North Ward, Queensland
North Ward is a popular coastal suburb in Townsville, Australia. The suburb is one of the oldest in the city but has undergone significant development over many decades, it is popular with tourists and investors. It is home to some of the cities top attractions including "The Strand", The Waterpark, The Rockpool, the Tobruk Memorial Baths. North Ward is home to the beachside area known as The Strand; the land is flat at close to sea level except for Stanton Hill in the south of the locality which rises to 60 metres. Kissing Point is a headland at the most northerly part of North Ward. North Ward is among Townsville's oldest suburbs. North Ward has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 24 Cleveland Terrace: Selhurst 24 Eyre Street: Second Townsville General Hospital Fryer Street: St Josephs Church 11 Fryer Street: Yongala Lodge 38-40 Howitt Street: Kissing Point Fortification 4-6 Oxley Street: former North Ward Defence Complex Paxton Street: Queens Gardens Paxton Street: School House, Townsville Grammar School Stanton Hill: Townsville Astronomical Trigonometrical Station 45 The Strand: St Patrick's Convent 11 Victoria Street: Kardinia 4-6 Warburton Street: Townsville Central State School Parks: The Strand Foreshore and Park.
Queens Gardens Botanical Gardens, TownsvilleSport: Townsville Sports Reserve Tobruk Memorial BathsSchools: St Patrick's College, which opened on 1 January 1904. Townsville Central State School, which opened on 11 March 1869 and celebrated its centenary in 1969. Townsville Grammar School, which opened on 16 April 1888 and celebrated its centenary in 1988. St Joseph's The Strand Catholic Primary School University of Queensland: Queensland Places:North Ward
Ross River (Queensland)
The Ross River is a river located in northern Queensland, Australia. The 49-kilometre long river empties into the Coral Sea, it is the city's main source of drinking water. The river is named in 1864 after William Alfred Ross, first publican of the settlement who became a mayor of Townsville in 1868; the river rises in the Hervey Range below Pepper Pot Mountain and flows north through Lake Ross, across a flat coastal plain and east around Mount Stuart into Townsville city. The Ross River flows across the Townsville suburbs of Aitkenvale, Condon, Mundingburra and Rasmussen; the river is joined by three minor tributaries including Ross Creek, before reaching its mouth south east of Townsville. This area is being developed into a marina precinct. Flow rates in the river are controlled by the largest dam in the catchment. There are seven crossings over the river and three weirs exist along the river; the river has a catchment area of 1,340 square kilometres of which an area of 102 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands.
The Ross River Parkway is a series of parks, community facilities and pedestrian bridges which stretch from The Vickers Bridge, Douglas to Rooney's Bridge, Railway Estate which are interlinked by more than 30 kilometres of shared use pathways. The parkway is used for recreation by many people who exercise or play in the parkland or along the network of paths, but was designed to provide a safe network of paths to link the Townsville central business district to outlying suburbs; the parkway was developed over a series of years with funding from the Townsville City Council and Queensland Government and linked a series of existing parks and bridges together. Notable facilities in the Ross River Parkway include Riverway, Tony Ireland Stadium, Riverside Lodge, Rossiter Park, The Palmetum, Aplin's Weir Rotary Park, Bicentennial Park and Black, Gleeson's and Aplin's Weirs. Black Weir Black School Weir, is the most upstream weir of those on Ross River. Built in the early 1930s, Black Weir is a hollow buttress weir with an ogee shaped face on the downstream side, a sloped face on the upstream face and stone pitched abutments.
The weir's name is derived from the name of Black School which abutted Ross River near the location of weir when it was constructed. Following damage to the weir due to flooding, the weir underwent major renovations in 1934; these renovations included the addition of a second pump well, the addition of further buttresses and the underpinning of the original structure. It took until 1936 to fill the reservoir behind the weir, but only provided a few years water supply. During World War II the large influxes of population as a result of Townsville's heavy military presence necessitated the provision of more water. In 1940 a galvanized iron wall was erected atop Black Weir to provide additional storage capacity to supplement the town's water supply; this continued for many years in order to provide additional water which could be pumped from the weir. Gleeson's Weir crosses the Ross River between the Townsville suburbs of Douglas, it was the first built of three weirs in the Ross River. Built downstream of Gleeson's Farm, its namesake, the weir was completed in 1908 as part of the damming process to secure and stabilise water supply for local residents.
This weir could store 410 megalitres of water. However, water was not pumped from the reservoir above Gleeson's Weir until 1923 due to the necessity to release water to downstream aquifers. Aplin's Weir is the last weir before the mouth of the river. Aplin's Weir started out as small stop weir, built in 1927 to prevent incursion of salt water into the water supplies pumped from the upstream Top River wells, located at the end of Thompson Street, Mundingburra; the original stop weir consisted of a curtain of sheet steel, driven into the sand to the clay bed. This stop weir protruded 1.2 metres above the sand level, with a concrete overflow section and prevented water, released from the upstream Gleeson's Weir, which had percolated downstream, from doing so. In October 1943 the construction of a permanent concrete weir at this location began; this became known as Aplin's Weir. The weir consisted of a hollow buttress weir with sloped walls on both sides of the weir and concrete abutments. Repairs occurred several times during the 1950s after flood damage.
The downstream slope of Aplin's Weir has in recent years deteriorated and much of the concrete slope has collapsed exposing the buttresses. The weir received a significant upgrade in 2011. In the late 1990s a bridge connecting the suburbs of Mundingburra and Annandale was built, using the footings of Aplin's Weir for support. In February 2019 the bridge was swept away in floods waters; this was caused by too much water coming out of the Ross River Dam due to 1 in a 100 year rain. The area of water stored between Gleeson's Weir and Aplin's Weir is used for recreational activities with the Townsville & JCU Rowing Club, a dragon boat club and stand up paddle-boarders all using the river; this section of the river is used for local rowing regattas the 1000m racing course above the Barton bridge. Every year the Townsville Open Water Association holds the Liz Birch memorial King and Queen of the river swim; this is a 2.7 kilometres swim that starts at Aplins weir and proceeds to the barton bridge and back to Rossiter park pontoon.
The oldest person to undertake this
Ferdinand von Mueller
Baron Sir Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller, was a German-Australian physician and most notably, a botanist. He was appointed government botanist for the colony of Victoria by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, he founded the National Herbarium of Victoria. He named many Australian plants. Mueller was born in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. After the early death of his parents and Louisa, his grandparents gave him a good education in Tönning, Schleswig. Apprenticed to a chemist at the age of 15, he passed his pharmaceutical examinations and studied botany under Professor Ernst Ferdinand Nolte at Kiel University. In 1847, he received his degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Kiel for a thesis on the plants of the southern regions of Schleswig. Mueller's sister Bertha had been advised to seek a warmer climate for her health, the great botanist Ludwig Preiss, who had returned from Perth, recommended Australia, so in 1847, Mueller and his two surviving sisters sailed from Bremen.
While still on the ship, he fished his first plants out of the water to analyse them. He arrived at Adelaide on 18 December 1847 and found employment as a chemist with Moritz J. Heuzenroeder, in Rundle Street, he was an inveterate explorer, walking alone to Mount Brown during his first year. Shortly afterwards, he obtained 20 acres of land not far from Adelaide in the Bugle Ranges, had a cottage built there, he moved there with his sister Clara, intending to start a farm, but after a few months, he returned to his former employment. Mueller thought to open a chemist's shop in the gold diggings, so in 1851, he moved to Melbourne, capital of the new colony of Victoria, he had contributed a few papers on botanical subjects to German periodicals, in 1852, sent a paper to the Linnean Society of London on "The Flora of South Australia", thus beginning to be well known in botanical circles. Mueller was appointed government botanist for Victoria by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, a post, newly created for him.
He examined its flora the Alpine vegetation of Australia, unknown. He explored the Buffalo Ranges went to the upper reaches of the Goulburn River and across Gippsland to the coast; the neighbourhoods of Port Albert and Wilsons Promontory were explored, the journey of some 1,500 miles was completed along the coast to Melbourne. In the same year, he established the National Herbarium of Victoria, which can still be visited today, it has many plants from Australia and abroad. His large private library was transferred to the government of Victoria in 1865 and is incorporated into the library of the herbarium in Melbourne; as a phytographic naturalist, he joined the expedition sent out under Augustus Gregory by the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State for the colonies. He explored the Victoria River and other portions of North Australia, was one of the four who reached Termination Lake in 1856, accompanied Gregory's expedition overland to Moreton Bay. Mueller, for his part, found nearly 800 species in Australia new to science.
He published in this year his Definitions of Hitherto Undescribed Australian Plants. From 1854 to 1872, Mueller was a member of the Victorian Institute for the Advancement of Science, which became the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, he was president of the Philosophical Institute in 1859 when it received a royal charter and became the Royal Society of Victoria. He was an active member of the society's "Exploration Committee" which established the Burke and Wills expedition of 1860. Mueller promoted the exploration of Australia, as one of only two members of the Exploration Committee with any experience of exploration, he made several speeches to the society on the topic, he did not favour the selection of Burke as leader, but due to factionalism in the committee, he had little say in the establishment, provisioning, or composition of the exploration party. From 1857 to 1873, he was director of the Royal Botanic Gardens and not only introduced many plants into Victoria, but made the excellent qualities of the blue gum known all over the world, succeeded in introducing it into the south of Europe and South Africa and the extratropical portions of South America.
Mueller was decorated by many foreign countries, including Germany, Spain and Portugal. He was appointed a fellow of the Royal Society in 1861, knighted as Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1879. A list of his'Orders, offices and sundry honours' has been assembled. Many of his decorations were received in return for supplying zoological specimens to royal museums, he was the benefactor of the discoverer of Lake Amadeus and Kata Tjuta. Giles had wanted to name these Lake Mueller and Mt Ferdinand, but Mueller prevailed upon Giles to name them Lake Amadeus, after King Amadeus of Spain, Mt Olga, after Queen Olga of Württemberg. In 1871, King Karl of Württemberg gave him the hereditary title of Freiherr, to mark his distinction in'natural sciences and in particular for the natural history collections and institutions of Our Kingdom' He was known as Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller. By 1873, influential Melburnians were critical of Mueller's scientific and educational approach with the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Development of the gardens with an eye to aesthetics was sought. Mueller was dismissed from his position as director of the Botanic Gardens on 31 May 1873. He
West End, Queensland (Townsville)
West End is one of the older suburbs of Townsville, Australia. In the 2011 census, West End had a population of 4,242 people. West End is situated at the base of Castle Hill; the first community cemetery is located in West End. A reflection of attitudes existing during the time it was in use, research has established that it was ethnically segregated, it has been reported that there are separate areas where, at least and Aboriginal deceased were interred. During World War 2, the massive Green Street bunker was used by the RAAF, it is now the State Emergency Service building. Townsville West State School opened on 21 March 1887 and celebrated its centenary in 1987. Townsville West Special School opened on 29 September 1958 and closed on 21 December 1992. West End has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 5 Castling Street: Currajong Francis Street: West End Cemetery Green Street: former RAAF Operations Building Site 29 Ingham Road: Townsville West State School 34 Ingham Road: St Mary's Church & Convent 72-104 Ingham Road: Townsville Showground 89 Ingham Road: West End Hotel 95 Stagpole Street: Wolverton University of Queensland: Queensland Places: West End
Magnetic Island is an island 8 kilometres offshore from the city of Townsville, Australia. This 52 km2 mountainous island in Cleveland Bay has become a suburb of Townsville, with 2,107 permanent residents; the island is accessible from Townsville Breakwater to Nelly Bay Harbour by ferry. There is a large 27 km2 National Park and bird sanctuary and walking tracks can be taken between the populated bays and to a number of tourist destinations such as the World War II forts; the island has long become established as a holiday destination with many hotels and several resorts in operation to cater for all levels of service. The public facilities and infrastructure on the island are managed by the Townsville City Council; the island is part of the electoral district of Townsville in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The island is part of the Federal seat of Herbert, represented by Cathy O'Toole. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Magnetic Island was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".
The wreckage of SS City of Adelaide is located not far off the shore of the island and is a popular tourist attraction. The name of the island came about because of the apparent "magnetic" effect it had on the ship's compass of Captain Cook as he passed the island when sailing up the east coast of Australia in 1770. People have since explored the general area of Magnetic Island with various instruments to discover what might have caused the effect that Cook reported, but nothing has been discovered; the island's mysterious magnetic effect is the basis for the 2015 speculative fiction novel'A Tango with the Dragon.' The local name for the island is "Maggie Isle", "Maggie Island", or "The Island". The island is a haven for wildlife. 54% of the island is Magnetic Island National Park, located on the steep hilly interior and rugged north-western side. The highest point on the island is Mount Cook reaching 497 m above sea level. Magnetic Island is famous for its angling opportunities. Fish around the island include: blue marlin, black marlin, mackerel, giant trevally, coral trout, mahi-mahi, red emperor and sea perch.
As of 2013, there are over 800 koalas estimated to be present on the island. The areas of the island that are not covered by the conservation area are open for development subject to local authority approval; as of 2018 the island is undergoing an economic boom. Yunbenun, as Magnetic Island was known by the island's traditional inhabitants, had a transient population of Australian Aborigines well before European exploration of the area, they were known to have seasonal camps at a number of bays, travelled between the island and mainland using canoes. A number of Aboriginal burial sites are said to exist on the island, but have so far not been identified. Aboriginal middens and cave drawings can still be found in a number of bays around Magnetic Island. Folklore of the local Wulguru tribe recounts a long association with the island and annual migrations to the mainland to avoid expeditions of head-hunters from Papua New Guinea and the Torres Strait, which used the northern trade winds to travel south along the Queensland coast.
This head-hunting nearly ceased following the arrival of missionaries, led by Samuel MacFarlane to the Torres Straits in 1871. The first European accounts of the island come from Captain James Cook who, in 1770, while navigating the Australian coast, called the island Magnetical Island, as a magnetic pull interfering with his vessel's compass appeared to emanate from the island. J. M. Black, funded by Robert Towns, founded the township of Townsville on the mainland nearby; as Townsville developed though the mid-19th century, Magnetic Island became a valuable location for the gathering of hoop pine and granite, the latter of, used in the reclamation of land for the Port of Townsville, for construction of Townsville's Customs House. Picnic Bay was named after its popularity as a picnic spot for European tourists from the mainland during the 19th century, before Magnetic Island was first inhabited by Europeans. In the mid-19th century the island became a popular location for the collection of stone and coral needed for development on the mainland.
In 1875, the island was set aside as a quarantine station although it took another ten years for the proper facilities to be set up at West Point. In November 1884 the Queensland Government accepted a tender from Leisner and Sparre to construct the quarantine station for £3645, it was only after the tender was accepted that the site on West Point on the north-west was chosen. By 1890 a resort had been started in Picnic Bay. In 1898 Robert Hayles Sn. was so impressed by the potential of Magnetic Island he sold his other interests to build a resort on the island. Hayles was responsible for much of the development of Magnetic Island through tourism. In 1901 he started a regular ferry service to the island with his ship the Bee. Twelve months this ship was wrecked on the rocks at Nobby Head, Picnic Bay, the Phoenix was built by Hayles' sons to replace the vessel; the Hayles company remained operating services to Magnetic Island with a large number of different vessels until the 1970s. Magnetic Island became an important defensive position during World War II because of its proximity to Townsville, an important military base, its views over Cleveland Bay, a significant anchorage and assembly point for large fleets and convoys operating in the south Pacific.
As such, the Magnetic Battery, an artillery battery and observation post, was built in the hinterland of Florence and Arthur Bays. Picnic Bay became a popular defence force rest
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō and ferō, was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern'system' names to be employed, reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time; the Carboniferous is treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian. Terrestrial animal life was well established by the Carboniferous period. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebrates, of which one branch would evolve into amniotes, the first terrestrial vertebrates. Arthropods were very common, many were much larger than those of today. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would be laid down and become the coal beds characteristic of the Carboniferous stratigraphy evident today.
The atmospheric content of oxygen reached its highest levels in geological history during the period, 35% compared with 21% today, allowing terrestrial invertebrates to evolve to great size. The half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change. In the United States the Carboniferous is broken into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subperiods; the Mississippian is about twice as long as the Pennsylvanian, but due to the large thickness of coal-bearing deposits with Pennsylvanian ages in Europe and North America, the two subperiods were long thought to have been more or less equal in duration. In Europe the Lower Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Dinantian, comprising the Tournaisian and Visean Series, dated at 362.5-332.9 Ma, the Upper Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Silesian, comprising the Namurian and Stephanian Series, dated at 332.9-298.9 Ma.
The Silesian is contemporaneous with the late Mississippian Serpukhovian plus the Pennsylvanian. In Britain the Dinantian is traditionally known as the Carboniferous Limestone, the Namurian as the Millstone Grit, the Westphalian as the Coal Measures and Pennant Sandstone; the International Commission on Stratigraphy faunal stages from youngest to oldest, together with some of their regional subdivisions, are: A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous. There was a drop in south polar temperatures; these conditions had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush swamps to become coal, flourished to within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers. Mid-Carboniferous, a drop in sea level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites hard; this sea level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian subperiod from the Pennsylvanian subperiod. This happened about 323 million years ago, at the onset of the Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation.
The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain-building as the supercontinent Pangaea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America–Europe along the present line of eastern North America; this continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, the Alleghenian orogeny in North America. In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural Mountains. Most of the Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangea was now assembled, although North China, South China continents were still separated from Laurasia; the Late Carboniferous Pangaea was shaped like an "O." There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous—Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys, inside the "O" in the Carboniferous Pangaea. Other minor oceans were shrinking and closed - Rheic Ocean, the small, shallow Ural Ocean and Proto-Tethys Ocean. Average global temperatures in the Early Carboniferous Period were high: 20 °C.
However, cooling during the Middle Carboniferous reduced average global temperatures to about 12 °C. Lack of growth rings of fossilized trees suggest a lack of seasons of a tropical climate. Glaciations in Gondwana, triggered by Gondwana's southward movement, continued into the Permian and because of the lack of clear markers and breaks, the deposits of this glacial period are referred to as Permo-Carboniferous in age; the cooling and drying of the climate led to the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse during the late Carboniferous. Tropical rainforests fragmented and were devastated by climate change. Carboniferous rocks in Europe and eastern North America consist of a repeated sequence of limestone, sandstone and coal beds. In North America, the early Carboniferous is marine
The unadorned rock-wallaby is a member of a group of related rock-wallabies found in northeastern Queensland, Australia. It is paler than most of its relatives and plainer, hence its common name; the unadorned rock-wallaby is patchily distributed in coastal ranges from around Rockhampton to near Townsville. This range includes the small range of the Proserpine rock-wallaby, the only rock-wallaby in the region not related to its neighbours. Interbreeding threatens the latter species. John Gould's painting of Petrogale inornata