The Castle of Santa Maria da Feira is a Portuguese castle in the municipality of Santa Maria da Feira, district of Aveiro. Emblematic of Portuguese medieval military architecture, the Castle of Santa Maria da Feira is one of the monuments that best reflects the diversity of defenses used during the Middle Ages, having been instrumental in the process of Reconquista and autonomy of the County of Portugal, it has been listed as a National monument since 1910. Tradition has it that the Castle of Feira stands on the site of an indigenous temple dedicated to the local divinity Bandeve-Lugo Toiraeco, transformed into a Marian temple. Although tombstones and other vestiges encountered in the defensive area confirm the presence of Roman settlement dating back to the early empire, there is no confirmation of the link to other temples. In the vicinity of this site existed the Roman via Olissipo-Bracara Augusta connecting Lisbon and Braga, respectively. When, in the middle of the 9th century, Alfonso III of León created the administrative and military region, that he called Terra de Santa Maria, he laid its defences in the military fortress that existed there, in Civitas Sanctae Mariae.
For many years, the fortress functioned as a forward base in the Christian Reconquista from the Arab invasions from the south. Twice in 1000, the armies of Al-Mansur conquered the Castle and destroyed the local population, but they were retaken successively by Christian forces. During the reign of Bermudo III Arab continued to attempt to capture the Castle, but were defeated definitively in the Battle of Cesár; the governors, Mem Guterres and Mem Lucídio developed a giant project to reconstruct the Castle and develop the lands of the Terra de Santa Maria. The Leonese kings distinguished the population with the Honra de Infanções, an honour at the time only received by the judges and councilmen of Lisbon; the first reference to a built structure in this location occurred in the 11th century, in the Chronica Gothorum, identifying the construction of the inferior portion of the keep and fortress. Since 1117, Feira was the location of one of the most important fairs in Portugal, over time, gave the town its name.
The fair was established in the shadow of the castle. The castle was at the centre of the 1128 revolt between Afonso Henriques and his mother Queen Teresa, Countess of Portugal. Teresa had created tensions between the rulers of the Iberian peninsula through conflicts with her sister Urraca, rebuking Alfonso VII, resulting in his invasion of the County of Portugal. Teresa alienated the clergy and nobles, pandering to her alliance with Galicia, through her lover Fernando Pérez, favouring the ecclesiastical pretensions of the rival Galician Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Diego Gelmírez; the clergy and nobility allied themselves with Afonso Henriques pretensions to the stewardship of the County of Portugal over his mother. Pero Gonçalves de Marnel, from a family of landholders, governor of Santa Maria da Feira and alcade of the Castle at the time, was one of these nobles who felt threatened by the growing power of Galicia within the County: he had been substituted as the governor of Coimbra by Fernando Pérez himself, saw a threat to his wealth and possessions, therefore aligned himself and his Castle with the Afonso Henriques at the São Mamede.
The Galician-supported forces of the Queen were defeated on 13 June 1128 due to the activities that occurred at the Castle. By 1251, the settlement in Santa Maria da Feira was identified in the royal inventory (Portuguese: Inquirições of King Afonso I; the castle and lands of Feira were provided as a dowry in 1300 on the nuptials of Elizabeth of Aragon in the 13th century. During the 14th century, the walls were constructed at the time Gonçalo Garcia de Figueiredo was alcalde in 1357. On 10 September 1372, King Ferdinand donated the lands of Santa Maria to João Afonso Telo, Count of Barcelos. But, in 1383, during the 1383-1385 Crisis, the Count of Barcelos fled to Castile, leaving the structure in the hands of Martim Correia; this change facilitated its capture by men loyal to the Master of Aviz, John, in 1385. On 8 April 1385, the territory comes under the stewardship of Álvaro Pereira by King John I, cousin of the Constable Nuno Álvares Pereira, before being conceded to João Rodrigues de Sá.
In 1448, it is donated to Fernão Pereira, obligated to reconstruct the castle, only completed in the second half of the 15th century. Under the Pereiras, the castle was transformed into a palatial residence; the fourth Count of Feira, Diogo Forjaz, orders the marker/inscription, erected over the barbican to commemorate the construction of the clock tower. During the 17th century, the construction of internal palacete was concluded, it was around this time that Joana Forjaz Pereira de Meneses e Silva, Countess of Feira, ordered the constructed of the octagonal-shaped Baroque chapel. But, after 1708, the Counts of Feira were extinct, their possession were passed onto the Casa do Infantado, marking its long decline and ruin. Due to abandonment the castle was devastated by a fire on 15 January 1722, its ruins were purchased during a public sale by General Silva Pereira in 1839. In 1852, the royal family visited the structure, it was classified as a National Monument as early as 1881. The main pit was excavated at this time.
In 1905, the castle began to be publicly supported for form
Ebichū no Zeppan Best: Owaranai Seishun is a best-of-indies album by the Japanese girl group Shiritsu Ebisu Chugaku. It was released on November 2012 on the Sony Music Entertainment Japan's label Defstar Records; the album is a complete collection of the songs from Shiritsu Ebisu Chugaku's six indie singles. It contains five tracks that were not released on CD before: "Ebiture", "Ebichū Shusseki Bangō no Uta Sono 1", "Isshō Tomodachi", "Mata Ashita", "Yakusoku"; the first track, titled "Ebiture", is a warm-up opening number. First pressA trading card randomly selected from 9 kinds Ticket for a buyer-selectable lottery Award Ē: TBA Award Bī: Signing event ticketStore benefitsA poster featuring covers of the group's indie singles Indies' best "Ebichū no Zeppan Best: Owaranai Seishun" release announcement - Shiritsu Ebisu Chugaku Official Site
The Battle of Pered, fought on 20–21 June 1849, was one of the battles which took place in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and the Habsburg Empire helped by Russian troops. The Hungarian army was led by General Artúr Görgei, while the imperial army by Lieutenant field marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau. After a several preliminary minor battles of the Hungarian and Austrian troops along the Vág river, in which the attacking Hungarians could not achieve a success, Görgei took the command of his troops, after receiving reinforcements, at 20 June, put his troops to attack again towards West. Although the II. Hungarian army corps occupied in heavy fights the village of Pered, the other two corps were unsuccessful, could not advance; the angered Görgei removed the commander of the III. Corps, General Károly Knezić because of his inactivity, Colonel Lajos Asbóth, the commander of the II. Corps who, in contrast to Knezić, was the only commander who accomplished his duties.
While Knezić's place was taken by Colonel Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, a great choice, Asbóth's place was taken by Colonel József Kászonyi, an explicitly bad choice. Haynau, who in the first day of the battle was moving the bulk of his troops to cross the Danube in order to start an attack on its southern bank, sent three of his corps, which were still on the northern bank, to repel the Hungarian forces; the two Austrian and one Russian corps started their attack at 21 June, forced the Hungarians to retreat from Pered and Zsigárd, which forced Görgei to order his troops to retreat from the battlefield. Thanks to the victories of the Spring Campaign, the Hungarian Revolutionary Army liberated much of Hungary from the occupation of the numerically and technologically superior Habsburg armies and their, Serbian and Croatian allies; the Hungarian army of Transylvania, led by Lieutenant General Józef Bem managed to chase out from the province the first Russian intervention troops, which entered there in the winter of 1849.
From the end of March the Austrian politicians and military leaders understood that the Habsburg Empire is incapable of crushing their revolution relying on their own strength. So, basing on the Münchengrätz Agreements from 1833, according to which the Habsburg and Russian Empires and Prussia agreed to help each other if their sovereignty is threatened by a revolt or revolution, Austria decided to ask for Russian help against the Hungarian Revolution, although they were reluctant to do that, because they were conscious that this will cause them a big loss of prestige, but the Hungarian victories of the Spring Campaign made the Habsburg government to make this unwanted step, on 21 April, they made the official help request from Russia, followed by the letter of emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. In result the Tsar decided to send 200,000 Russian soldiers to Hungary, putting another 80,000 in reserve, to enter Hungary if their presence would be needed. Although the Hungarian Government led by Bertalan Szemere and Governor President Lajos Kossuth believed that the European nations would not allow Russian to intervene in Hungary, the European states and England agreed with a Russian intervention in order to crush the Hungarian revolution, thus Lord Palmerston replied to the question of the Russian ambassador about the reaction of England to a Russian intervention in Hungary, saying: Finish them quickly!, demanding that after they fulfilled their task to return in Russia immediately.
Although England worried about a Russian intervention in Hungary, its first concern was that the Russian Empire to not advance in the Balkans, an important condition for this was a strong Habsburg Empire. So, an independent Hungary could have been an impediment for England's world domination policy. In the meanwhile, after the capture of Buda General György Klapka, as the deputy ministry of war, elaborated the plan for the Hungarian military actions for summer, called the Summer Campaign, his plan was based on the inactivity of the main Hungarian army corps, stationed around the fortress of Komárom, in the case of a retreat, appointed as the concentration point of the Hungarian troops the Hungarian capitals and Miskolc, which were facing the main imperial forces under the command of Lieutenant Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau, while the Hungarian troops from Transylvania and Southern Hungary had to accomplish so heavy tasks that could be achieved only after relentless military actions in two months.
In the plan made of Klapka, the Russian military intervention was only faintly mentioned without taking any measure against it. This plan was rejected by many of the Hungarian commanders; the Hungarian commander-in-chief and War Minister General Artúr Görgei protested against this plan, underlining that as the concentration point of the Hungarian troops instead of Miskolc, Komárom should be appointed, because of the imminent threat of the Russian intervention, he saw that the only way still open to the Hungarian army was to deal a decisive blow to the main imperial army before the moving Russian forces arrived. This would have forced Austria to enter talks, offer some kind of settlement, with the Hungarians. Görgei planned to attack towards Pozsony and Vienna before the main Russian army started its attack on the Eastern and Northern front against Hungary. To this end he and his chief of the general staff, Lieutenant-Colonel József Bayer, created at end of May the Central Operational Bureau, in order to coordinate t