A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk; these risks are the product of a combination of vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as in the case of uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater in developing countries than in industrialized countries; the word disaster is derived from Middle French désastre and that from Old Italian disastro, which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek pejorative prefix δυσ-, "bad" and ἀστήρ, "star".
The root of the word disaster comes from an astrological sense of a calamity blamed on the position of planets. Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, for more than forty years disaster research; the studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate emergency management measures. Hazards are divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster. A classic example is an earthquake. A natural disaster is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
Various phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, blizzards and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. However, the rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration in hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of disasters. With the tropical climate and unstable landforms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth proliferation, non-engineered constructions make the disaster-prone areas more vulnerable. Developing countries suffer more or less chronically from natural disasters due to ineffective communication combined with insufficient budgetary allocation for disaster prevention and management. Human-instigated disasters are the consequence of human hazards. Examples include stampedes, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills, nuclear explosions/nuclear radiation. War and deliberate attacks may be put in this category.
Other types of man-made disasters include the more cosmic scenarios of catastrophic global warming, nuclear war, bioterrorism. The following table notes first response initiatives. Note that whereas the sources of a disaster may be natural or man-made, the results may be similar; the Disaster Roundtable of the National Academy of Sciences EM-DAT International Disaster Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System – The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System is a joint initiative of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the European Commission UN-SPIDER – UN-SPIDER, the United Nations Programme for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response], a project of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
A euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to mask profanity or refer to taboo topics such as disability, excretion, or death in a polite way. Euphemism comes from the Greek word euphemia which refers to the use of'words of good omen'. Eupheme is a reference to the female Greek spirit of words of positivity, etc.. The term euphemism. Reasons for using euphemisms vary by intent. Euphemisms are used to avoid directly addressing subjects that might be deemed negative or embarrassing. Euphemisms are used to downplay the gravity of large-scale injustices, war crimes, or other events that warrant a pattern of avoidance in official statements or documents. For instance, one reason for the comparative scarcity of written evidence documenting the exterminations at Auschwitz, relative to their sheer number, is "directives for the extermination process obscured in bureaucratic euphemisms".
The act of labeling a term as a euphemism can in itself be controversial, as in the following two examples: Affirmative action, meaning a preference for minorities or the disadvantaged in employment or academic admissions. This term is sometimes said to be a euphemism for reverse discrimination, or in the UK positive discrimination, which suggests an intentional bias that might be prohibited, or otherwise unpalatable. Enhanced interrogation is sometimes said to be a euphemism for torture. For example, columnist David Brooks called the use of this term for practices at Abu Ghraib, Guantánamo, elsewhere an effort to "dull the moral sensibility". Phonetic euphemism is used diminishing their intensity. Modifications include: Shortening or "clipping" the term, such as Jeez and what the— Mispronunciations, such as frak, what the fudge, what the truck, oh my gosh, darn, oh shoot, be-yotch, etc; this is referred to as a minced oath. Using first letters as replacements, such as SOB, what the eff, S my D, POS, BS.
Sometimes, the word "word" is added after it, such as S-word, B-word, etc.. The letter can be phonetically respelled. For example, the word piss was shortened to pee in this way. Ambiguous statements Understatements Metaphors Comparisons Metonymy Euphemism may be used as a rhetorical strategy, in which case its goal is to change the valence of a description from positive to negative; the use of a term with a softer connotation, though it shares the same meaning. For instance, screwed up is a euphemism for fucked up. There is some disagreement over whether certain terms are not euphemisms. For example, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically correct euphemism for blind or a blind person. However, visual impairment can be a broader term, for example, people who have partial sight in one eye, those with uncorrectable mild to moderate poor vision, or those who wear glasses, groups that would be excluded by the word blind. Expressions or words from a foreign language may be imported for use as a replacement for an offensive word.
For example, the French word enceinte was sometimes used instead of the English word pregnant. This practice of word substitution became so frequent that the expression "pardon my French" was adopted in attempts to excuse the use of profanity. Euphemisms may be formed in a number of ways. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, is one of the most common: to "speak around" a given word, implying it without saying it. Over time, circumlocutions become recognized as established euphemisms for particular words or ideas. To alter the pronunciation or spelling of a taboo word to form a euphemism is known as taboo deformation, or a minced oath. In American English, words that are unacceptable on television, such as fuck, may be represented by deformations such as freak in children's cartoons. Feck is a minced oath popularised by the sitcom Father Ted; some examples of rhyming slang may serve the same purpose: to call a person a berk sounds less offensive than to call a person a cunt, though berk is short for Berkeley Hunt, which rhymes with cunt.
Bureaucracies spawn euphemisms intentionally, as doublespeak expressions. For example, in the past, the US military used the term "sunshine units" for contamination by radioactive isotopes. An effective death sentence in the Soviet Union during the Great Purge used the clause "imprisonment without right to correspondence": the person sentenced never had a chance to correspond with anyone because soon after imprisonment they w
Missing in action
Missing in action is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire. They may have been killed, captured, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave has been positively identified. Becoming MIA has been an occupational risk for as long as there has been ceasefire; until around 1912, service personnel in most countries were not issued with ID tags. As a result, if someone was killed in action and his body was not recovered until much there was little or no chance of identifying the remains. Starting around the time of the First World War, nations began to issue their service personnel with purpose-made ID tags; these were made of some form of lightweight metal such as aluminium. However, in the case of the British Army the material chosen was compressed fiber, not durable. Although wearing ID tags proved to be beneficial, the problem remained that bodies could be destroyed, burned or buried by the type of high explosive munitions used in modern warfare.
Additionally, the combat environment itself could increase the likelihood of missing combatants such as jungle warfare, or submarine warfare, air-crashes in remote mountainous terrain, or at sea. Alternatively, there could be administrative errors e.g. the actual location of a temporary battlefield grave could be misidentified or forgotten due to the "fog of war" Finally, since military forces had no strong incentive to keep detailed records of enemy dead, bodies were buried in temporary graves, the locations of which were lost or obliterated e.g. the forgotten mass grave at Fromelles. As a result, the remains of missing combatants might not be found for many years, if ever; when missing combatants are recovered and cannot be identified after a thorough forensic examination the remains are interred with a tombstone which indicates their unknown status. The development of genetic fingerprinting in the late 20th century means that if cell samples from a cheek swab are collected from service personnel prior to deployment to a combat zone, identity can be established using a small fragment of human remains.
Although it is possible to take genetic samples from a close relative of the missing person, it is preferable to collect such samples directly from the subjects themselves. It is a fact of warfare that some combatants are to go missing in action and never be found. However, by wearing ID tags and using modern technology the numbers involved can be reduced. In addition to the obvious military advantages, conclusively identifying the remains of missing service personnel is beneficial to the surviving relatives. Having positive identification makes it somewhat easier to come to terms with their loss and move on with their lives. Otherwise, some relatives may suspect that the missing person is still alive somewhere and may return someday. However, many of these identifying procedures are not used for combatants who are members of militias, mercenary armies and other irregular forces, it is possible that some of the combatants who took part of the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC went missing in action.
The numerous wars which followed over successive centuries created many MIAs. The list is long and includes most battles which have been fought by any nation; the usual problems of identification caused by rapid decomposition were exacerbated by the fact that it was common practice to loot the remains of the dead for any valuables e.g. personal items and clothing. This made the difficult task of identification harder. Thereafter the dead were buried in mass graves and scant official records were retained. Notable examples include such medieval battles as Towton, the Hundred Years' War, the English Civil Wars and Napoleonic Wars together with any battle taking place until around the middle of the 19th century. Starting around the time of the Crimean War, American Civil War and Franco-Prussian War, it became more common to make formal efforts to identify individual soldiers. However, since there was no formal system of ID tags at the time, this could be difficult during the process of battlefield clearance.
So, there had been a notable shift in perceptions e.g. where the remains of a soldier in Confederate uniform were recovered from, the Gettysburg battlefield, he would be interred in a single grave with a headstone which stated that he was an unknown Confederate soldier. This change in attitudes coincided with the Geneva Conventions, the first of, signed in 1864. Although the First Geneva Convention did not address the issue of MIAs, the reasoning behind it was influential; the phenomenon of MIAs became notable during World War I, where the mechanized nature of modern warfare meant that a single battle could cause astounding numbers of casualties. For example, in 1916 over 300,000 Allied and German combatants were killed in the Battle of the Somme. A total of 19,240 British and Commonwealth combatants were killed in action or died of wounds on the first day of that battle alone, it is therefore not surprising that the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme in France bears the names of 72,090 British and Commonwealth combatants, all of whom went missing in action during the Battle of the Somme, were never found and who have no known grave.
The Menin Gate memorial in Belgium commemorates 54,896 missing Allied combatants who are known to have been killed in the Ypres Salient. The Doua
In general, a civilian is "a person, not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force". The definition distinguishes from persons whose duties involves risking their lives to protect the public at large from hazardous situations such as terrorism, conflagrations, or wars, it does not include "criminals" in the category, as authorities and the media wants to distinguish between those who are law-abiding and those who are not. Under the law of war, the term "civilian" is a person, not a combatant and is not a member of the military, it is different from a non-combatant, as some non-combatants are not civilians. Under international law, civilians in the territories of a party to an armed conflict are entitled to certain privileges under the customary laws of war and international treaties such as the Fourth Geneva Convention; the privileges that they enjoy under international law depends on whether the conflict is an internal one or an international one. The word "civilian" goes back to the late 14th century and is from Old French civilien, "of the civil law".
Civilian is believed to have been used to refer to non-combatants as early as 1829. The term "non-combatant" now refers to people in general who are not taking part of hostilities, rather than just civilians; the International Committee of the Red Cross 1958 Commentary on 1949 Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War states: "Every person in enemy hands must have some status under international law: he is either a prisoner of war and, as such, covered by the Third Convention, a civilian covered by the Fourth Convention, or again, a member of the medical personnel of the armed forces, covered by the First Convention. There is no intermediate status. We feel that this is a satisfactory solution – not only satisfying to the mind and above all, satisfactory from the humanitarian point of view." The ICRC has expressed the opinion that "If civilians directly engage in hostilities, they are considered'unlawful' or'unprivileged' combatants or belligerents. They may be prosecuted under the domestic law of the detaining state for such action."Article 50 of the 1977 Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions provides: 1.
A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered to be a civilian. 2. The civilian population comprises all persons. 3. The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character; the definition is negative and defines civilians as persons who do not belong to definite categories. The categories of persons mentioned in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of the Protocol I are combatants. Therefore, the Commentary to the Protocol pointed that, any one, not a member of the armed forces and does not take of hostilities is a civilian. Civilians cannot take part in armed conflict. Civilians are given protection under the Geneva Conventions and Protocols thereto. Article 51 describes the protection that must be given to the civilian population and individual civilians.
Chapter III of Protocol I regulates the targeting of civilian objects. Article 8 of the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court includes this in its list of war crimes: "Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking part in hostilities". Not all states have ratified 1977 Protocol I or the 1998 Rome Statute, but it is an accepted principle of international humanitarian law that the direct targeting of civilians is a breach of the customary laws of war and is binding on all belligerents; the actual position of the civilian in modern war remains problematic. It is complicated by a number of phenomena, including: the fact that many modern wars are civil wars, in which the application of the laws of war is difficult, in which the distinction between combatants and civilians is hard to maintain. Starting in the 1980s, it was claimed that 90 percent of the victims of modern wars were civilians; the claim was repeated on Wikipedia's Did You Know on 14 December 2010.
These claims, though believed, are not supported by detailed examination of the evidence that relating to wars that are central to the claims. In the opening years of the twenty-first century, despite the many problems associated with it, the legal category of the civilian has been the subject of considerable attention in public discourse, in the media and at the United Nations, in justification of certain uses of armed force to protect endangered populations, it has "lost none
Medical Corps (United States Army)
The Medical Corps of the U. S. Army is a staff corps of the U. S. Army Medical Department consisting of commissioned medical officers – physicians with either an M. D. or a D. O. degree, at least one year of post-graduate clinical training, a state medical license. The MC traces its earliest origins to the first physicians recruited by the Medical Department of the Army, created by the Continental Congress in 1775; the US Congress made official the designation "Medical Corps" in 1908, although the term had long been in use informally among the Medical Department's regular physicians. The MC consists of over 4,400 active duty physicians representing all the specialties and subspecialties of civilian medicine, they may be assigned to fixed military medical facilities, to deployable combat units or to military medical research and development duties. They are considered deployable soldiers; the Chief of the Medical Corps Branch is a colonel and the senior-most Medical Corps officer in the Army is the U.
S. Army Surgeon General, a lieutenant general. Both the Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to 27 July 1775, when the Continental Congress established the first Army Hospital to be headed by a "Director General and Chief Physician"; the language of the Congressional resolution spoke of “an Hospital” which in those days meant a hospital system or medical department. Among the accomplishments of Army surgeons during the years of the Revolution was completion of the first pharmacopoeia printed in America. In 1789, the Department of the Hospital was disbanded and a system of "Regimental Surgeons" was established in its place. During the period that followed Congress provided for a medical organization for the Army only in time of war or emergency. For example, in 1812 Congress established the Medical Department of the Northern Army as a response to the need for medical support during operations in the War of 1812. In 1816, medical officers were given uniforms for the first time.
A permanent and continuous Medical Department was not established until 1818. That year a “Surgeon General” was appointed and since a succession of Surgeons General and a permanent Corps organization in the Army Medical Department have followed. Physicians assigned to the U. S. Army were accorded military rank in 1847, although the old Regimental Surgeon system of additional designations was retained until 1908. In 1862, Surgeon General William Alexander Hammond proposed establishment of an "Army Medical School" in which medical cadets and others seeking admission to the MC could receive such post-graduate instruction as would better fit them for military commissions, it was over 30 years, before Surgeon General George M. Sternberg would found the Army Medical School, the precursor institution to today’s Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Congress made official the designation "Medical Corps" in 1908, although the term had long been in use informally among the Medical Department's regular physicians.
World War I brought a realization of the need to provide more than the “finishing school” approach of the AMS to military medical education and indoctrination and in 1920, the Medical Department first established hospital internships as a method of acquiring new officers for the MC. Meanwhile, part of the role of the AMS was taken over by the new Medical Field Service School which opened at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania in 1921, its purpose was to train both new medical officers and newly enlisted medics in the practice of field medicine.. The first woman to receive a Regular Army commission in the MC was Major Margaret D. Craighill in 1943, she was assigned as Chief Surgeon to the Women’s Army Corps. In 1946, Army residency programs for MC officers were introduced into the Medical Department, providing for the first time the full spectrum of graduate medical education to prospective MC officers. In 1954, a prominent thoracic surgeon and Harvard graduate, Frank Berry, was appointed as the second Assistant Secretary of Defense.
Upon assuming office one of his first acts was to propose a plan for young military physicians to follow one of three pathways after completing their internship: Enter the armed services and return to their residencies after fulfilling their obligated service. The “Berry Plan” deferred doctors who were taking their residency, so that the Army would get the benefit of their advanced education. GME became both a recruiting and a retention tool for the AMEDD, board-certified specialists were attracted in steady numbers; those MC officers who did not elect Option 1, or who were not needed were “deferred.” Some were allowed Option 3, to complete their residency training and entered active duty as a trained specialist. Those who were deferred for only one year of residency were termed “partially trained specialists” and were given military assignments that allowed them to work within their specialty. Many residency programs would give a year’s credit toward completion of residency for their time in military service to physicians who served under Option 2.
(This triple option program continued for 19 years until the US military d
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers. Under the law of war, it is referred to civilians who perished or suffered wounds as a result of wartime acts. In both cases, they can be associated with the outcome of any form of action regardless of whether civilians were targeted directly or not. In times of armed conflict, despite numerous advancements in technology, the European Union’s European Security Strategy, adopted by the European Council in Brussels in December 2003, stated that since 1990 4 million people have died in wars, 90% of them civilians. However, United Nations Children's Fund reports that civilian fatalities have climbed from 5 per cent at the turn of the century to more than 90 per cent in the wars of the 1990s. Generating reliable assessments of casualties of war is a notoriously complex process. Civilian casualties present particular difficulties.
One problem is. On the surface, the definition of a civilian, at least in the context of international armed conflicts, is simple: a civilian is any person, not a member of the armed forces and is not a combatant in situation of armed conflict. To make effective use of such statistics as there are about civilian casualties of war, it is necessary to be explicit about the criteria for inclusion. All too there is a lack of clarity about which of the following categories of civilian casualties are included in any given set of figures. 1. Those killed as a direct effect of war; those injured as a direct effect of war. Those dying, whether during or after a war, from indirect effects of war such as disease and lawlessness, who would not have been expected to die at such rates from such causes in the absence of the war. Victims of one-sided violence, such as when states slaughter their own citizens in connection with a war. Victims of rape and other forms of sexual violence in connection with a war; those uprooted in a war -- that is, Internally Displaced Persons.
The inclusion of people in each of these categories needs to be explicit. Each category presents its own methodological problems. In the case of people dying from indirect effects, much careful work is needed to distinguish between ‘expected’ and ‘excess’ levels. Of mortality. In the case of victims of sexual crimes there could be an argument for including not only direct crimes by combatants, but also'indirect’ crimes due to general social collapse. In the case of those uprooted in war, the implication that refugees and IDPs always count as war victims is too simple; some may be fleeing one-sided violence from a repressive state apparatus, natural calamity, or general social breakdown. Moreover, in certain episodes, such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Kosovo War of 1999, the Afghanistan War of 2001, military campaigns have enabled large numbers of refugees to return home. Indeed, in the 1971 and 1999 wars, refugee return was a stated reason for launching hostilities, yet this key observation finds remarkably little reflection in the literature about the casualties of contemporary war.
A focus on the numbers of those uprooted in war is problematic as those who are trapped in conflict zones may in fact be worse off than those uprooted, but feature in statistics. Figures for war deaths and for war-related migration should be presented separately, not amalgamated. Following the Second World War, a series of treaties governing the laws of war were adopted starting in 1949; these Geneva Conventions would come into force, in no small part, because of a general reaction against the practices of the Second World War. Although the Fourth Geneva Convention attempted to erect some legal defenses for civilians in time of war, the bulk of the Fourth Convention devoted to explicating civilian rights in occupied territories, no explicit attention is paid to the problems of bombardment and the hazardous effects in the combat-zone. In 1977, Protocol I was adopted as an amendment to the Geneva Conventions, prohibiting the deliberate or indiscriminate attack of civilians and civilian objects in the war-zone and the attacking force must take precautions and steps to spare the lives of civilians and civilian objects as possible.
Although ratified by 173 countries, the only countries that are not signatories to Protocol I are the United States, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. The Rome Statute defines that "intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population" to be illegal, but only came into effect on July 1, 2002 and has not been ratified by every country. Many modern nations' views on the ethics of civilian casualties align with the Just War theory, which advocates a system of proportionality. An act of war is deemed proportional in Just War theory if the overall destruction expected from the use of force is outweighed by the projected good to be achieved; this view is a war-adapted version of utilitarianism, the moral system which advocates that the morally correct action is the one that does the most good. However, moral philosophers contest this approach to war; such theorists advocate absolutism, which holds there are various ethical rules that are, as the name implies, absolute. One such rule is that non-combatants cannot be attacked because they are, by definition, not partaking in combat.
Thus, by the absolutist view, only enemy combatants can be attacked