Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean. It was once treated as the sole genus in the family, but has been split into three Australian genera and a fourth, they are evergreen trees growing to 35 m tall. The slender, green to grey-green twigs bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 5–20; the apetalous flowers are produced in small catkin-like inflorescences. Most species are dioecious; the fruit is a woody, oval structure superficially resembling a conifer cone, made up of numerous carpels, each containing a single seed with a small wing. The generic name is derived from the Malay word for the cassowary, alluding to the similarities between the bird's feathers and the plant's foliage, though the tree is called rhu in current standard Malay. Karen Louise Wilson and Lawrence Alexander Sidney Johnson distinguish the two closely related genera and Allocasuarina on the basis of: Casuarina: the mature samaras being grey or yellow brown, dull.
Casuarina species are a food source of the larvae of hepialid moths. Endoclita malabaricus feeds on Casuarina; the noctuid turnip moth is recorded feeding on Casuarina. Pedunculagin, strictinin and casuariin are ellagitannins found in the species within the genus. Casuarina cristata Miq.. Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. – river sheoak Casuarina equisetifolia L. – Australian pine, beach sheoak, common ironwood, ঝাউ in বাংলা, ಗಾಳಿ ಮರ in Kannada. Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng. Grey sheoak, longleaf ironwood, saltmarsh ironwood, swamp oak Casuarina grandis L. A. S. Johnson Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. Casuarina obesa Miq. Casuarina oligodon L. A. S. Johnson Casuarina pauper F. Muell. Ex L. A. S. Johnson Sources: C. cunninghamiana, C. glauca and C. equisetifolia have become naturalized in several countries, including Argentina, Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kenya, Brazil, South Africa, the Bahamas and the southern United States. The species has nearly quadrupled in southern Florida between 1993 and 2005, where it is known as Australian pine.
C. Equisetifolia is widespread in the Hawaiian Islands where it grows both on the seashore in dry, calcareous soils and up in the mountains in high rainfall areas on volcanic soils, it is an introduced, invasive plant in Bermuda, where it was introduced to replace the Juniperus bermudiana windbreaks killed by juniper blight in the 1940s. Now the ironwoods are growing on sandy slopes, competing with surrounding plants.
The Cathedral of Saint-Jean-l'Évangéliste is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Jean-Longueuil in Canada. It is located in the city of Quebec; the cathedral was founded as a parish church in 1828 to serve the people of the region, who until had to cross the Iroquois River for religious services in Montreal, some 50 km away. The original church fronted on the Rue Jacques-Cartier. Within 30 thirty years the need for repairs of the existing church had become so great that it was decided to build a new one. Given the increased commerce on the river and the incorporation of the town in the 1850s, it was decided to build a larger and grander structure. Construction lasted five years, under the architect Victor Bourgeau; the interior was designed by Napoléon Bourassa. The new church had been built with a different orientation, now fronted on the Rue Longueuil. Major renovations were done in 1923 to repair the steeple; the region was separated from the Archdiocese of Montreal in June 1933, established as the new Diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Québec.
The church was designated as the cathedral of the new diocese. In 1982 the diocese was renamed to the one it has now; the Church of Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue was designated a co-cathedral to serve the northern sector of the diocese. The cathedral parish serves the southwest region of the diocese and now covers five former parishes in the region which have been closed for reasons of finance or the need for repairs
Club The Strongest is a Bolivian football club based in La Paz founded on 8 April 1908. Their team colours are black. Although they have a home ground, the Rafael Mendoza Castellón, they play most of their games at the Estadio Hernando Siles, Bolivia's national ground; the club is the oldest active football club in Bolivia and the only team to have played continuously in the country's top division for longer than a century. The club was well represented in the Bolivian squad at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the last such tournament in which the national team participated, by Marcelo Torrico, Gustavo Quinteros, Óscar Sánchez and José Melgar; the Strongest were known as "The Strong Football Club", before becoming "The Strongest Football Club". Its first President and founder was José León López Villamil, its first championship was in 1911, well before any of the current Bolivian teams had been created. In 1930, The Strongest became the first and only Bolivian team to win a League championship with no goals scored against them.
The same year, The Strongest inaugurated the Estadio Hernando Siles, with a 4–1 victory against its classical rival, Universitario. It is the only football team in the world to have a battle named after it. In the Chaco War the players and members of the club enlisted in the Bolivian Army. A division composed of these "Stronguistas" played a vital part in the Bolivian Army's most important victory; as a result of that, the battle is named "Batalla de Cañada Strongest" in Bolivian history books. In 1965, The Strongest participated in its first Copa Libertadores, at a time when only national champions were entered into the tournament; the Strongest scored Bolivia's first victory outside of the country on a club level, defeating Deportivo Quito. The team finished 2nd in its group that year, second to Boca Juniors; the highest achievement in an international competition for The Strongest was achieved in the 2005 Copa Sudamericana, when the squad led by coach Villegas eliminated its classic rivals with two 2–1 victories in La Paz, in front of a packed stadium.
The team went on to defeat LDU Quito – including a 3–0 victory in Quito. The Strongest was eliminated by Pumas UNAM, who went on to become runners-up to cup winners Boca Juniors; the greatest president in The Strongest's history, he was in charge of the club from 1966 to 1978. In that time, he dealt with the Viloco Tragedy and with many economic hardships, consequent of the political instability of Bolivia and the global economic depression. One of the greatest achievements was to consolidate the Achumani Sports Complex where the Estadio Rafael Mendoza sits. There were many hardships to reach this goal. First, the club had to secure the lands, which were much more extensive than the small lot the club had in Achumani, near the more centrally located Achumani Market. "Don Rafo", in a meeting with other directors, said that now was the time to stop thinking small and start thinking in the future of the team. The stadium was built and rebuilt from 1974 to 1986. Along with this, the complex was finished including tennis, racquetball and basketball courts.
It has a swimming pool and dining facilities. It is the location for soccer events. "Don Rafo" is best remembered for his hard work in the Achumani Sports Complex. However, he was one of the few club presidents to put money into the club. In this time, The Strongest achieved great national and international success; some events to remember in his presidency are the visit by Pelé's Santos team in 1971, an amazing game against Boca Juniors led by Antonio Roma and Silvio Marzolini, many national championships including the formation of the Liga de Futbol Profesional Boliviano. On 24 September 1969, a local holiday, the team was invited to participate in an exhibition game in Santa Cruz organized by the Asociacion Cruceña de Fubol. On 26 September, the day the team was due to return from Santa Cruz by plane, it was announced that the aircraft carrying twenty members of the team had disappeared. A day there was news that the plane had crashed near Viloco, a rural area between the Tres Cruces Peaks.
All sixty-nine passengers and five crew members died. Members of the team who died in the crash were: The Strongest adopted the yellow and black stripes upon foundation in 1908. While looking for a proper uniform, a friend sent the founders a shirt from Germany that sported a dark green with horizontal, yellow stripes. Upon this, one of the founders commented on how the Chayñita, had similar colours; the club adopted the idea and since 1908, the main outfit has been vertically striped yellow and black with a varying number of stripes. The supplementary uniform has been white with yellow and black, though there have been several other combinations such as a full yellow top and black shorts and full yellow outfit. More an all black secondary uniform has been adopted for Cup matches, it is sometimes claimed that the similarity to the kit of Peñarol of Montevideo, Uruguay is due to the fact that The Strongest lacked originality and imitated those colours. However, this theory is countered by the argument that Peñarol did not adopt a full striped kit until the 1905 season, was an unknown team at the time.
Liga de Fútbol Profesional Boliviano – División Profesional: 121977, 19