Castration is any action, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles: the male gonad. Surgical castration is bilateral orchidectomy, chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization. Surgical castration in animals is called neutering; the term castration is sometimes used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. Estrogen levels drop precipitously following oophorectomy, long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body; the term castration may be sometimes used to refer to emasculation where both the testicles and the penis are removed together. In some cultures, in some translations, no distinction is made between the two; this can cause confusion. Castration of non-human animals is intended to favor a desired development of the animal or of its habits, as an anaphrodisiac or to prevent overpopulation.

As above, see neutering for more information on castration of non-human animals. It is unknown when castration was where it was invented, it may be that it arose independently in more than one place, but there is evidence that it was practiced as far back as 4,000 BC based on descriptions in the cult of Ishtar and Uruk. It may have arisen in the Neolithic period in response to animal husbandry, rising populations and population specialisation. Castration was used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia and East Asia. After battles, winners sometimes castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men — eunuchs – were admitted to special social classes and were used to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the harem. Castration figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as Judaism, were opposed to the practice; the Leviticus Holiness code, for example excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from sacrifice.

Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of Chinese history, most notably in the Later Han, late Tang and late Ming dynasties. There are similar. In ancient times, castration involved emasculation or the total removal of all the male genitalia; this involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the Byzantine Empire, was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles had much less risk. Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer. Testosterone-depletion treatment is used to slow down the cancer reduce sex drive or interest in those with sexual drives, obsessions, or behaviors, or any combination of those that may be considered deviant. Castration has been used in the United States for sex offenders. Trans women undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment surgery, either before or during other procedures.

It may be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery. Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies, it was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women. Over the 13 centuries of the Arab slave trade in Africa unknown numbers of Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Middle East. "The Caliphate in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace." The Arab slave trade dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys at the age of eight to twelve had their scrotum and penis amputated. About two of three boys died, but those who survived drew high prices; the trade and employment of eunuchs was known in classical and roman antiquity, continued into the Middle Ages. The phenomenon of castrated singers was abolished in Italy in 1878 by pope Leo XIII.

In Al-Andalus in the 10th century, eunuch slaves were used as harem attendants. They were castrated by Jewish merchants in Verdun in Becâne, Spain. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans during their invasions of Sicily and Italy. In the medieval kingdom of Georgia, the pretender Demna was castrated by his uncle George III of Georgia to ensure the supremacy of George's branch of the family. Another victim of castration was the medieval French philosopher, scholar and monk Pierre Abélard, he was castrated by relatives of Héloïse. Bishop Wimund, a 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was castrated. In medieval England men found guilty of high treason were hanged and quartered, which included emasculation or removal of the genitalia. Women were burned at the stake for the sake of public decency. In ancient Greek mythology, Cronus castrated his father, after the latter imprisoned the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires.

William Wallace, the Scottish resistance leader, was castrated as part of his execution, for resistance to English rule. Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for exc

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Todd Harrity is a professional squash player who represents the United States. He reached a career-high world ranking of World No. 44 in Mars 2019. He is the top ranked American squash player, is a three time National Champion, winning in 2015, 2016 and 2019. In 2018, he came out as gay, announcing it on Twitter, thus becoming the first gay professional male squash player in the world, he is class of 2013 at Princeton University, he played number 1 all four years for the Tigers varsity squash team. He won the individual championship during his sophomore season, he led the Tigers to the team national championship during his junior season. All Results for Todd Harrity in PSA World's Tour tournament Todd Harrity – PSA World Tour profile at the Wayback Machine Todd Harrity at PSA Todd Harrity at Squash Info