral spring is supported within a rock-built enclosure which was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps back in the 1930s. Today it still has a sulfuric smell and bubbles up from the ground, the natural mineral waters are widely reputed to have restorative, healing and therapeutic properties. The massacre of people from the Castle Crags Wilderness opened up the region for commercial and industrial exploitation of the lands resources. The Castle Rock Mineral Spring was one of the earliest land resources seized after a campaign that eliminated Native Americans from this region.
During the 1890s, the Castle Rock Mineral Springs Bottling Works was formed, http, //www. parks. ca. gov/pages/454/files/CastleCragsSP_WebBrochure2014. pdf Lapena, Frank R. Wintu, in Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8-California
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Siskiyou County, California
Siskiyou County /ˈsɪskjuː/ SISS-kew is a county in the northernmost part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,900, Siskiyou County is in the Shasta Cascade region along the Oregon border. Because of its outdoor recreation opportunities and Gold Rush era history, Siskiyou County was created on March 22,1852, from parts of Shasta and Klamath Counties, and named after the Siskiyou mountain range. Parts of the territory were given to Modoc County in 1855. The county is the site of the section of the Siskiyou Trail. The Siskiyou Trail followed Native American footpaths, and was extended by Hudsons Bay Company trappers in the 1830s and its length was increased by Forty-Niners during the California Gold Rush. After the discovery of an important gold strike near today’s Yreka, California in 1851 and this was described in detail by Joaquin Miller in his semi-autobiographical novel Life Amongst the Modocs. In the mid 1880s, the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad along the Siskiyou Trail brought the a first wave of tourism, Visitors were drawn by the county’s many summer resorts, and to hunt or fish in the largely untouched region.
The Southern Pacific railroad, the successor to the Central Pacific, the movement has seen a revival in recent years. The origin of the word Siskiyou is not known, others claim the Six Cailloux name was appropriated by Stephen Meek, another Hudsons Bay Company trapper who discovered Scott Valley, for a crossing on the Klamath River near Hornbrook. The County is home to the Black Bear Ranch, a commune started in 1968 with the slogan Free Land for free people, on September 4,2013, the Siskiyou County Board of Supervisors voted 4 to 1 to secede from the State of California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 6,347 square miles. It is the fifth-largest county by area in California, the county is dotted as well with lakes and reservoirs, such as Castle Lake and Lake Siskiyou. Mount Shasta itself has a sports center. Pastoral Scott Valley in the part of the county has many wide, tree-lined meadows. Butte Valley nurseries are the source of premium strawberry plants in North America.
The county’s water is viewed as pure and abundant that the county is a source of significant amounts of bottled water. A large Crystal Geyser plant is at the base of Mt. Shasta, substantial amounts of the county are forested within the Siskiyou and Cascade Ranges, including significant oak woodland and mixed conifer forests
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
American black bear
The American black bear is a medium-sized bear native to North America. It is the continents smallest and most widely distributed bear species, Black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location. They typically live in forested areas, but do leave forests in search of food. Sometimes they become attracted to human communities because of the availability of food. The American black bear is the worlds most common bear species, along with the brown bear, it is one of only two of the eight modern bear species not considered globally threatened with extinction by the IUCN. American black bears often mark trees using their teeth and claws as a form of communication with other bears, a behavior common to many species of bears. Despite living in North America, American black bears are not closely related to bears and polar bears. American and Asian black bears are considered sister taxa, and are closely related to each other than to other species of bear. Reportedly, the sun bear is a recent split from this lineage.
A small primitive bear called Ursus abstrusus is the oldest known North American fossil member of the genus Ursus and this suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. Although Wolverton and Lyman still consider U. vitabilis an apparent precursor to modern black bears, the ancestors of American black bears and Asiatic black bears diverged from sun bears 4.58 mya. The American black bear split from the Asian black bear 4.08 mya, the earliest American black bear fossils, which were located in Port Kennedy, greatly resemble the Asiatic species, though specimens grew to sizes comparable to grizzlies. From the Holocene to present, American black bears seem to have shrunk in size, the American black bear lived during the same period as short-faced bears and the Florida spectacled bear. These Tremarctine bears evolved from bears that had emigrated from Asia to North America 7–8 ma, both Arctodus and Tremarctos had survived several other ice ages.
American black bears are reproductively compatible with several other bear species, according to Jack Hannas Monkeys on the Interstate, a bear captured in Sanford, was thought to have been the offspring of an escaped female Asian black bear and a male American black bear. In 1859, a bear and a Eurasian brown bear were bred together in the London Zoological Gardens. In the reports published since this date three species have produced young, a black bear shot in autumn 1986 in Michigan was thought by some to be a black bear/grizzly bear hybrid, due to its unusually large size and its proportionately larger braincase and skull. DNA testing was unable to determine whether it was a black bear or grizzly
Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus Arctostaphylos. They are characterized by smooth, orange or red bark and stiff, manzanitas bloom in the winter to early spring and carry berries in spring and summer. The berries and flowers of most species are edible, the word manzanita is the Spanish diminutive of manzana. A literal translation would be little apple, native Americans in Northern California made a tisane from manzanita leaves to treat poison oak rash. The leaves contain chemicals with a mildly disinfectant quality, and can be used for urinary tract infections. The berries are a food, as they can be harvested en masse. Once stored and dried, the berries can be ground into a coarse meal, the berries can be eaten ripe or green for a slightly sour taste. They are good eaten alone, or used as a thickener or sweetener in other dishes, fresh berries and branch tips can be soaked in water to make a cider. Native Americans used Manzanita leaves as toothbrushes, manzanitas are extremely useful as ornamental plants in gardens in the western United States and similar climate zones.
They are evergreen, highly drought-tolerant, have picturesque bark and attractive flowers and berries, Arctostaphylos columbiana, for example, is hardy enough to be used for highway landscaping in western Oregon and Washington. Arctostaphylos Emerald Carpet, A. uva-ursi, and other low-growing manzanitas are extremely valuable evergreen groundcovers for dry slopes, dr. Hurd, can be grown as individual specimens, and pruned to emphasize the striking pattern and colors of the branches. They prefer light, well-drained soil, although the low-growing ground covers will tolerate heavier soils, Manzanita branches are popular as decoration, due to their unique shape and strength when dried. Florists sometimes use them as centerpieces at wedding receptions and other events, often adding hanging votive candles, beaded gems, the wood is notoriously hard to cure, mostly due to cracking against the grain, giving it few uses as lumber. The slow growth rate and many branchings further decrease the sizes available, some furniture and art employ whole round branches, which reduces cracking and preserves the deep red color.
The dead wood decays slowly and can last for years, on. Sunlight smooths and bleaches manzanita to light grey or white, rendering it superficially akin to animal bones, because of this and the stunted growth of many species, manzanita is often collected in its more unusual shapes, giving it the nickname mountain driftwood. Manzanita wood is used as perches for parrots and other large pet birds. The branches of the species are extremely long-lasting for this purpose
The coyote is a canid native to North America. It is smaller than its relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than its other close relatives, the eastern wolf. It fills much of the ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger. The species is versatile and able to adapt to environments modified by humans, as human activity has altered the landscape, the coyotes range has expanded. In 2013, coyotes were sighted in eastern Panama for the first time, the coyote is more closely related to the common ancestor of wolves and other canids than the gray wolf. As of 2005,19 coyote subspecies are recognized, the average male coyote weighs 8 to 20 kg and the average female 7 to 18 kg. Their fur color is light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white. It is highly flexible in organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. The coyotes characteristic vocalization is a made by solitary individuals. Humans aside and gray wolves are the only serious enemies.
Nevertheless, coyotes do sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, Most recent studies show that most wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. As with other figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might, after the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves, which have undergone an improvement of their public image, Coyote males average 8 to 20 kg in weight, while females average 7 to 18 kg, though size varies geographically. Northern subspecies, which average 18 kg, tend to larger than the southern subspecies of Mexico. Body length ranges on average from 1.0 to 1.35 m, the largest coyote on record was a male killed near Afton, Wyoming, on November 19,1937, which measured 1.5 m from nose to tail, and weighed 34 kg. Scent glands are located at the side of the base of the tail and are a bluish-black color.
The color and texture of the fur varies somewhat geographically
Cultivated examples are found as far north as Haida Gwaii. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree, reaching 10–25 m tall, the leaves are opposite, oval, 8–12 cm long, and 5–8 cm broad. The fruit is a compound pink-red berry about 3 cm diameter, containing 50-100 small seeds, it is edible, like the related Cornus florida, it is very susceptible to dogwood anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. This has killed many of the plants in the wild. Cornus nuttallii is named after Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist and zoologist who worked in North America in the nineteenth century, some Plateau Indian tribes used the bark as a laxative and emetic. It is the flower of British Columbia. It was once protected by law in the province, but this was repealed in 2002, Cornus is the ancient Latin word for the Cornelian cherry, Cornus mas. Nuttallii is named for Thomas Nuttall, a grower of American plants at Rainhill in Lancashire, though he lived in Long Preston, plants of British Columbia, Cornus nuttallii Jepson Flora Project, Cornus nuttallii Interactive Distribution Map of Cornus nuttallii