In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. In English, the terms Roman fort, Roman camp and Roman fortress are used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the words fort, marching camp and fortress as a translation of castrum. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller forts for Cohorts or Auxiliaries, temporary encampments, "marching" forts; the diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century. For a list of known castra see List of castra. Castrum appears in Oscan and Umbrian, two other Italic languages, suggesting an origin at least as old as Proto-Italic language. Julius Pokorny traces a probable derivation from * k̂es -, schneiden in * k̂es - tro-m; these Italic reflexes based on * kastrom include Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf. They have the same meaning, says Pokorny, as Latin fundus, an estate, or tract of land.

This is not any land, but is a prepared or cultivated tract, such as a farm enclosed by a fence or a wooden or stone wall of some kind. Cornelius Nepos uses Latin castrum in that sense: when Alcibiades deserts to the Persians, Pharnabazus gives him an estate worth 500 talents in tax revenues; this is a change of meaning from the reflexes in other languages, which still mean some sort of knife, axe, or spear. Pokorny explains it as ’Lager’ als ‘abgeschnittenes Stück Land’, “a lager, as a cut-off piece of land.” If this is the civilian interpretation, the military version must be “military reservation,” a piece of land cut off from the common land around it and modified for military use. All castra must be defended by works no more than a stockade, for which the soldiers carried stakes, a ditch; the castra could be prepared under attack behind a battle line. Considering that the earliest military shelters were tents made of hide or cloth, all but the most permanent bases housed the men in tents placed in quadrangles and separated by numbered streets, one castrum may well have acquired the connotation of tent.

The commonest Latin syntagmata for the term castra are: castra stativa Permanent camp/fortresses castra aestiva Summer camp/fortresses castra hiberna Winter camp/fortresses castra navalia / castra nautica Navy camp/fortressesIn Latin the term castrum is much more used as a proper name for geographical locations: e.g. Castrum Album, Castrum Inui, Castrum Novum, Castrum Truentinum, Castrum Vergium; the plural was used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia, from this comes the Welsh place name prefix caer- and English suffixes -caster and -chester. Castrorum Filius, "son of the camps," was one of the names used by the emperor Caligula and also by other emperors. Castro derived from Castrum, is a common Spanish family name as well as toponym in Italy, the Balkans and Spain and other Hispanophone countries, either by itself or in various compounds such as the World Heritage Site of Gjirokastër; the terms stratopedon and phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively.

A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. This most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castrorum, a manuscript of 11 pages that dates most from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD. Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day. "… as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight until they have walled their camp about. To this end a marching column ported the equipment needed to build and stock the camp in a baggage train of wagons and on the backs of the soldiers. Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti, "chief engineers", who requisitioned manual labor from the soldiers at large as required, they could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it: tertia castra, quarta castra, etc..

More permanent camps were castra stativa. The least permanent of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". Summer was the campaign season. For the winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of more solid materials, with timber construction being replaced by stone; the camp supplied army in the field. Neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability: they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days; the largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions. From the time of Augustus more permanent castra with wooden or stone buildings and walls were introduced as the distant and hard-won boundaries of the expanding empire required permanent garrisons to control local an

List of Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards

This is the List of Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards since 1952. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2005 was held for the first time in Naypyidaw on 5 March 2007; the awards were selected out of 16 films screened during the year of 2005. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2006 was held in Naypyidaw on 7 February 2008; the awards were selected out of 10 films screened during the year of 2006. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2008 was held on 6 February 2010 in Naypyidaw; the awards were selected out of 12 films screened in 2008. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2009 was held on 23 January 2011 in Naypyidaw; the awards were selected out of 16 films screened in 2009. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2010 was held on 7 February 2012 in Naypyidaw; the Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2011 was held on 30 December 2012 in Yangon, after four years in the new capital Naypyidaw.

The awards were selected out of 15 films screened in 2011. 8 of the top awards went to Htar WaYa A Linn Tan Myar. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2012 was held on 29 December 2013 in Yangon; the Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2013 was held on 27 December 2014 in Yangon. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards presentation ceremony for 2014 and 2015 was held on 3 April 2016 in Yangon, Myanmar Event Park. Kaung Kyoe Ko Hnite Ti Say Min won five golden angel trophy for Best Film, Best Screenplay, Best Actress, Best Music and Best Editing; the Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards for 2016 was held on 18 March 2017 at People's Square and Park, Yangon. This ceremony is distinct for the beautiful stage background with Shwedagon Pagoda. For the pre-celebration of 100 year Anniversary of Myanmar Motion Picture, decorated with 100 statutes of Academy awards; the VP and the Information Minister attended as VVIP Guest. Oak-Kyer-Myat-Pouk won three golden angel trophy for Best Director and Best Actor.

The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards for 2017 was held on 23 March 2018 at Myanmar Event Park, Yangon. The Myanmar Motion Picture Academy Awards for 2018 was held on 23 March 2019 at The One Entertainment Park, Yangon. Nge Nge Htaik. "History of Academy Awards". People Magazine Myanmar. Yangon. Archived from the original on 30 December 2004

Kathleen Conlan

Kathleen Elizabeth Conlan is an Antarctic marine biologist who studies sea floor marine life. She was named one of Canada's greatest explorers by Canadian Geographic. Conlan was born on June 1950 in Ottawa, Ontario, she completed her undergraduate degree at Queen's University in 1972 before undertaking a M. Sc. from the University of Victoria in 1977, where she received B. Sc. Honours. Conlan completed her Ph. D. at Carleton University in 1988. The title of her Ph. D. thesis was "Systematics and sexual dimorphism: reclassification of the crustacean amphipod genus Jassa." The inspiration for her to study both the Arctic and the Antarctic came from a pioneer Antarctic marine biologist, Dr. John Oliver, one of the early divers in the Antarctic. Conlan met Oliver through a colleague, was invited to be part of his Antarctic research team in 1991. In return, Conlan invited his research team to begin studies in the Canadian Arctic; as a result, she is still studying ecological processes in both the Arctic and Antarctic, 25 years after they first began polar research.

Her contribution to the research done in Arctic was crucial as since she was Canadian, she had access to resources and places that most of the Californian team did not have access to. Conlan is a Research Scientist at the Canadian Museum of Nature, her research focuses on communities of marine life on the sea floor of the Antarctic and Arctic and the impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes. Conlan's research has had significant impact, her study of long-term benthic changes near McMurdo Station helped change the U. S. Antarctic Program's procedures for sewage discharge in the Antarctic, she discovered that the B-15 iceberg in Antarctica could impact benthic life over 100 km as it blocked access to their main food supply, the annual plankton bloom. This is a far-reaching effect that had not been documented. Conlan is involved within the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, she is a Canadian representative on SCAR's Standing Scientific Group on Life Sciences, has served as Chief Officer of the SSG-LS from 2008-2012 and Secretary from 2004–2008.

Conlan is on the selection committee of the prestigious Tinker-Muse Prize for Science and Policy in Antarctica. Conlan is a long-standing member of the Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research, providing advice and guidance on matters pertaining to Antarctic research and serving as a link between SCAR and the Canadian polar research community, she was Section Head of the Life Sciences-Zoology Program at the Canadian Museum of Nature and Adjunct Professor at Carleton University. Conlan's impact has extended beyond research, she has mentored over 50 students and has given nearly 50 interviews to the media about Antarctica and over 100 popular talks. She has been profiled in four polar exhibits for museums in Canada and the U. S, she has written over 20 scientific papers on the Antarctic and her underwater photographs assist newcomers with identifying Antarctic marine life. She was an educator on the inaugural voyages of the international Students on Ice program to educate youth about the importance of the Polar Regions.

Conlan was named as one of Canada's Greatest Explorers in 2015 by Canadian Geographic for her polar research which involved 20 expeditions, 11 of them to Antarctica. She is the recipient of the Science in Society Children's Book Award from Canadian Science Writers’ Association for "Under the Ice" a book for youth featuring her research experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Conlan received an Antarctica Service Medal from the US Department of the Navy and the National Science Foundation, she is a 3-time winner of the R. W. Brock Award for best Canadian Museum of Nature research paper, she was nominated twice for the YMCA-YWCA Women of Distinction Award in the Technology Category. Barnes, David K. A.. "Disturbance and development of Antarctic benthic communities". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 362: 11–38. Doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1951. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3227166. PMID 17405206. Kim, Stacy L.. "Seastar response to organic enrichment in an oligotrophic polar habitat".

Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 346: 66–75. Doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2007.03.004. Conlan, Kathleen E.. "Precopulatory mating behavior and sexual dimorphism in the amphipod Crustacea". Hydrobiologia. 223: 255–282. Doi:10.1007/BF00047644. ISSN 0018-8158. Conlan, Kathleen E.. "Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia". PLOS ONE. 10: e0143921. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1043921C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143921. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4664417. PMID 26618354