Jack Kerouac was an American novelist and poet of French-Canadian descent. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose. Thematically, his work covers topics such as Catholic spirituality, promiscuity, drugs and travel, he became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements. In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac died from an abdominal hemorrhage caused by a lifetime of heavy drinking. Since his death, Kerouac's literary prestige has grown, several unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, including The Town and the City, On the Road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody, The Sea Is My Brother, Big Sur. Jack Kerouac was born on March 12, 1922 in Lowell, Massachusetts to French Canadian parents, Léo-Alcide Kéroack and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque.
There is some confusion surrounding his name because of variations on the spelling of Kerouac, because of Kerouac's own statement of his name as Jean-Louis Lebris de Kerouac. His reason for that statement seems to be linked to an old family legend that the Kerouacs had descended from Baron François Louis Alexandre Lebris de Kerouac. Kerouac's baptism certificate lists his name as Jean Louis Kirouac, the most common spelling of the name in Quebec. Research has shown that Kerouac's roots were indeed in Brittany, he was descended from a middle-class merchant colonist, Urbain-François Le Bihan, Sieur de Kervoac, whose sons married French Canadians. Kerouac's father Leo had been born into a family of potato farmers in the village of Saint-Hubert-de-Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec. Jack had various stories on the etymology of his surname tracing it to Irish, Cornish or other Celtic roots. In one interview he claimed it was from the name of the Cornish language and that the Kerouacs had fled from Cornwall to Brittany.
Another version was that the Kerouacs had come to Cornwall from Ireland before the time of Christ and the name meant "language of the house". In still another interview he said it was an Irish word for "language of the water" and related to Kerwick. Kerouac, derived from Kervoach, is the name of a town in Brittany near Morlaix. Jack Kerouac referred to 34 Beaulieu Street as "sad Beaulieu"; the Kerouac family was living there in 1926 when Jack's older brother Gerard died of rheumatic fever, aged nine. This affected four-year-old Jack, who would say that Gerard followed him in life as a guardian angel; this is the Gerard of Kerouac's novel Visions of Gerard. He had an older sister named Caroline. Kerouac was referred to as Ti Jean or little John around the house during his childhood. Kerouac spoke French, he was a serious child, devoted to his mother, who played an important role in his life. She was a devout Catholic. Kerouac would say that his mother was the only woman he loved. After Gerard died, his mother sought solace in her faith, while his father abandoned it, wallowing in drinking and smoking.
Some of Kerouac's poetry was written in French, in letters written to friend Allen Ginsberg towards the end of his life, he expressed a desire to speak his parents' native tongue again. In 2016, a whole volume of unpublished works written in French by Kerouac was published as La vie est d'hommage, edited by Professor Jean-Christophe Cloutier. On May 17, 1928, while six years old, Kerouac had his first Confession. For penance, he was told to say a rosary, during which he heard God tell him that he had a good soul, that he would suffer in life and die in pain and horror, but would in the end receive salvation; this experience, along with his dying brother's vision of the Virgin Mary, combined with a study of Buddhism and an ongoing commitment to Christ, solidified the worldview which would inform Kerouac's work. Kerouac once told Ted Berrigan, in an interview for The Paris Review, of an incident in the 1940s in which his mother and father were walking together in a Jewish neighborhood on the Lower East Side of New York.
He recalled "a whole bunch of rabbis walking arm in arm... teedah- teedah – teedah... and they wouldn't part for this Christian man and his wife, so my father went POOM! and knocked a rabbi right in the gutter." Leo, after the death of his child treated a priest with similar contempt, angrily throwing him out of the house despite his invitation from Gabrielle. Kerouac's athletic skills as a running back in football for Lowell High School earned him scholarship offers from Boston College, Notre Dame, Columbia University, he entered Columbia University after spending a year at Horace Mann School, where he earned the requisite grades for entry to Columbia. Kerouac broke a leg playing football during his freshman season, during an abbreviated second year he argued with coach Lou Little, who kept him benched. While at Columbia, Kerouac wrote several sports articles for the student newspaper, the Columbia Daily Spectator, joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he studied at The New School. When his football career at Columbia ended, Kerouac dropped out of the university.
He continued to live for a time in New York's Upper West Side wit
Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches, a French novelist and physician. He developed a new style of writing that modernized French literature, his most famous work is Journey to the End of the Night. Céline used a working-class, spoken style of language in his writings, attacked what he considered to be the overly polished, "bourgeois" language of the "academy", his works influenced a broad array of literary figures, not only in France but in the English-speaking world and elsewhere in the Western World. Céline's vocal support for the Axis powers during the Second World War and his authorship of antisemitic and pro-fascist pamphlets has complicated his legacy as cultural icon; the only child of Fernand Destouches and Marguerite-Louise-Céline Guilloux, he was born Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches in 1894 at Courbevoie, just outside Paris in the Seine département. The family came from Normandy on his father's side and Brittany on his mother's side, his father was a middle manager in an insurance company and his mother owned a boutique where she sold antique lace.
In 1905, he was awarded his Certificat d'études, after which he worked as an apprentice and messenger boy in various trades. Between 1908 and 1910, his parents sent him to Germany and England for a year in each country in order to acquire foreign languages for future employment. From the time he left school until the age of eighteen Céline worked in various jobs, leaving or losing them after only short periods of time, he found himself working for jewellers, first, at eleven, as an errand boy, as a salesperson for a local goldsmith. Although he was no longer being formally educated, he bought schoolbooks with the money he earned, studied by himself, it was around this time. In 1912, in what Céline described as an act of rebellion against his parents he joined the French army, two years before the start of World War I and its mandatory French conscription; this was a time in France when, following the Agadir Crisis of 1911, nationalism reached "fever pitch" – a period one historian described as "The Hegemony of Patriotism" affecting opinion in the lycées and grandes écoles of Paris.
In 1912, Céline began a three-year enlistment in the 12th Cuirassier Regiment stationed in Rambouillet. At first he was unhappy with military life, considered deserting. However, he adapted, attained the rank of Sergeant; the beginning of the First World War brought action to Céline's unit. On 25 October 1914, Céline volunteered to deliver a message, when others were reluctant to do so because of heavy German fire. Near Ypres, during his attempt to deliver the message, he was wounded in his right arm. For his bravery, Céline was awarded the médaille militaire in November, appeared one year in the weekly l'Illustré National. In March 1915, he was sent to London to work in the French passport office. While in London he married Suzanne Nebout but they divorced one year later. In September, his arm wounds were such that he was declared unfit for military duty and was discharged, he returned to France. In 1916, Céline set out for Africa as a representative of the Forestry Company of Sangha-Oubangui, he was sent to the British Cameroons and returned to France in 1917.
Little is known about this trip except. After returning to France he worked for the Rockefeller Foundation: as part of a team it was his job to travel to Brittany teaching people how to fight tuberculosis and improve hygiene. In June 1919, Céline completed the second part of his baccalauréat. Through his work with the Institute, Céline had come into contact, good standing, with Monsieur Follet, the director of the medical school in Rennes. On 11 August 1919, Céline married Follet's daughter Édith Follet. With Monsieur Follet's influence, Céline was accepted as a student at the university. On 15 June 1920, his wife gave birth to Colette Destouches. During this time, he studied intensively obtaining certificates in physics and natural sciences. By 1923, three years after he had started the medical program at Rennes, Céline had completed his medical degree, his doctoral thesis, The Life and Work of Ignaz Semmelweis, completed in 1924, is considered to be his first literary work. Ignaz Semmelweis's contribution to medicine "was immense and, according to Céline, was directly proportional to the misery of his life."
In 1924 Céline took up the post of intern at a Paris maternity hospital. In 1925, Céline left his family. Working for the newly founded League of Nations, he travelled to Switzerland, the Cameroons, the United States, Cuba. At this time he wrote the play L'Eglise. In 1926, he visited America, was sent to Detroit to study the conditions of the workers at the Ford Automotive Company. Seeing the effects of the "assembly line" disgusted him, his article described the plant as a sensory attack on the worker, how this attack had made the worker part of the machine. In 1928, Céline returned to medicine to establish a private practice in Montmartre, in the north of Paris, specializing in obstetrics, he ended his private practice in 1931 to work in a public dispensary. Céline's best-known work is considered to be Journey to the End of the Night (V
North is a 1960 novel by the French writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline. The story is based on Céline's escape from France to Denmark after the invasion of Normandy, after he had been associated with the Vichy regime, it is the second published part, although chronologically the first, in a trilogy about these experiences. It was the last book Céline published during his lifetime; the book was published in 1960 through Éditions Gallimard. In the first edition, some of the characters have the same names as the real people who inspired them; because of this, Céline was sued for defamation, in subsequent editions all characters have fictional names. It was adapted into a graphic novel by Paul Brizzi and Gaëtan Brizzi, along with Céline's other novels Castle to Castle and Rigadoon. 1960 in literature 20th-century French literature Notes BibliographySolomon, Philip P.. Understanding Céline. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. Pp. 105, 119–120. ISBN 9780872498143. Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: North
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district. Sigmaringen is renowned for its castle, Schloss Sigmaringen, the seat of the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850 and is still owned by the Hohenzollern family. Sigmaringen lies in the Danube valley, surrounded by wooded hills in the south of the Swabian Alb around 40 km away from Lake Constance; the surrounding towns are on the north and Veringenstadt, on the east, Bingen and Scheer, on the south, Krauchenwies, Meßkirch, on the west, Leibertingen and Stetten am kalten Markt. The city is made up from the following districts: Sigmaringen, Jungnau, Laiz and Unterschmeien. Sigmaringen was first documented in 1077 and was in the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850, after which it became the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern; the history of settlement in the territory of the present town Sigmaringen dates back to the Paleolithic.
In the 11th century, the end of the Early Middle Ages, the first castle was built on the rock that protected the valley. The first written reference is from 1077, when King Rudolf of Rheinfelden tried in vain to conquer Sigmaringen castle; the official city foundation was in 1250. In 1325 the city was sold to Count of Württemberg. In 1460 and 1500, the castle was rebuilt into a chateau. About the county of Werdenberg Sigmaringen came in 1535 to the high noble family of the Hohenzollern. In 1632 the Swedes occupied the castle during the Thirty Years' War. From 1806 to 1849 Sigmaringen was the capital of the sovereign Principality Hohenzollern and residence of the princes of Hohenzollern; as a result of the Revolution in Sigmaringen of 1848, the Princes of Hechingen and Sigmaringen waived on their rule, whereby both principalities in 1850 fell to Prussia. From 1850 to 1945 Sigmaringen was the seat of Prussian Government for the Province of Hohenzollern. Karl Anton von Hohenzollern was 1858-1862 Prime Minister of Prussia.
From 1914 to 1918 around 150 men from the town lost their lives during World War I. In the Nazi era a Gestapo office was in Sigmaringen. Since 1937 it belonged to the Gestapo Stuttgart. Between 1934 and 1942 more than 100 men were sterilized because of "hereditary diseases". During the Nazi medical murders, the "T4", became on 12 December 1940 for the first time 71 mentally handicapped and mentally ill patients victims of Nazi injustice; the deportation led them into the Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre, where the men and women were murdered as "unworthy of life". After the closure of Grafeneck in December 1940, on 14 March 1941 a further deportation to the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre was made. On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, Philippe Pétain and members of the Vichy government cabinet were relocated to Germany. A city-state ruled by the government in exile headed by Fernand de Brinon was established at Sigmaringen. There were three embassies in the city-state, representing each of Vichy-France's allies: Germany and Japan.
French writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lucien Rebatet and Roland Gaucher, fearing for their lives because of their political and anti-Semitic writings, fled along with the Vichy government to Sigmaringen. Céline's novel D'un château l'autre describes the fall of Sigmaringen; the city was taken by Free French forces on April 22, 1945. Pétain returned voluntarily to France. See Commission gouvernementale de Sigmaringen; the following religions are present in Sigmaringen: Roman Catholic Church Evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg Evangelische Militärkirchengemeinde Freie Christengemeinde Jehovah's Witnesses New Apostolic Church Three railways meet in Sigmaringen, the Danube Valley Railway leading from Donaueschingen to Ulm, the Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway from Tübingen to Aulendorf, the line operated by the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn from Sigmaringen to Hechingen. Sigmaringen lies in the serving area of Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau. Sigmaringen was the birthplace of Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, a Roman Catholic martyr of the Counter-Reformation in Switzerland, Ferdinand of Romania, King of Romania.
It was one of the residences of deceased Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the late representative of the house, the first in the line of succession to the throne of Romania, by Salic law. Frederick Miller, founder of the Miller Brewing Company, was living in Sigmaringen during the start of his brewing career. Louis-Ferdinand Céline, pro-Nazi and antisemitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. Lucien Rebatet, pro-Nazi and antisemitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. Winfried Kretschmann, Minister-President of Baden-Württemberg, lives in the district of Laiz. Richard Lauchert and professor Theodor Bilharz and scientist Carol I of Romania, King of Romania Ferdinand I of Romania, King of Romania Max Giese, inventor of the concrete pump Josef Henselmann and longtime head of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich Johann Georg of Hohenzollern, art historian and museum director Karl Lehmann and Bishop of Mainz, from 1987 to 2008 chairman of the German Bishops' Conference Lothar Späth, former Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Matthias Endres, physician Pascal Wehrlein (bor
Journey to the End of the Night
Journey to the End of the Night is the first novel by Louis-Ferdinand Céline. This semi-autobiographical work describes antihero Ferdinand Bardamu. Bardamu is involved with World War I, colonial Africa, post–World War I United States, returning in the second half of the novel to France, where he becomes a medical doctor and establishes a practice in a poor Paris suburb, the fictional La Garenne-Rancy; the novel satirizes the medical profession and the vocation of scientific research. The disparate elements of the work are linked together by recurrent encounters with Léon Robinson, a hapless character whose experiences parallel, to some extent, Bardamu's experiences. Voyage au bout de la nuit is a nihilistic novel of savage, exultant misanthropy, however, with cynical humour. Céline expresses an unrivaled pessimism with regard to human nature, human institutions and life in general. Towards the end of the book, the narrator Bardamu, working at an insane asylum, remarks: …I cannot refrain from doubting that there exist any genuine realizations of our deepest character except war and illness, those two infinities of nightmare, A clue to understanding Céline's Voyage lies in the trauma he suffered during his experience in World War I.
This is revealed in a study of biographical and literary research on Céline, histories of the war, diaries of his cavalry regiment, literature on the trauma of war. Céline's experience of the war leads to "…the obsession, the recurrent anguish, the refusal, the delirium, the violence, the pacifism, the anti-Semitic aberration of the 30s, his philosophy of life …." Céline's first novel is remarkable for its style, making extensive use of ellipsis and hyperbole. His writing has the flow of natural speech patterns and uses the vernacular, while employing more erudite elements; this has influenced French literature considerably. The novel enjoyed popular success and a fair amount of critical acclaim when it was published in October 1932. Albert Thibaudet the greatest of the entre deux guerres critics, said that in January 1933 it was still a common topic of conversation at dinner parties in Paris. Paolo Sorrentino's 2013 film The Great Beauty opens with a quote from Journey to the End of the Night.
The film concludes with a visual of the last paragraph of the book, passing under bridges and locks along the city's river. Will Self has written that Journey to the End of the Night "is the novel more than any other, that inspired me to write fiction"; the song "End of the Night" by The Doors references this book, as it had a great influence on the work of Jim Morrison. In Jean-Luc Godard's 1965 dystopian science fiction film Alphaville, protagonist Lemmy Caution dismisses a taxi driver's offer of route options to his destination by stating that he is on "a journey to the end of the night"; the film depicts the use of poetry as a weapon against a sentient computer system. Charles Bukowski makes reference to Journey in a number of his novels and short stories, employs prose techniques borrowed from Céline. Bukowski wrote in Notes of a Dirty Old Man that "Céline was the greatest writer of 2000 years". Céline's literary style influenced Joseph Heller's Catch-22. Jacques Tardi illustrated the 1988 edition with 130 drawings.
Céline, Louis-Ferdinand. Journey to the End of the Night. Manheim, Ralph. New York: New Directions. ISBN 978-0-8112-0847-5. Céline, Louis-Ferdinand. Journey to the End of the Night. Manheim, Ralph. London: Calder. ISBN 978-0-7145-4139-6. Sturrock, John. Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Journey to the End of the Night. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37854-0. Céline, Louis-Ferdinand. Vollman, William T. ed. Journey to the End of the Night. Translated by Ralph Manheim. New York: New Directions. ISBN 978-0-8112-1654-8. Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century
Guignol's Band is a 1944 novel by the French writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline. Set in the mid 1910s, the narrative revolves around Ferdinand, an invalided French World War I veteran who lives in exile in London, follows his small businesses and interacting with prostitutes, it was followed by a sequel, London Bridge: Guignol's Band II, published posthumously in 1964. Louis-Ferdinand Céline spent a number of months in London after an injury in World War I, the novel bears some autobiographical elements from that time; the French literature scholar Merlin Thomas wrote in his biography on Céline: "In the chronology of Céline's life as seen through the novels, Guignol's Band should be a massive insert in Voyage, coming before the African section of that work." The novel was first published by Éditions Denoël in April 1944 and received little attention. It was republished by Éditions Gallimard in 1952, again did not receive much notice. In 1954 it was published in English. 1944 in literature 20th-century French literature Notes BibliographyThomas, Merlin.
Louis-Ferdinand Céline. New York City: New Directions Publishing. Pp. 184–185. ISBN 0-8112-0754-4